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{-# LANGUAGE Trustworthy #-}
{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module : Data.Maybe
-- Copyright : (c) The University of Glasgow 2001
-- License : BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE)
--
-- Maintainer : libraries@haskell.org
-- Stability : stable
-- Portability : portable
--
-- The Maybe type, and associated operations.
--
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
module Data.Maybe
(
Maybe(Nothing,Just)
, maybe
, isJust
, isNothing
, fromJust
, fromMaybe
, listToMaybe
, maybeToList
, catMaybes
, mapMaybe
) where
import GHC.Base
-- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- The Maybe type, and instances
-- | The 'Maybe' type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type
-- @'Maybe' a@ either contains a value of type @a@ (represented as @'Just' a@),
-- or it is empty (represented as 'Nothing'). Using 'Maybe' is a good way to
-- deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic
-- measures such as 'error'.
--
-- The 'Maybe' type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error
-- monad, where all errors are represented by 'Nothing'. A richer
-- error monad can be built using the 'Data.Either.Either' type.
data Maybe a = Nothing | Just a
deriving (Eq, Ord)
instance Functor Maybe where
fmap _ Nothing = Nothing
fmap f (Just a) = Just (f a)
instance Monad Maybe where
(Just x) >>= k = k x
Nothing >>= _ = Nothing
(Just _) >> k = k
Nothing >> _ = Nothing
return = Just
fail _ = Nothing
-- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Functions over Maybe
-- | The 'maybe' function takes a default value, a function, and a 'Maybe'
-- value. If the 'Maybe' value is 'Nothing', the function returns the
-- default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside
-- the 'Just' and returns the result.
maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b
maybe n _ Nothing = n
maybe _ f (Just x) = f x
-- | The 'isJust' function returns 'True' iff its argument is of the
-- form @Just _@.
isJust :: Maybe a -> Bool
isJust Nothing = False
isJust _ = True
-- | The 'isNothing' function returns 'True' iff its argument is 'Nothing'.
isNothing :: Maybe a -> Bool
isNothing Nothing = True
isNothing _ = False
-- | The 'fromJust' function extracts the element out of a 'Just' and
-- throws an error if its argument is 'Nothing'.
fromJust :: Maybe a -> a
fromJust Nothing = error "Maybe.fromJust: Nothing" -- yuck
fromJust (Just x) = x
-- | The 'fromMaybe' function takes a default value and and 'Maybe'
-- value. If the 'Maybe' is 'Nothing', it returns the default values;
-- otherwise, it returns the value contained in the 'Maybe'.
fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a
fromMaybe d x = case x of {Nothing -> d;Just v -> v}
-- | The 'maybeToList' function returns an empty list when given
-- 'Nothing' or a singleton list when not given 'Nothing'.
maybeToList :: Maybe a -> [a]
maybeToList Nothing = []
maybeToList (Just x) = [x]
-- | The 'listToMaybe' function returns 'Nothing' on an empty list
-- or @'Just' a@ where @a@ is the first element of the list.
listToMaybe :: [a] -> Maybe a
listToMaybe [] = Nothing
listToMaybe (a:_) = Just a
-- | The 'catMaybes' function takes a list of 'Maybe's and returns
-- a list of all the 'Just' values.
catMaybes :: [Maybe a] -> [a]
catMaybes ls = [x | Just x <- ls]
-- | The 'mapMaybe' function is a version of 'map' which can throw
-- out elements. In particular, the functional argument returns
-- something of type @'Maybe' b@. If this is 'Nothing', no element
-- is added on to the result list. If it just @'Just' b@, then @b@ is
-- included in the result list.
mapMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b]
mapMaybe _ [] = []
mapMaybe f (x:xs) =
let rs = mapMaybe f xs in
case f x of
Nothing -> rs
Just r -> r:rs
{-# NOINLINE [1] mapMaybe #-}
{-# RULES
"mapMaybe" [~1] forall f xs. mapMaybe f xs
= build (\c n -> foldr (mapMaybeFB c f) n xs)
"mapMaybeList" [1] forall f. foldr (mapMaybeFB (:) f) [] = mapMaybe f
#-}
{-# NOINLINE [0] mapMaybeFB #-}
mapMaybeFB :: (b -> r -> r) -> (a -> Maybe b) -> a -> r -> r
mapMaybeFB cons f x next = case f x of
Nothing -> next
Just r -> cons r next
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