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    Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication - Infrastructure plugin for the
    Catalyst authentication framework.

        use Catalyst qw/

        # later on ...
        $c->authenticate({ username => 'myusername',
                           password => 'mypassword' });
        my $age = $c->user->get('age');

    The authentication plugin provides generic user support for Catalyst
    apps. It is the basis for both authentication (checking the user is who
    they claim to be), and authorization (allowing the user to do what the
    system authorises them to do).

    Using authentication is split into two parts. A Store is used to
    actually store the user information, and can store any amount of data
    related to the user. Credentials are used to verify users, using
    information from the store, given data from the frontend. A Credential
    and a Store are paired to form a 'Realm'. A Catalyst application using
    the authentication framework must have at least one realm, and may have

    To implement authentication in a Catalyst application you need to add
    this module, and specify at least one realm in the configuration.

    Authentication data can also be stored in a session, if the application
    is using the Catalyst::Plugin::Session module.

    NOTE in version 0.10 of this module, the interface to this module
    changed. Please see "COMPATIBILITY ROUTINES" for more information.

  The Authentication/Authorization Process
    Web applications typically need to identify a user - to tell the user
    apart from other users. This is usually done in order to display private
    information that is only that user's business, or to limit access to the
    application so that only certain entities can access certain parts.

    This process is split up into several steps. First you ask the user to
    identify themselves. At this point you can't be sure that the user is
    really who they claim to be.

    Then the user tells you who they are, and backs this claim with some
    piece of information that only the real user could give you. For
    example, a password is a secret that is known to both the user and you.
    When the user tells you this password you can assume they're in on the
    secret and can be trusted (ignore identity theft for now). Checking the
    password, or any other proof is called credential verification.

    By this time you know exactly who the user is - the user's identity is
    authenticated. This is where this module's job stops, and your
    application or other plugins step in.

    The next logical step is authorization, the process of deciding what a
    user is (or isn't) allowed to do. For example, say your users are split
    into two main groups - regular users and administrators. You want to
    verify that the currently logged in user is indeed an administrator
    before performing the actions in an administrative part of your
    application. These decisions may be made within your application code
    using just the information available after authentication, or it may be
    facilitated by a number of plugins.

  The Components In This Framework
    Configuration of the Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication framework is done
    in terms of realms. In simplest terms, a realm is a pairing of a
    Credential verifier and a User storage (Store) backend. As of version
    0.10003, realms are now objects that you can create and customize.

    An application can have any number of Realms, each of which operates
    independent of the others. Each realm has a name, which is used to
    identify it as the target of an authentication request. This name can be
    anything, such as 'users' or 'members'. One realm must be defined as the
    default_realm, which is used when no realm name is specified. More
    information about configuring realms is available in the configuration

   Credential Verifiers
    When user input is transferred to the Catalyst application (typically
    via form inputs) the application may pass this information into the
    authentication system through the "$c->authenticate()" method. From
    there, it is passed to the appropriate Credential verifier.

    These plugins check the data, and ensure that it really proves the user
    is who they claim to be.

    Credential verifiers compatible with versions of this module 0.10x and
    upwards should be in the namespace

   Storage Backends
    The authentication data also identifies a user, and the Storage backend
    modules use this data to locate and return a standardized
    object-oriented representation of a user.

    When a user is retrieved from a store it is not necessarily
    authenticated. Credential verifiers accept a set of authentication data
    and use this information to retrieve the user from the store they are
    paired with.

    Storage backends compatible with versions of this module 0.10x and
    upwards should be in the namespace "Catalyst::Authentication::Store".

   The Core Plugin
    This plugin on its own is the glue, providing realm configuration,
    session integration, and other goodness for the other plugins.

   Other Plugins
    More layers of plugins can be stacked on top of the authentication code.
    For example, Catalyst::Plugin::Session::PerUser provides an abstraction
    of browser sessions that is more persistent per user.
    Catalyst::Plugin::Authorization::Roles provides an accepted way to
    separate and group users into categories, and then check which
    categories the current user belongs to.

    Let's say we were storing users in a simple Perl hash. Users are
    verified by supplying a password which is matched within the hash.

    This means that our application will begin like this:

        package MyApp;

        use Catalyst qw/

        __PACKAGE__->config( 'Plugin::Authentication' =>
                        default => {
                            credential => {
                                class => 'Password',
                                password_field => 'password',
                                password_type => 'clear'
                            store => {
                                class => 'Minimal',
                                    users => {
                                        bob => {
                                            password => "s00p3r",                   
                                            editor => 'yes',
                                            roles => [qw/edit delete/],
                                        william => {
                                            password => "s3cr3t",
                                            roles => [qw/comment/],

    This tells the authentication plugin what realms are available, which
    credential and store modules are used, and the configuration of each.
    With this code loaded, we can now attempt to authenticate users.

    To show an example of this, let's create an authentication controller:

        package MyApp::Controller::Auth;

        sub login : Local {
            my ( $self, $c ) = @_;

            if (    my $user     = $c->req->params->{user}
                and my $password = $c->req->params->{password} )
                if ( $c->authenticate( { username => $user,
                                         password => $password } ) ) {
                    $c->res->body( "hello " . $c->user->get("name") );
                } else {
                    # login incorrect
            else {
                # invalid form input

    This code should be self-explanatory. If all the necessary fields are
    supplied, call the "authenticate" method on the context object. If it
    succeeds the user is logged in.

    The credential verifier will attempt to retrieve the user whose details
    match the authentication information provided to "$c->authenticate()".
    Once it fetches the user the password is checked and if it matches the
    user will be authenticated and "$c->user" will contain the user object
    retrieved from the store.

    In the above case, the default realm is checked, but we could just as
    easily check an alternate realm. If this were an admin login, for
    example, we could authenticate on the admin realm by simply changing the
    "$c->authenticate()" call:

        if ( $c->authenticate( { username => $user,
                                 password => $password }, 'admin' ) ) {
            $c->res->body( "hello " . $c->user->get("name") );
        } ...

    Now suppose we want to restrict the ability to edit to a user with an
    'editor' value of yes.

    The restricted action might look like this:

        sub edit : Local {
            my ( $self, $c ) = @_;

              unless $c->user_exists
              and $c->user->get('editor') eq 'yes';

            # do something restricted here

    (Note that if you have multiple realms, you can use
    "$c->user_in_realm('realmname')" in place of "$c->user_exists();" This
    will essentially perform the same verification as user_exists, with the
    added requirement that if there is a user, it must have come from the
    realm specified.)

    The above example is somewhat similar to role based access control.
    Catalyst::Authentication::Store::Minimal treats the roles field as an
    array of role names. Let's leverage this. Add the role authorization

        use Catalyst qw/

        sub edit : Local {
            my ( $self, $c ) = @_;

            $c->detach("unauthorized") unless $c->check_user_roles("edit");

            # do something restricted here

    This is somewhat simpler and will work if you change your store, too,
    since the role interface is consistent.

    Let's say your app grows, and you now have 10,000 users. It's no longer
    efficient to maintain a hash of users, so you move this data to a
    database. You can accomplish this simply by installing the DBIx::Class
    Store and changing your config:

        __PACKAGE__->config( 'Plugin::Authentication'} =>
                            default_realm => 'members',
                            members => {
                                credential => {
                                    class => 'Password',
                                    password_field => 'password',
                                    password_type => 'clear'
                                store => {
                                    class => 'DBIx::Class',
                                        user_class => 'MyApp::Users',
                                        role_column => 'roles'      

    The authentication system works behind the scenes to load your data from
    the new source. The rest of your application is completely unchanged.

        # example
        __PACKAGE__->config( 'Plugin::Authentication' =>
                        default_realm => 'members',

                        members => {
                            credential => {
                                class => 'Password',
                                password_field => 'password',
                                password_type => 'clear'
                            store => {
                                class => 'DBIx::Class',
                                user_class => 'MyApp::Users',
                                role_column => 'roles'      
                            admins => {
                                credential => {
                                    class => 'Password',
                                    password_field => 'password',
                                password_type => 'clear'
                                store => {
                                    class => '+MyApp::Authentication::Store::NetAuth',
                                    authserver => ''

    NOTE: Until version 0.10008 of this module, you would need to put all
    the realms inside a "realms" key in the configuration. Please see
    "COMPATIBILITY CONFIGURATION" for more information

        Whether or not to store the user's logged in state in the session,
        if the application is also using Catalyst::Plugin::Session. This
        value is set to true per default.

        However, even if use_session is disabled, if any code touches
        $c->session, a session object will be auto-vivified and session
        Cookies will be sent in the headers. To prevent accidental session
        creation, check if a session already exists with if ($c->sessionid)
        { ... }. If the session doesn't exist, then don't place anything in
        the session to prevent an unecessary session from being created.

        This defines which realm should be used as when no realm is provided
        to methods that require a realm such as authenticate or find_user.

    realm refs
        The Plugin::Authentication config hash contains the series of realm
        configurations you want to use for your app. The only rule here is
        that there must be at least one. A realm consists of a name, which
        is used to reference the realm, a credential and a store. You may
        also put your realm configurations within a subelement called
        'realms' if you desire to separate them from the remainder of your
        configuration. Note that if you use a 'realms' subelement, you must
        put ALL of your realms within it.

        You can also specify a realm class to instantiate instead of the
        default Catalyst::Authentication::Realm class using the 'class'
        element within the realm config.

        Each realm config contains two hashes, one called 'credential' and
        one called 'store', each of which provide configuration details to
        the respective modules. The contents of these hashes is specific to
        the module being used, with the exception of the 'class' element,
        which tells the core Authentication module the classname to

        The 'class' element follows the standard Catalyst mechanism of class
        specification. If a class is prefixed with a +, it is assumed to be
        a complete class name. Otherwise it is considered to be a portion of
        the class name. For credentials, the classname 'Password', for
        example, is expanded to
        Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::Password. For stores, the
        classname 'storename' is expanded to:

  $c->authenticate( $userinfo [, $realm ])
    Attempts to authenticate the user using the information in the $userinfo
    hash reference using the realm $realm. $realm may be omitted, in which
    case the default realm is checked.

  $c->user( )
    Returns the currently logged in user, or undef if there is none.

  $c->user_exists( )
    Returns true if a user is logged in right now. The difference between
    user_exists and user is that user_exists will return true if a user is
    logged in, even if it has not been yet retrieved from the storage
    backend. If you only need to know if the user is logged in, depending on
    the storage mechanism this can be much more efficient.

  $c->user_in_realm( $realm )
    Works like user_exists, except that it only returns true if a user is
    both logged in right now and was retrieved from the realm provided.

  $c->logout( )
    Logs the user out. Deletes the currently logged in user from "$c->user"
    and the session.

  $c->find_user( $userinfo, $realm )
    Fetch a particular users details, matching the provided user info, from
    the realm specified in $realm.

    Under normal circumstances the user data is only saved to the session
    during initial authentication. This call causes the auth system to save
    the currently authenticated user's data across requests. Useful if you
    have changed the user data and want to ensure that future requests
    reflect the most current data. Assumes that at the time of this call,
    $c->user contains the most current data.

    Private method, do not call from user code!

    These methods are for Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication INTERNAL USE
    only. Please do not use them in your own code, whether application or
    credential / store modules. If you do, you will very likely get the
    nasty shock of having to fix / rewrite your code when things change.
    They are documented here only for reference.

  $c->set_authenticated( $user, $realmname )
    Marks a user as authenticated. This is called from within the
    authenticate routine when a credential returns a user. $realmname
    defaults to 'default'

  $c->auth_restore_user( $user, $realmname )
    Used to restore a user from the session. In most cases this is called
    without arguments to restore the user via the session. Can be called
    with arguments when restoring a user from some other method. Currently
    not used in this way.

  $c->auth_realms( )
    Returns a hashref containing realmname -> realm instance pairs. Realm
    instances contain an instantiated store and credential object as the
    'store' and 'credential' elements, respectively

  $c->get_auth_realm( $realmname )
    Retrieves the realm instance for the realmname provided.

    This was a short-lived method to update user information - you should
    use persist_user instead.

  $c->setup_auth_realm( )
  $c->setup( )
    This list might not be up to date. Below are modules known to work with
    the updated API of 0.10 and are therefore compatible with realms.


  User Storage Backends

  Credential verification


  Internals Documentation

    Catalyst::Plugin::Session, Catalyst::Plugin::Session::PerUser

    This module along with its sub plugins deprecate a great number of other
    modules. These include Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Simple,

    The realms-based configuration and functionality of the 0.10 update of
    Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication required a change in the API used by
    credentials and stores. It has a compatibility mode which allows use of
    modules that have not yet been updated. This, however, completely mimics
    the older api and disables the new realm-based features. In other words
    you cannot mix the older credential and store modules with realms, or
    realm-based configs. The changes required to update modules are
    relatively minor and are covered in
    Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Internals. We hope that most modules
    will move to the compatible list above very quickly.

    Until version 0.10008 of this module, you needed to put all the realms
    inside a "realms" key in the configuration.

        # example
        __PACKAGE__->config( 'Plugin::Authentication'} =>
                        default_realm => 'members',
                        realms => {
                            members => {

    If you use the old, deprecated "__PACKAGE__->config( 'authentication' )"
    configuration key, then the realms key is still required.

    In version 0.10 of Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication, the API changed.
    For app developers, this change is fairly minor, but for Credential and
    Store authors, the changes are significant.

    Please see the documentation in version 0.09 of
    Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication for a better understanding of how the
    old API functioned.

    The items below are still present in the plugin, though using them is
    deprecated. They remain only as a transition tool, for those sites which
    can not yet be upgraded to use the new system due to local
    customizations or use of Credential / Store modules that have not yet
    been updated to work with the new API.

    These routines should not be used in any application using realms
    functionality or any of the methods described above. These are for
    reference purposes only.

  $c->login( )
    This method is used to initiate authentication and user retrieval.
    Technically this is part of the old Password credential module and it
    still resides in the Password class. It is included here for reference

  $c->default_auth_store( )
    Return the store whose name is 'default'.

    This is set to "$c->config( 'Plugin::Authentication' => { store => #
    Store} )" if that value exists, or by using a Store plugin:

        # load the Minimal authentication store.
            use Catalyst qw/Authentication Authentication::Store::Minimal/;

    Sets the default store to

  $c->get_auth_store( $name )
    Return the store whose name is $name.

  $c->get_auth_store_name( $store )
    Return the name of the store $store.

  $c->auth_stores( )
    A hash keyed by name, with the stores registered in the app.

  $c->register_auth_stores( %stores_by_name )
    Register stores into the application.

  $c->auth_store_names( )
  $c->get_user( )
    Yuval Kogman, ""

    Jay Kuri, ""

    Jess Robinson

    David Kamholz

    Tomas Doran (t0m), ""


    Nigel Metheringham

            Copyright (c) 2005 the aforementioned authors. All rights
            reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute
            it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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