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.. module:: psutil
   :synopsis: psutil module
.. moduleauthor:: Giampaolo Rodola' <grodola@gmail.com>

psutil documentation

Quick links

About

psutil (python system and process utilities) is a cross-platform library for retrieving information on running processes and system utilization (CPU, memory, disks, network, sensors) in Python. It is useful mainly for system monitoring, profiling, limiting process resources and the management of running processes. It implements many functionalities offered by UNIX command line tools such as: ps, top, lsof, netstat, ifconfig, who, df, kill, free, nice, ionice, iostat, iotop, uptime, pidof, tty, taskset, pmap. psutil currently supports the following platforms:

  • Linux
  • Windows
  • macOS
  • FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD
  • Sun Solaris
  • AIX

Supported Python versions are 2.7 and 3.4+. PyPy is also known to work.

The psutil documentation you're reading is distributed as a single HTML page.

Funding

While psutil is free software and will always be, the project would benefit immensely from some funding. Keeping up with bug reports and maintenance has become hardly sustainable for me alone in terms of time. If you're a company that's making significant use of psutil you can consider becoming a sponsor via GitHub, Open Collective or PayPal and have your logo displayed in here and psutil doc.

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Install

On Linux, Windows, macOS:

pip install psutil

For other platforms see more detailed install instructions.

System related functions

CPU

.. function:: cpu_times(percpu=False)

  Return system CPU times as a named tuple.
  Every attribute represents the seconds the CPU has spent in the given mode.
  The attributes availability varies depending on the platform:

  - **user**: time spent by normal processes executing in user mode; on Linux
    this also includes **guest** time
  - **system**: time spent by processes executing in kernel mode
  - **idle**: time spent doing nothing

  Platform-specific fields:

  - **nice** *(UNIX)*: time spent by niced (prioritized) processes executing in
    user mode; on Linux this also includes **guest_nice** time
  - **iowait** *(Linux)*: time spent waiting for I/O to complete. This is *not*
    accounted in **idle** time counter.
  - **irq** *(Linux, BSD)*: time spent for servicing hardware interrupts
  - **softirq** *(Linux)*: time spent for servicing software interrupts
  - **steal** *(Linux 2.6.11+)*: time spent by other operating systems running
    in a virtualized environment
  - **guest** *(Linux 2.6.24+)*: time spent running a virtual CPU for guest
    operating systems under the control of the Linux kernel
  - **guest_nice** *(Linux 3.2.0+)*: time spent running a niced guest
    (virtual CPU for guest operating systems under the control of the Linux
    kernel)
  - **interrupt** *(Windows)*: time spent for servicing hardware interrupts (
    similar to "irq" on UNIX)
  - **dpc** *(Windows)*: time spent servicing deferred procedure calls (DPCs);
    DPCs are interrupts that run at a lower priority than standard interrupts.

  When *percpu* is ``True`` return a list of named tuples for each logical CPU
  on the system.
  First element of the list refers to first CPU, second element to second CPU
  and so on.
  The order of the list is consistent across calls.
  Example output on Linux:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.cpu_times()
    scputimes(user=17411.7, nice=77.99, system=3797.02, idle=51266.57, iowait=732.58, irq=0.01, softirq=142.43, steal=0.0, guest=0.0, guest_nice=0.0)

  .. versionchanged:: 4.1.0 added *interrupt* and *dpc* fields on Windows.

    .. warning::
      CPU times are always supposed to increase over time, or at least remain
      the same, and that's because time cannot go backwards.
      Surprisingly sometimes this might not be the case (at least on Windows
      and Linux), see `#1210 <https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/1210#issuecomment-363046156>`__.

.. function:: cpu_percent(interval=None, percpu=False)

  Return a float representing the current system-wide CPU utilization as a
  percentage. When *interval* is > ``0.0`` compares system CPU times elapsed
  before and after the interval (blocking).
  When *interval* is ``0.0`` or ``None`` compares system CPU times elapsed
  since last call or module import, returning immediately.
  That means the first time this is called it will return a meaningless ``0.0``
  value which you are supposed to ignore.
  In this case it is recommended for accuracy that this function be called with
  at least ``0.1`` seconds between calls.
  When *percpu* is ``True`` returns a list of floats representing the
  utilization as a percentage for each CPU.
  First element of the list refers to first CPU, second element to second CPU
  and so on. The order of the list is consistent across calls.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> # blocking
    >>> psutil.cpu_percent(interval=1)
    2.0
    >>> # non-blocking (percentage since last call)
    >>> psutil.cpu_percent(interval=None)
    2.9
    >>> # blocking, per-cpu
    >>> psutil.cpu_percent(interval=1, percpu=True)
    [2.0, 1.0]
    >>>

  .. warning::
    the first time this function is called with *interval* = ``0.0`` or ``None``
    it will return a meaningless ``0.0`` value which you are supposed to
    ignore.

.. function:: cpu_times_percent(interval=None, percpu=False)

  Same as :func:`cpu_percent()` but provides utilization percentages for each
  specific CPU time as is returned by
  :func:`psutil.cpu_times(percpu=True)<cpu_times()>`.
  *interval* and
  *percpu* arguments have the same meaning as in :func:`cpu_percent()`.
  On Linux "guest" and "guest_nice" percentages are not accounted in "user"
  and "user_nice" percentages.

  .. warning::
    the first time this function is called with *interval* = ``0.0`` or
    ``None`` it will return a meaningless ``0.0`` value which you are supposed
    to ignore.

  .. versionchanged::
    4.1.0 two new *interrupt* and *dpc* fields are returned on Windows.

.. function:: cpu_count(logical=True)

  Return the number of logical CPUs in the system (same as `os.cpu_count`_
  in Python 3.4) or ``None`` if undetermined.
  "logical CPUs" means the number of physical cores multiplied by the number
  of threads that can run on each core (this is known as Hyper Threading).
  If *logical* is ``False`` return the number of physical cores only, or
  ``None`` if undetermined.
  On OpenBSD and NetBSD ``psutil.cpu_count(logical=False)`` always return
  ``None``.
  Example on a system having 2 cores + Hyper Threading:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.cpu_count()
    4
    >>> psutil.cpu_count(logical=False)
    2

  Note that ``psutil.cpu_count()`` may not necessarily be equivalent to the
  actual number of CPUs the current process can use.
  That can vary in case process CPU affinity has been changed, Linux cgroups
  are being used or (in case of Windows) on systems using processor groups or
  having more than 64 CPUs.
  The number of usable CPUs can be obtained with:

    >>> len(psutil.Process().cpu_affinity())
    1

.. function:: cpu_stats()

  Return various CPU statistics as a named tuple:

  - **ctx_switches**:
    number of context switches (voluntary + involuntary) since boot.
  - **interrupts**:
    number of interrupts since boot.
  - **soft_interrupts**:
    number of software interrupts since boot. Always set to ``0`` on Windows
    and SunOS.
  - **syscalls**: number of system calls since boot. Always set to ``0`` on
    Linux.

  Example (Linux):

  .. code-block:: python

     >>> import psutil
     >>> psutil.cpu_stats()
     scpustats(ctx_switches=20455687, interrupts=6598984, soft_interrupts=2134212, syscalls=0)

  .. versionadded:: 4.1.0


.. function:: cpu_freq(percpu=False)

    Return CPU frequency as a named tuple including *current*, *min* and *max*
    frequencies expressed in Mhz.
    On Linux *current* frequency reports the real-time value, on all other
    platforms this usually represents the nominal "fixed" value (never changing).
    If *percpu* is ``True`` and the system supports per-cpu frequency
    retrieval (Linux only) a list of frequencies is returned for each CPU,
    if not, a list with a single element is returned.
    If *min* and *max* cannot be determined they are set to ``0.0``.

    Example (Linux):

    .. code-block:: python

       >>> import psutil
       >>> psutil.cpu_freq()
       scpufreq(current=931.42925, min=800.0, max=3500.0)
       >>> psutil.cpu_freq(percpu=True)
       [scpufreq(current=2394.945, min=800.0, max=3500.0),
        scpufreq(current=2236.812, min=800.0, max=3500.0),
        scpufreq(current=1703.609, min=800.0, max=3500.0),
        scpufreq(current=1754.289, min=800.0, max=3500.0)]

    Availability: Linux, macOS, Windows, FreeBSD, OpenBSD

    .. versionadded:: 5.1.0

    .. versionchanged:: 5.5.1 added FreeBSD support.

    .. versionchanged:: 5.9.1 added OpenBSD support.

.. function:: getloadavg()

    Return the average system load over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes as a tuple.
    The "load" represents the processes which are in a runnable state, either
    using the CPU or waiting to use the CPU (e.g. waiting for disk I/O).
    On UNIX systems this relies on `os.getloadavg`_. On Windows this is emulated
    by using a Windows API that spawns a thread which keeps running in
    background and updates results every 5 seconds, mimicking the UNIX behavior.
    Thus, on Windows, the first time this is called and for the next 5 seconds
    it will return a meaningless ``(0.0, 0.0, 0.0)`` tuple.
    The numbers returned only make sense if related to the number of CPU cores
    installed on the system. So, for instance, a value of `3.14` on a system
    with 10 logical CPUs means that the system load was 31.4% percent over the
    last N minutes.

    .. code-block:: python

       >>> import psutil
       >>> psutil.getloadavg()
       (3.14, 3.89, 4.67)
       >>> psutil.cpu_count()
       10
       >>> # percentage representation
       >>> [x / psutil.cpu_count() * 100 for x in psutil.getloadavg()]
       [31.4, 38.9, 46.7]

    Availability: Unix, Windows

    .. versionadded:: 5.6.2

Memory

.. function:: virtual_memory()

  Return statistics about system memory usage as a named tuple including the
  following fields, expressed in bytes. Main metrics:

  - **total**: total physical memory (exclusive swap).
  - **available**: the memory that can be given instantly to processes without
    the system going into swap.
    This is calculated by summing different memory values depending on the
    platform and it is supposed to be used to monitor actual memory usage in a
    cross platform fashion.

  Other metrics:

  - **used**: memory used, calculated differently depending on the platform and
    designed for informational purposes only. **total - free** does not
    necessarily match **used**.
  - **free**: memory not being used at all (zeroed) that is readily available;
    note that this doesn't reflect the actual memory available (use
    **available** instead). **total - used** does not necessarily match
    **free**.
  - **active** *(UNIX)*: memory currently in use or very recently used, and so
    it is in RAM.
  - **inactive** *(UNIX)*: memory that is marked as not used.
  - **buffers** *(Linux, BSD)*: cache for things like file system metadata.
  - **cached** *(Linux, BSD)*: cache for various things.
  - **shared** *(Linux, BSD)*: memory that may be simultaneously accessed by
    multiple processes.
  - **slab** *(Linux)*: in-kernel data structures cache.
  - **wired** *(BSD, macOS)*: memory that is marked to always stay in RAM. It is
    never moved to disk.

  The sum of **used** and **available** does not necessarily equal **total**.
  On Windows **available** and **free** are the same.
  See `meminfo.py`_ script providing an example on how to convert bytes in a
  human readable form.

  .. note:: if you just want to know how much physical memory is left in a
    cross platform fashion simply rely on the **available** field.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> mem = psutil.virtual_memory()
  >>> mem
  svmem(total=10367352832, available=6472179712, percent=37.6, used=8186245120, free=2181107712, active=4748992512, inactive=2758115328, buffers=790724608, cached=3500347392, shared=787554304, slab=199348224)
  >>>
  >>> THRESHOLD = 100 * 1024 * 1024  # 100MB
  >>> if mem.available <= THRESHOLD:
  ...     print("warning")
  ...
  >>>

  .. versionchanged:: 4.2.0 added *shared* metric on Linux.

  .. versionchanged:: 5.4.4 added *slab* metric on Linux.

.. function:: swap_memory()

  Return system swap memory statistics as a named tuple including the following
  fields:

  * **total**: total swap memory in bytes
  * **used**: used swap memory in bytes
  * **free**: free swap memory in bytes
  * **percent**: the percentage usage calculated as ``(total - available) / total * 100``
  * **sin**: the number of bytes the system has swapped in from disk
    (cumulative)
  * **sout**: the number of bytes the system has swapped out from disk
    (cumulative)

  **sin** and **sout** on Windows are always set to ``0``.
  See `meminfo.py`_ script providing an example on how to convert bytes in a
  human readable form.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.swap_memory()
    sswap(total=2097147904L, used=886620160L, free=1210527744L, percent=42.3, sin=1050411008, sout=1906720768)

  .. versionchanged:: 5.2.3 on Linux this function relies on /proc fs instead
     of sysinfo() syscall so that it can be used in conjunction with
     :const:`psutil.PROCFS_PATH` in order to retrieve memory info about
     Linux containers such as Docker and Heroku.

Disks

.. function:: disk_partitions(all=False)

  Return all mounted disk partitions as a list of named tuples including device,
  mount point and filesystem type, similarly to "df" command on UNIX. If *all*
  parameter is ``False`` it tries to distinguish and return physical devices
  only (e.g. hard disks, cd-rom drives, USB keys) and ignore all others
  (e.g. pseudo, memory, duplicate, inaccessible filesystems).
  Note that this may not be fully reliable on all systems (e.g. on BSD this
  parameter is ignored).
  See `disk_usage.py`_ script providing an example usage.
  Returns a list of named tuples with the following fields:

  * **device**: the device path (e.g. ``"/dev/hda1"``). On Windows this is the
    drive letter (e.g. ``"C:\\"``).
  * **mountpoint**: the mount point path (e.g. ``"/"``). On Windows this is the
    drive letter (e.g. ``"C:\\"``).
  * **fstype**: the partition filesystem (e.g. ``"ext3"`` on UNIX or ``"NTFS"``
    on Windows).
  * **opts**: a comma-separated string indicating different mount options for
    the drive/partition. Platform-dependent.
  * **maxfile**: the maximum length a file name can have.
  * **maxpath**: the maximum length a path name (directory name + base file
    name) can have.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> psutil.disk_partitions()
  [sdiskpart(device='/dev/sda3', mountpoint='/', fstype='ext4', opts='rw,errors=remount-ro', maxfile=255, maxpath=4096),
   sdiskpart(device='/dev/sda7', mountpoint='/home', fstype='ext4', opts='rw', maxfile=255, maxpath=4096)]

  .. versionchanged:: 5.7.4 added *maxfile* and *maxpath* fields

.. function:: disk_usage(path)

  Return disk usage statistics about the partition which contains the given
  *path* as a named tuple including **total**, **used** and **free** space
  expressed in bytes, plus the **percentage** usage.
  ``OSError`` is raised if *path* does not exist.
  Starting from Python 3.3 this is also available as `shutil.disk_usage`_
  (see `BPO-12442`_).
  See `disk_usage.py`_ script providing an example usage.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.disk_usage('/')
    sdiskusage(total=21378641920, used=4809781248, free=15482871808, percent=22.5)

  .. note::
    UNIX usually reserves 5% of the total disk space for the root user.
    *total* and *used* fields on UNIX refer to the overall total and used
    space, whereas *free* represents the space available for the **user** and
    *percent* represents the **user** utilization (see
    `source code <https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/blob/3dea30d583b8c1275057edb1b3b720813b4d0f60/psutil/_psposix.py#L123>`__).
    That is why *percent* value may look 5% bigger than what you would expect
    it to be.
    Also note that both 4 values match "df" cmdline utility.

  .. versionchanged::
    4.3.0 *percent* value takes root reserved space into account.

.. function:: disk_io_counters(perdisk=False, nowrap=True)

  Return system-wide disk I/O statistics as a named tuple including the
  following fields:

  - **read_count**: number of reads
  - **write_count**: number of writes
  - **read_bytes**: number of bytes read
  - **write_bytes**: number of bytes written

  Platform-specific fields:

  - **read_time**: (all except *NetBSD* and *OpenBSD*) time spent reading from
    disk (in milliseconds)
  - **write_time**: (all except *NetBSD* and *OpenBSD*) time spent writing to disk
    (in milliseconds)
  - **busy_time**: (*Linux*, *FreeBSD*) time spent doing actual I/Os (in
    milliseconds)
  - **read_merged_count** (*Linux*): number of merged reads (see `iostats doc`_)
  - **write_merged_count** (*Linux*): number of merged writes (see `iostats doc`_)

  If *perdisk* is ``True`` return the same information for every physical disk
  installed on the system as a dictionary with partition names as the keys and
  the named tuple described above as the values.
  See `iotop.py`_ for an example application.
  On some systems such as Linux, on a very busy or long-lived system, the
  numbers returned by the kernel may overflow and wrap (restart from zero).
  If *nowrap* is ``True`` psutil will detect and adjust those numbers across
  function calls and add "old value" to "new value" so that the returned
  numbers will always be increasing or remain the same, but never decrease.
  ``disk_io_counters.cache_clear()`` can be used to invalidate the *nowrap*
  cache.
  On Windows it may be ncessary to issue ``diskperf -y`` command from cmd.exe
  first in order to enable IO counters.
  On diskless machines this function will return ``None`` or ``{}`` if
  *perdisk* is ``True``.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.disk_io_counters()
    sdiskio(read_count=8141, write_count=2431, read_bytes=290203, write_bytes=537676, read_time=5868, write_time=94922)
    >>>
    >>> psutil.disk_io_counters(perdisk=True)
    {'sda1': sdiskio(read_count=920, write_count=1, read_bytes=2933248, write_bytes=512, read_time=6016, write_time=4),
     'sda2': sdiskio(read_count=18707, write_count=8830, read_bytes=6060, write_bytes=3443, read_time=24585, write_time=1572),
     'sdb1': sdiskio(read_count=161, write_count=0, read_bytes=786432, write_bytes=0, read_time=44, write_time=0)}

  .. note::
    on Windows ``"diskperf -y"`` command may need to be executed first
    otherwise this function won't find any disk.

  .. versionchanged::
    5.3.0 numbers no longer wrap (restart from zero) across calls thanks to new
    *nowrap* argument.

  .. versionchanged::
    4.0.0 added *busy_time* (Linux, FreeBSD), *read_merged_count* and
    *write_merged_count* (Linux) fields.

  .. versionchanged::
    4.0.0 NetBSD no longer has *read_time* and *write_time* fields.

Network

.. function:: net_io_counters(pernic=False, nowrap=True)

  Return system-wide network I/O statistics as a named tuple including the
  following attributes:

  - **bytes_sent**: number of bytes sent
  - **bytes_recv**: number of bytes received
  - **packets_sent**: number of packets sent
  - **packets_recv**: number of packets received
  - **errin**: total number of errors while receiving
  - **errout**: total number of errors while sending
  - **dropin**: total number of incoming packets which were dropped
  - **dropout**: total number of outgoing packets which were dropped (always 0
    on macOS and BSD)

  If *pernic* is ``True`` return the same information for every network
  interface installed on the system as a dictionary with network interface
  names as the keys and the named tuple described above as the values.
  On some systems such as Linux, on a very busy or long-lived system, the
  numbers returned by the kernel may overflow and wrap (restart from zero).
  If *nowrap* is ``True`` psutil will detect and adjust those numbers across
  function calls and add "old value" to "new value" so that the returned
  numbers will always be increasing or remain the same, but never decrease.
  ``net_io_counters.cache_clear()`` can be used to invalidate the *nowrap*
  cache.
  On machines with no network interfaces this function will return ``None`` or
  ``{}`` if *pernic* is ``True``.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.net_io_counters()
    snetio(bytes_sent=14508483, bytes_recv=62749361, packets_sent=84311, packets_recv=94888, errin=0, errout=0, dropin=0, dropout=0)
    >>>
    >>> psutil.net_io_counters(pernic=True)
    {'lo': snetio(bytes_sent=547971, bytes_recv=547971, packets_sent=5075, packets_recv=5075, errin=0, errout=0, dropin=0, dropout=0),
    'wlan0': snetio(bytes_sent=13921765, bytes_recv=62162574, packets_sent=79097, packets_recv=89648, errin=0, errout=0, dropin=0, dropout=0)}

  Also see `nettop.py`_ and `ifconfig.py`_ for an example application.

  .. versionchanged::
    5.3.0 numbers no longer wrap (restart from zero) across calls thanks to new
    *nowrap* argument.

.. function:: net_connections(kind='inet')

  Return system-wide socket connections as a list of named tuples.
  Every named tuple provides 7 attributes:

  - **fd**: the socket file descriptor. If the connection refers to the current
    process this may be passed to `socket.fromfd`_
    to obtain a usable socket object.
    On Windows and SunOS this is always set to ``-1``.
  - **family**: the address family, either `AF_INET`_, `AF_INET6`_ or `AF_UNIX`_.
  - **type**: the address type, either `SOCK_STREAM`_, `SOCK_DGRAM`_ or
    `SOCK_SEQPACKET`_.
  - **laddr**: the local address as a ``(ip, port)`` named tuple or a ``path``
    in case of AF_UNIX sockets. For UNIX sockets see notes below.
  - **raddr**: the remote address as a ``(ip, port)`` named tuple or an
    absolute ``path`` in case of UNIX sockets.
    When the remote endpoint is not connected you'll get an empty tuple
    (AF_INET*) or ``""`` (AF_UNIX). For UNIX sockets see notes below.
  - **status**: represents the status of a TCP connection. The return value
    is one of the `psutil.CONN_* <#connections-constants>`_ constants
    (a string).
    For UDP and UNIX sockets this is always going to be
    :const:`psutil.CONN_NONE`.
  - **pid**: the PID of the process which opened the socket, if retrievable,
    else ``None``. On some platforms (e.g. Linux) the availability of this
    field changes depending on process privileges (root is needed).

  The *kind* parameter is a string which filters for connections matching the
  following criteria:

  .. table::

   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | **Kind value** | **Connections using**                               |
   +================+=====================================================+
   | ``"inet"``     | IPv4 and IPv6                                       |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"inet4"``    | IPv4                                                |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"inet6"``    | IPv6                                                |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"tcp"``      | TCP                                                 |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"tcp4"``     | TCP over IPv4                                       |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"tcp6"``     | TCP over IPv6                                       |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"udp"``      | UDP                                                 |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"udp4"``     | UDP over IPv4                                       |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"udp6"``     | UDP over IPv6                                       |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"unix"``     | UNIX socket (both UDP and TCP protocols)            |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
   | ``"all"``      | the sum of all the possible families and protocols  |
   +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+

  On macOS and AIX this function requires root privileges.
  To get per-process connections use :meth:`Process.connections`.
  Also, see `netstat.py`_ example script.
  Example:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.net_connections()
    [pconn(fd=115, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=48776), raddr=addr(ip='93.186.135.91', port=80), status='ESTABLISHED', pid=1254),
     pconn(fd=117, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=43761), raddr=addr(ip='72.14.234.100', port=80), status='CLOSING', pid=2987),
     pconn(fd=-1, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=60759), raddr=addr(ip='72.14.234.104', port=80), status='ESTABLISHED', pid=None),
     pconn(fd=-1, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=51314), raddr=addr(ip='72.14.234.83', port=443), status='SYN_SENT', pid=None)
     ...]

  .. note::
    (macOS and AIX) :class:`psutil.AccessDenied` is always raised unless running
    as root. This is a limitation of the OS and ``lsof`` does the same.

  .. note::
    (Solaris) UNIX sockets are not supported.

  .. note::
     (Linux, FreeBSD) "raddr" field for UNIX sockets is always set to "".
     This is a limitation of the OS.

  .. note::
     (OpenBSD) "laddr" and "raddr" fields for UNIX sockets are always set to
     "". This is a limitation of the OS.

  .. versionadded:: 2.1.0

  .. versionchanged:: 5.3.0 : socket "fd" is now set for real instead of being
     ``-1``.

  .. versionchanged:: 5.3.0 : "laddr" and "raddr" are named tuples.

.. function:: net_if_addrs()

  Return the addresses associated to each NIC (network interface card)
  installed on the system as a dictionary whose keys are the NIC names and
  value is a list of named tuples for each address assigned to the NIC.
  Each named tuple includes 5 fields:

  - **family**: the address family, either `AF_INET`_ or `AF_INET6`_
    or :const:`psutil.AF_LINK`, which refers to a MAC address.
  - **address**: the primary NIC address (always set).
  - **netmask**: the netmask address (may be ``None``).
  - **broadcast**: the broadcast address (may be ``None``).
  - **ptp**: stands for "point to point"; it's the destination address on a
    point to point interface (typically a VPN). *broadcast* and *ptp* are
    mutually exclusive. May be ``None``.

  Example::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.net_if_addrs()
    {'lo': [snicaddr(family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, address='127.0.0.1', netmask='255.0.0.0', broadcast='127.0.0.1', ptp=None),
            snicaddr(family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET6: 10>, address='::1', netmask='ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff', broadcast=None, ptp=None),
            snicaddr(family=<AddressFamily.AF_LINK: 17>, address='00:00:00:00:00:00', netmask=None, broadcast='00:00:00:00:00:00', ptp=None)],
     'wlan0': [snicaddr(family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, address='192.168.1.3', netmask='255.255.255.0', broadcast='192.168.1.255', ptp=None),
               snicaddr(family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET6: 10>, address='fe80::c685:8ff:fe45:641%wlan0', netmask='ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::', broadcast=None, ptp=None),
               snicaddr(family=<AddressFamily.AF_LINK: 17>, address='c4:85:08:45:06:41', netmask=None, broadcast='ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff', ptp=None)]}
    >>>

  See also `nettop.py`_ and `ifconfig.py`_ for an example application.

  .. note::
    if you're interested in others families (e.g. AF_BLUETOOTH) you can use
    the more powerful `netifaces <https://pypi.org/project/netifaces/>`__
    extension.

  .. note::
    you can have more than one address of the same family associated with each
    interface (that's why dict values are lists).

  .. note::
    *broadcast* and *ptp* are not supported on Windows and are always ``None``.

  .. versionadded:: 3.0.0

  .. versionchanged:: 3.2.0 *ptp* field was added.

  .. versionchanged:: 4.4.0 added support for *netmask* field on Windows which
    is no longer ``None``.

.. function:: net_if_stats()

  Return information about each NIC (network interface card) installed on the
  system as a dictionary whose keys are the NIC names and value is a named tuple
  with the following fields:

  - **isup**: a bool indicating whether the NIC is up and running (meaning
    ethernet cable or Wi-Fi is connected).
  - **duplex**: the duplex communication type;
    it can be either :const:`NIC_DUPLEX_FULL`, :const:`NIC_DUPLEX_HALF` or
    :const:`NIC_DUPLEX_UNKNOWN`.
  - **speed**: the NIC speed expressed in mega bits (MB), if it can't be
    determined (e.g. 'localhost') it will be set to ``0``.
  - **mtu**: NIC's maximum transmission unit expressed in bytes.
  - **flags**: a string of comma-separated flags on the interface (may be an empty string).
    Possible flags are: ``up``, ``broadcast``, ``debug``, ``loopback``,
    ``pointopoint``, ``notrailers``, ``running``, ``noarp``, ``promisc``,
    ``allmulti``, ``master``, ``slave``, ``multicast``, ``portsel``,
    ``dynamic``, ``oactive``, ``simplex``, ``link0``, ``link1``, ``link2``,
    and ``d2`` (some flags are only available on certain platforms).

    Availability: UNIX

  Example:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.net_if_stats()
    {'eth0': snicstats(isup=True, duplex=<NicDuplex.NIC_DUPLEX_FULL: 2>, speed=100, mtu=1500, flags='up,broadcast,running,multicast'),
     'lo': snicstats(isup=True, duplex=<NicDuplex.NIC_DUPLEX_UNKNOWN: 0>, speed=0, mtu=65536, flags='up,loopback,running')}

  Also see `nettop.py`_ and `ifconfig.py`_ for an example application.

  .. versionadded:: 3.0.0

  .. versionchanged:: 5.7.3 `isup` on UNIX also checks whether the NIC is running.

  .. versionchanged:: 5.9.3 *flags* field was added on POSIX.

Sensors

.. function:: sensors_temperatures(fahrenheit=False)

  Return hardware temperatures. Each entry is a named tuple representing a
  certain hardware temperature sensor (it may be a CPU, an hard disk or
  something else, depending on the OS and its configuration).
  All temperatures are expressed in celsius unless *fahrenheit* is set to
  ``True``.
  If sensors are not supported by the OS an empty dict is returned.
  Example::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.sensors_temperatures()
    {'acpitz': [shwtemp(label='', current=47.0, high=103.0, critical=103.0)],
     'asus': [shwtemp(label='', current=47.0, high=None, critical=None)],
     'coretemp': [shwtemp(label='Physical id 0', current=52.0, high=100.0, critical=100.0),
                  shwtemp(label='Core 0', current=45.0, high=100.0, critical=100.0),
                  shwtemp(label='Core 1', current=52.0, high=100.0, critical=100.0),
                  shwtemp(label='Core 2', current=45.0, high=100.0, critical=100.0),
                  shwtemp(label='Core 3', current=47.0, high=100.0, critical=100.0)]}

  See also `temperatures.py`_ and `sensors.py`_ for an example application.

  Availability: Linux, FreeBSD

  .. versionadded:: 5.1.0

  .. versionchanged:: 5.5.0 added FreeBSD support

.. function:: sensors_fans()

  Return hardware fans speed. Each entry is a named tuple representing a
  certain hardware sensor fan.
  Fan speed is expressed in RPM (revolutions per minute).
  If sensors are not supported by the OS an empty dict is returned.
  Example::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.sensors_fans()
    {'asus': [sfan(label='cpu_fan', current=3200)]}

  See also `fans.py`_  and `sensors.py`_ for an example application.

  Availability: Linux

  .. versionadded:: 5.2.0

.. function:: sensors_battery()

  Return battery status information as a named tuple including the following
  values. If no battery is installed or metrics can't be determined ``None``
  is returned.

  - **percent**: battery power left as a percentage.
  - **secsleft**: a rough approximation of how many seconds are left before the
    battery runs out of power.
    If the AC power cable is connected this is set to
    :data:`psutil.POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED <psutil.POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED>`.
    If it can't be determined it is set to
    :data:`psutil.POWER_TIME_UNKNOWN <psutil.POWER_TIME_UNKNOWN>`.
  - **power_plugged**: ``True`` if the AC power cable is connected, ``False``
    if not or ``None`` if it can't be determined.

  Example::

    >>> import psutil
    >>>
    >>> def secs2hours(secs):
    ...     mm, ss = divmod(secs, 60)
    ...     hh, mm = divmod(mm, 60)
    ...     return "%d:%02d:%02d" % (hh, mm, ss)
    ...
    >>> battery = psutil.sensors_battery()
    >>> battery
    sbattery(percent=93, secsleft=16628, power_plugged=False)
    >>> print("charge = %s%%, time left = %s" % (battery.percent, secs2hours(battery.secsleft)))
    charge = 93%, time left = 4:37:08

  See also `battery.py`_  and `sensors.py`_ for an example application.

  Availability: Linux, Windows, FreeBSD

  .. versionadded:: 5.1.0

  .. versionchanged:: 5.4.2 added macOS support

Other system info

.. function:: boot_time()

  Return the system boot time expressed in seconds since the epoch.
  Example:

  .. code-block:: python

     >>> import psutil, datetime
     >>> psutil.boot_time()
     1389563460.0
     >>> datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(psutil.boot_time()).strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")
     '2014-01-12 22:51:00'

  .. note::
    on Windows this function may return a time which is off by 1 second if it's
    used across different processes (see `issue #1007`_).

.. function:: users()

  Return users currently connected on the system as a list of named tuples
  including the following fields:

  - **name**: the name of the user.
  - **terminal**: the tty or pseudo-tty associated with the user, if any,
    else ``None``.
  - **host**: the host name associated with the entry, if any.
  - **started**: the creation time as a floating point number expressed in
    seconds since the epoch.
  - **pid**: the PID of the login process (like sshd, tmux, gdm-session-worker,
    ...). On Windows and OpenBSD this is always set to ``None``.

  Example::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.users()
    [suser(name='giampaolo', terminal='pts/2', host='localhost', started=1340737536.0, pid=1352),
     suser(name='giampaolo', terminal='pts/3', host='localhost', started=1340737792.0, pid=1788)]

  .. versionchanged::
    5.3.0 added "pid" field

Processes

Functions

.. function:: pids()

  Return a sorted list of current running PIDs.
  To iterate over all processes and avoid race conditions :func:`process_iter()`
  should be preferred.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> psutil.pids()
  [1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, ..., 32498]

  .. versionchanged::
    5.6.0 PIDs are returned in sorted order

.. function:: process_iter(attrs=None, ad_value=None)

  Return an iterator yielding a :class:`Process` class instance for all running
  processes on the local machine.
  This should be preferred over :func:`psutil.pids()` to iterate over processes
  as it's safe from race condition.

  Every :class:`Process` instance is only created once, and then cached for the
  next time :func:`psutil.process_iter()` is called (if PID is still alive).
  Also it makes sure process PIDs are not reused.

  *attrs* and *ad_value* have the same meaning as in :meth:`Process.as_dict()`.
  If *attrs* is specified :meth:`Process.as_dict()` result will be stored as a
  ``info`` attribute attached to the returned :class:`Process` instances.
  If *attrs* is an empty list it will retrieve all process info (slow).

  Sorting order in which processes are returned is based on their PID.

  Example::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> for proc in psutil.process_iter(['pid', 'name', 'username']):
    ...     print(proc.info)
    ...
    {'name': 'systemd', 'pid': 1, 'username': 'root'}
    {'name': 'kthreadd', 'pid': 2, 'username': 'root'}
    {'name': 'ksoftirqd/0', 'pid': 3, 'username': 'root'}
    ...

  A dict comprehensions to create a ``{pid: info, ...}`` data structure::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> procs = {p.pid: p.info for p in psutil.process_iter(['name', 'username'])}
    >>> procs
    {1: {'name': 'systemd', 'username': 'root'},
     2: {'name': 'kthreadd', 'username': 'root'},
     3: {'name': 'ksoftirqd/0', 'username': 'root'},
     ...}

  .. versionchanged::
    5.3.0 added "attrs" and "ad_value" parameters.

.. function:: pid_exists(pid)

  Check whether the given PID exists in the current process list. This is
  faster than doing ``pid in psutil.pids()`` and should be preferred.

.. function:: wait_procs(procs, timeout=None, callback=None)

  Convenience function which waits for a list of :class:`Process` instances to
  terminate. Return a ``(gone, alive)`` tuple indicating which processes are
  gone and which ones are still alive. The *gone* ones will have a new
  *returncode* attribute indicating process exit status as returned by
  :meth:`Process.wait`.
  ``callback`` is a function which gets called when one of the processes being
  waited on is terminated and a :class:`Process` instance is passed as callback
  argument (the instance will also have a *returncode* attribute set).
  This function will return as soon as all processes terminate or when
  *timeout* (seconds) occurs.
  Differently from :meth:`Process.wait` it will not raise
  :class:`TimeoutExpired` if timeout occurs.
  A typical use case may be:

  - send SIGTERM to a list of processes
  - give them some time to terminate
  - send SIGKILL to those ones which are still alive

  Example which terminates and waits all the children of this process::

    import psutil

    def on_terminate(proc):
        print("process {} terminated with exit code {}".format(proc, proc.returncode))

    procs = psutil.Process().children()
    for p in procs:
        p.terminate()
    gone, alive = psutil.wait_procs(procs, timeout=3, callback=on_terminate)
    for p in alive:
        p.kill()

Exceptions

Base exception class. All other exceptions inherit from this one.

Raised by :class:`Process` class methods when no process with the given pid is found in the current process list, or when a process no longer exists. name is the name the process had before disappearing and gets set only if :meth:`Process.name()` was previously called.

This may be raised by :class:`Process` class methods when querying a zombie process on UNIX (Windows doesn't have zombie processes). name and ppid attributes are available if :meth:`Process.name()` or :meth:`Process.ppid()` methods were called before the process turned into a zombie.

Note

this is a subclass of :class:`NoSuchProcess` so if you're not interested in retrieving zombies (e.g. when using :func:`process_iter()`) you can ignore this exception and just catch :class:`NoSuchProcess`.

.. versionadded:: 3.0.0

Raised by :class:`Process` class methods when permission to perform an action is denied due to insufficient privileges. name attribute is available if :meth:`Process.name()` was previously called.

Raised by :meth:`Process.wait` method if timeout expires and the process is still alive. name attribute is available if :meth:`Process.name()` was previously called.

Process class

Represents an OS process with the given pid. If pid is omitted current process pid (os.getpid) is used. Raise :class:`NoSuchProcess` if pid does not exist. On Linux pid can also refer to a thread ID (the id field returned by :meth:`threads` method). When accessing methods of this class always be prepared to catch :class:`NoSuchProcess` and :class:`AccessDenied` exceptions. hash builtin can be used against instances of this class in order to identify a process univocally over time (the hash is determined by mixing process PID + creation time). As such it can also be used with set.

Note

In order to efficiently fetch more than one information about the process at the same time, make sure to use either :meth:`oneshot` context manager or :meth:`as_dict` utility method.

Note

the way this class is bound to a process is uniquely via its PID. That means that if the process terminates and the OS reuses its PID you may end up interacting with another process. The only exceptions for which process identity is preemptively checked (via PID + creation time) is for the following methods: :meth:`nice` (set), :meth:`ionice` (set), :meth:`cpu_affinity` (set), :meth:`rlimit` (set), :meth:`children`, :meth:`parent`, :meth:`parents`, :meth:`suspend` :meth:`resume`, :meth:`send_signal`, :meth:`terminate` :meth:`kill`. To prevent this problem for all other methods you can use :meth:`is_running()` before querying the process or :func:`process_iter()` in case you're iterating over all processes. It must be noted though that unless you deal with very "old" (inactive) :class:`Process` instances this will hardly represent a problem.

.. method:: oneshot()

  Utility context manager which considerably speeds up the retrieval of
  multiple process information at the same time.
  Internally different process info (e.g. :meth:`name`, :meth:`ppid`,
  :meth:`uids`, :meth:`create_time`, ...) may be fetched by using the same
  routine, but only one value is returned and the others are discarded.
  When using this context manager the internal routine is executed once (in
  the example below on :meth:`name()`) the value of interest is returned and
  the others are cached.
  The subsequent calls sharing the same internal routine will return the
  cached value.
  The cache is cleared when exiting the context manager block.
  The advice is to use this every time you retrieve more than one information
  about the process. If you're lucky, you'll get a hell of a speedup.
  Example:

  >>> import psutil
  >>> p = psutil.Process()
  >>> with p.oneshot():
  ...     p.name()  # execute internal routine once collecting multiple info
  ...     p.cpu_times()  # return cached value
  ...     p.cpu_percent()  # return cached value
  ...     p.create_time()  # return cached value
  ...     p.ppid()  # return cached value
  ...     p.status()  # return cached value
  ...
  >>>

  Here's a list of methods which can take advantage of the speedup depending
  on what platform you're on.
  In the table below horizontal empty rows indicate what process methods can
  be efficiently grouped together internally.
  The last column (speedup) shows an approximation of the speedup you can get
  if you call all the methods together (best case scenario).

  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | Linux                        | Windows                       | macOS                        | BSD                          | SunOS                    | AIX                      |
  +==============================+===============================+==============================+==============================+==========================+==========================+
  | :meth:`cpu_num`              | :meth:`~Process.cpu_percent`  | :meth:`~Process.cpu_percent` | :meth:`cpu_num`              | :meth:`name`             | :meth:`name`             |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`~Process.cpu_percent` | :meth:`cpu_times`             | :meth:`cpu_times`            | :meth:`~Process.cpu_percent` | :meth:`cmdline`          | :meth:`cmdline`          |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`cpu_times`            | :meth:`io_counters()`         | :meth:`memory_info`          | :meth:`cpu_times`            | :meth:`create_time`      | :meth:`create_time`      |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`create_time`          | :meth:`memory_info`           | :meth:`memory_percent`       | :meth:`create_time`          |                          |                          |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`name`                 | :meth:`memory_maps`           | :meth:`num_ctx_switches`     | :meth:`gids`                 | :meth:`memory_info`      | :meth:`memory_info`      |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`ppid`                 | :meth:`num_ctx_switches`      | :meth:`num_threads`          | :meth:`io_counters`          | :meth:`memory_percent`   | :meth:`memory_percent`   |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`status`               | :meth:`num_handles`           |                              | :meth:`name`                 | :meth:`num_threads`      | :meth:`num_threads`      |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`terminal`             | :meth:`num_threads`           | :meth:`create_time`          | :meth:`memory_info`          | :meth:`ppid`             | :meth:`ppid`             |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  |                              | :meth:`username`              | :meth:`gids`                 | :meth:`memory_percent`       | :meth:`status`           | :meth:`status`           |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`gids`                 |                               | :meth:`name`                 | :meth:`num_ctx_switches`     | :meth:`terminal`         | :meth:`terminal`         |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`num_ctx_switches`     | :meth:`exe`                   | :meth:`ppid`                 | :meth:`ppid`                 |                          |                          |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`num_threads`          | :meth:`name`                  | :meth:`status`               | :meth:`status`               | :meth:`gids`             | :meth:`gids`             |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`uids`                 |                               | :meth:`terminal`             | :meth:`terminal`             | :meth:`uids`             | :meth:`uids`             |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`username`             |                               | :meth:`uids`                 | :meth:`uids`                 | :meth:`username`         | :meth:`username`         |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  |                              |                               | :meth:`username`             | :meth:`username`             |                          |                          |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`memory_full_info`     |                               |                              |                              |                          |                          |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | :meth:`memory_maps`          |                               |                              |                              |                          |                          |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
  | *speedup: +2.6x*             | *speedup: +1.8x / +6.5x*      | *speedup: +1.9x*             | *speedup: +2.0x*             | *speedup: +1.3x*         | *speedup: +1.3x*         |
  +------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+

  .. versionadded:: 5.0.0

.. attribute:: pid

   The process PID. This is the only (read-only) attribute of the class.

.. method:: ppid()

  The process parent PID.  On Windows the return value is cached after first
  call. Not on POSIX because ppid may change if process becomes a zombie
  See also :meth:`parent` and :meth:`parents` methods.

.. method:: name()

  The process name.  On Windows the return value is cached after first
  call. Not on POSIX because the process name may change.
  See also how to `find a process by name <#find-process-by-name>`__.

.. method:: exe()

  The process executable as an absolute path.
  On some systems this may also be an empty string.
  The return value is cached after first call.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> psutil.Process().exe()
  '/usr/bin/python2.7'

.. method:: cmdline()

  The command line this process has been called with as a list of strings.
  The return value is not cached because the cmdline of a process may change.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> psutil.Process().cmdline()
  ['python', 'manage.py', 'runserver']

.. method:: environ()

  The environment variables of the process as a dict.  Note: this might not
  reflect changes made after the process started.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> psutil.Process().environ()
  {'LC_NUMERIC': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'QT_QPA_PLATFORMTHEME': 'appmenu-qt5', 'IM_CONFIG_PHASE': '1', 'XDG_GREETER_DATA_DIR': '/var/lib/lightdm-data/giampaolo', 'GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID': 'this-is-deprecated', 'XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP': 'Unity', 'UPSTART_EVENTS': 'started starting', 'GNOME_KEYRING_PID': '', 'XDG_VTNR': '7', 'QT_IM_MODULE': 'ibus', 'LOGNAME': 'giampaolo', 'USER': 'giampaolo', 'PATH': '/home/giampaolo/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/snap/bin:/home/giampaolo/svn/sysconf/bin', 'LC_PAPER': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL': '', 'GTK_IM_MODULE': 'ibus', 'DISPLAY': ':0', 'LANG': 'en_US.UTF-8', 'LESS_TERMCAP_se': '\x1b[0m', 'TERM': 'xterm-256color', 'SHELL': '/bin/bash', 'XDG_SESSION_PATH': '/org/freedesktop/DisplayManager/Session0', 'XAUTHORITY': '/home/giampaolo/.Xauthority', 'LANGUAGE': 'en_US', 'COMPIZ_CONFIG_PROFILE': 'ubuntu', 'LC_MONETARY': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'QT_LINUX_ACCESSIBILITY_ALWAYS_ON': '1', 'LESS_TERMCAP_me': '\x1b[0m', 'LESS_TERMCAP_md': '\x1b[01;38;5;74m', 'LESS_TERMCAP_mb': '\x1b[01;31m', 'HISTSIZE': '100000', 'UPSTART_INSTANCE': '', 'CLUTTER_IM_MODULE': 'xim', 'WINDOWID': '58786407', 'EDITOR': 'vim', 'SESSIONTYPE': 'gnome-session', 'XMODIFIERS': '@im=ibus', 'GPG_AGENT_INFO': '/home/giampaolo/.gnupg/S.gpg-agent:0:1', 'HOME': '/home/giampaolo', 'HISTFILESIZE': '100000', 'QT4_IM_MODULE': 'xim', 'GTK2_MODULES': 'overlay-scrollbar', 'XDG_SESSION_DESKTOP': 'ubuntu', 'SHLVL': '1', 'XDG_RUNTIME_DIR': '/run/user/1000', 'INSTANCE': 'Unity', 'LC_ADDRESS': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'SSH_AUTH_SOCK': '/run/user/1000/keyring/ssh', 'VTE_VERSION': '4205', 'GDMSESSION': 'ubuntu', 'MANDATORY_PATH': '/usr/share/gconf/ubuntu.mandatory.path', 'VISUAL': 'vim', 'DESKTOP_SESSION': 'ubuntu', 'QT_ACCESSIBILITY': '1', 'XDG_SEAT_PATH': '/org/freedesktop/DisplayManager/Seat0', 'LESSCLOSE': '/usr/bin/lesspipe %s %s', 'LESSOPEN': '| /usr/bin/lesspipe %s', 'XDG_SESSION_ID': 'c2', 'DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS': 'unix:abstract=/tmp/dbus-9GAJpvnt8r', '_': '/usr/bin/python', 'DEFAULTS_PATH': '/usr/share/gconf/ubuntu.default.path', 'LC_IDENTIFICATION': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'LESS_TERMCAP_ue': '\x1b[0m', 'UPSTART_SESSION': 'unix:abstract=/com/ubuntu/upstart-session/1000/1294', 'XDG_CONFIG_DIRS': '/etc/xdg/xdg-ubuntu:/usr/share/upstart/xdg:/etc/xdg', 'GTK_MODULES': 'gail:atk-bridge:unity-gtk-module', 'XDG_SESSION_TYPE': 'x11', 'PYTHONSTARTUP': '/home/giampaolo/.pythonstart', 'LC_NAME': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'OLDPWD': '/home/giampaolo/svn/curio_giampaolo/tests', 'GDM_LANG': 'en_US', 'LC_TELEPHONE': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'HISTCONTROL': 'ignoredups:erasedups', 'LC_MEASUREMENT': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'PWD': '/home/giampaolo/svn/curio_giampaolo', 'JOB': 'gnome-session', 'LESS_TERMCAP_us': '\x1b[04;38;5;146m', 'UPSTART_JOB': 'unity-settings-daemon', 'LC_TIME': 'it_IT.UTF-8', 'LESS_TERMCAP_so': '\x1b[38;5;246m', 'PAGER': 'less', 'XDG_DATA_DIRS': '/usr/share/ubuntu:/usr/share/gnome:/usr/local/share/:/usr/share/:/var/lib/snapd/desktop', 'XDG_SEAT': 'seat0'}

  .. note::
    on macOS Big Sur this function returns something meaningful only for the
    current process or in
    `other specific circumstances <https://github.com/apple/darwin-xnu/blob/2ff845c2e033bd0ff64b5b6aa6063a1f8f65aa32/bsd/kern/kern_sysctl.c#L1315-L1321>`__).

  .. versionadded:: 4.0.0
  .. versionchanged:: 5.3.0 added SunOS support
  .. versionchanged:: 5.6.3 added AIX support
  .. versionchanged:: 5.7.3 added BSD support

.. method:: create_time()

  The process creation time as a floating point number expressed in seconds
  since the epoch. The return value is cached after first call.

    >>> import psutil, datetime
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.create_time()
    1307289803.47
    >>> datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(p.create_time()).strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")
    '2011-03-05 18:03:52'

.. method:: as_dict(attrs=None, ad_value=None)

  Utility method retrieving multiple process information as a dictionary.
  If *attrs* is specified it must be a list of strings reflecting available
  :class:`Process` class's attribute names. Here's a list of possible string
  values:
  ``'cmdline'``, ``'connections'``, ``'cpu_affinity'``, ``'cpu_num'``, ``'cpu_percent'``, ``'cpu_times'``, ``'create_time'``, ``'cwd'``, ``'environ'``, ``'exe'``, ``'gids'``, ``'io_counters'``, ``'ionice'``, ``'memory_full_info'``, ``'memory_info'``, ``'memory_maps'``, ``'memory_percent'``, ``'name'``, ``'nice'``, ``'num_ctx_switches'``, ``'num_fds'``, ``'num_handles'``, ``'num_threads'``, ``'open_files'``, ``'pid'``, ``'ppid'``, ``'status'``, ``'terminal'``, ``'threads'``, ``'uids'``, ``'username'```.
  If *attrs* argument is not passed all public read only attributes are
  assumed.
  *ad_value* is the value which gets assigned to a dict key in case
  :class:`AccessDenied` or :class:`ZombieProcess` exception is raised when
  retrieving that particular process information.
  Internally, :meth:`as_dict` uses :meth:`oneshot` context manager so
  there's no need you use it also.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.as_dict(attrs=['pid', 'name', 'username'])
    {'username': 'giampaolo', 'pid': 12366, 'name': 'python'}
    >>>
    >>> # get a list of valid attrs names
    >>> list(psutil.Process().as_dict().keys())
    ['status', 'cpu_num', 'num_ctx_switches', 'pid', 'memory_full_info', 'connections', 'cmdline', 'create_time', 'ionice', 'num_fds', 'memory_maps', 'cpu_percent', 'terminal', 'ppid', 'cwd', 'nice', 'username', 'cpu_times', 'io_counters', 'memory_info', 'threads', 'open_files', 'name', 'num_threads', 'exe', 'uids', 'gids', 'cpu_affinity', 'memory_percent', 'environ']

  .. versionchanged::
    3.0.0 *ad_value* is used also when incurring into
    :class:`ZombieProcess` exception, not only :class:`AccessDenied`

   .. versionchanged:: 4.5.0 :meth:`as_dict` is considerably faster thanks
      to :meth:`oneshot` context manager.

.. method:: parent()

  Utility method which returns the parent process as a :class:`Process`
  object, preemptively checking whether PID has been reused. If no parent
  PID is known return ``None``.
  See also :meth:`ppid` and :meth:`parents` methods.

.. method:: parents()

  Utility method which return the parents of this process as a list of
  :class:`Process` instances. If no parents are known return an empty list.
  See also :meth:`ppid` and :meth:`parent` methods.

  .. versionadded:: 5.6.0

.. method:: status()

  The current process status as a string. The returned string is one of the
  `psutil.STATUS_* <#process-status-constants>`_ constants.

.. method:: cwd()

  The process current working directory as an absolute path.

  .. versionchanged:: 5.6.4 added support for NetBSD

.. method:: username()

  The name of the user that owns the process. On UNIX this is calculated by
  using real process uid.

.. method:: uids()

  The real, effective and saved user ids of this process as a named tuple.
  This is the same as `os.getresuid`_ but can be used for any process PID.

  Availability: UNIX

.. method:: gids()

  The real, effective and saved group ids of this process as a named tuple.
  This is the same as `os.getresgid`_ but can be used for any process PID.

  Availability: UNIX

.. method:: terminal()

  The terminal associated with this process, if any, else ``None``. This is
  similar to "tty" command but can be used for any process PID.

  Availability: UNIX

.. method:: nice(value=None)

  Get or set process niceness (priority).
  On UNIX this is a number which usually goes from ``-20`` to ``20``.
  The higher the nice value, the lower the priority of the process.

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.nice(10)  # set
    >>> p.nice()  # get
    10
    >>>

  Starting from Python 3.3 this functionality is also available as
  `os.getpriority`_ and `os.setpriority`_ (see `BPO-10784`_).
  On Windows this is implemented via `GetPriorityClass`_ and
  `SetPriorityClass`_ Windows APIs and *value* is one of the
  :data:`psutil.*_PRIORITY_CLASS <psutil.ABOVE_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS>`
  constants reflecting the MSDN documentation.
  Example which increases process priority on Windows:

    >>> p.nice(psutil.HIGH_PRIORITY_CLASS)

.. method:: ionice(ioclass=None, value=None)

  Get or set process I/O niceness (priority).
  If no argument is provided it acts as a get, returning a ``(ioclass, value)``
  tuple on Linux and a *ioclass* integer on Windows.
  If *ioclass* is provided it acts as a set. In this case an additional
  *value* can be specified on Linux only in order to increase or decrease the
  I/O priority even further.
  Here's the possible platform-dependent *ioclass* values.

  Linux (see `ioprio_get`_ manual):

  * ``IOPRIO_CLASS_RT``: (high) the process gets first access to the disk
    every time. Use it with care as it can starve the entire
    system. Additional priority *level* can be specified and ranges from
    ``0`` (highest) to ``7`` (lowest).
  * ``IOPRIO_CLASS_BE``: (normal) the default for any process that hasn't set
    a specific I/O priority. Additional priority *level* ranges from
    ``0`` (highest) to ``7`` (lowest).
  * ``IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE``: (low) get I/O time when no-one else needs the disk.
    No additional *value* is accepted.
  * ``IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE``: returned when no priority was previously set.

  Windows:

  * ``IOPRIO_HIGH``: highest priority.
  * ``IOPRIO_NORMAL``: default priority.
  * ``IOPRIO_LOW``: low priority.
  * ``IOPRIO_VERYLOW``: lowest priority.

  Here's an example on how to set the highest I/O priority depending on what
  platform you're on::

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> if psutil.LINUX:
    ...     p.ionice(psutil.IOPRIO_CLASS_RT, value=7)
    ... else:
    ...     p.ionice(psutil.IOPRIO_HIGH)
    ...
    >>> p.ionice()  # get
    pionice(ioclass=<IOPriority.IOPRIO_CLASS_RT: 1>, value=7)

  Availability: Linux, Windows Vista+

  .. versionchanged:: 5.6.2 Windows accepts new ``IOPRIO_*`` constants
   including new ``IOPRIO_HIGH``.

.. method:: rlimit(resource, limits=None)

  Get or set process resource limits (see `man prlimit`_). *resource* is one
  of the `psutil.RLIMIT_* <#process-resources-constants>`_ constants.
  *limits* is a ``(soft, hard)`` tuple.
  This is the same as `resource.getrlimit`_ and `resource.setrlimit`_
  but can be used for any process PID, not only `os.getpid`_.
  For get, return value is a ``(soft, hard)`` tuple. Each value may be either
  and integer or :data:`psutil.RLIMIT_* <psutil.RLIM_INFINITY>`.
  Example:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.rlimit(psutil.RLIMIT_NOFILE, (128, 128))   # process can open max 128 file descriptors
    >>> p.rlimit(psutil.RLIMIT_FSIZE, (1024, 1024))  # can create files no bigger than 1024 bytes
    >>> p.rlimit(psutil.RLIMIT_FSIZE)                # get
    (1024, 1024)
    >>>

  Also see `procinfo.py`_ script.

  Availability: Linux, FreeBSD

  .. versionchanged:: 5.7.3 added FreeBSD support

.. method:: io_counters()

  Return process I/O statistics as a named tuple.
  For Linux you can refer to
  `/proc filesystem documentation <https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3633286/>`__.

  - **read_count**: the number of read operations performed (cumulative).
    This is supposed to count the number of read-related syscalls such as
    ``read()`` and ``pread()`` on UNIX.
  - **write_count**: the number of write operations performed (cumulative).
    This is supposed to count the number of write-related syscalls such as
    ``write()`` and ``pwrite()`` on UNIX.
  - **read_bytes**: the number of bytes read (cumulative).
    Always ``-1`` on  BSD.
  - **write_bytes**: the number of bytes written (cumulative).
    Always ``-1`` on  BSD.

  Linux specific:

  - **read_chars** *(Linux)*: the amount of bytes which this process passed
    to ``read()`` and ``pread()`` syscalls (cumulative).
    Differently from *read_bytes* it doesn't care whether or not actual
    physical disk I/O occurred.
  - **write_chars** *(Linux)*: the amount of bytes which this process passed
    to ``write()`` and ``pwrite()`` syscalls (cumulative).
    Differently from *write_bytes* it doesn't care whether or not actual
    physical disk I/O occurred.

  Windows specific:

  - **other_count** *(Windows)*: the number of I/O operations performed
    other than read and write operations.
  - **other_bytes** *(Windows)*: the number of bytes transferred during
    operations other than read and write operations.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> p = psutil.Process()
  >>> p.io_counters()
  pio(read_count=454556, write_count=3456, read_bytes=110592, write_bytes=0, read_chars=769931, write_chars=203)

  Availability: Linux, BSD, Windows, AIX

  .. versionchanged:: 5.2.0 added *read_chars* and *write_chars* on Linux;
    added *other_count* and *other_bytes* on Windows.

.. method:: num_ctx_switches()

  The number voluntary and involuntary context switches performed by
  this process (cumulative).

  .. versionchanged:: 5.4.1 added AIX support

.. method:: num_fds()

  The number of file descriptors currently opened by this process
  (non cumulative).

  Availability: UNIX

.. method:: num_handles()

  The number of handles currently used by this process (non cumulative).

  Availability: Windows

.. method:: num_threads()

  The number of threads currently used by this process (non cumulative).

.. method:: threads()

  Return threads opened by process as a list of named tuples. On OpenBSD this
  method requires root privileges.

  - **id**: the native thread ID assigned by the kernel. If :attr:`pid` refers
    to the current process, this matches the
    `native_id <https://docs.python.org/3/library/threading.html#threading.Thread.native_id>`__
    attribute of the `threading.Thread`_ class, and can be used to reference
    individual Python threads running within your own Python app.
  - **user_time**: time spent in user mode.
  - **system_time**: time spent in kernel mode.

.. method:: cpu_times()

  Return a named tuple representing the accumulated process times, in seconds
  (see `explanation <http://stackoverflow.com/questions/556405/>`__).
  This is similar to `os.times`_ but can be used for any process PID.

  - **user**: time spent in user mode.
  - **system**: time spent in kernel mode.
  - **children_user**: user time of all child processes (always ``0`` on
    Windows and macOS).
  - **children_system**: system time of all child processes (always ``0`` on
    Windows and macOS).
  - **iowait**: (Linux) time spent waiting for blocking I/O to complete.
    This value is excluded from `user` and `system` times count (because the
    CPU is not doing any work).

  >>> import psutil
  >>> p = psutil.Process()
  >>> p.cpu_times()
  pcputimes(user=0.03, system=0.67, children_user=0.0, children_system=0.0, iowait=0.08)
  >>> sum(p.cpu_times()[:2])  # cumulative, excluding children and iowait
  0.70

  .. versionchanged::
    4.1.0 return two extra fields: *children_user* and *children_system*.

  .. versionchanged::
    5.6.4 added *iowait* on Linux.

.. method:: cpu_percent(interval=None)

  Return a float representing the process CPU utilization as a percentage
  which can also be ``> 100.0`` in case of a process running multiple threads
  on different CPUs.
  When *interval* is > ``0.0`` compares process times to system CPU times
  elapsed before and after the interval (blocking). When interval is ``0.0``
  or ``None`` compares process times to system CPU times elapsed since last
  call, returning immediately. That means the first time this is called it
  will return a meaningless ``0.0`` value which you are supposed to ignore.
  In this case is recommended for accuracy that this function be called a
  second time with at least ``0.1`` seconds between calls.
  Example:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> # blocking
    >>> p.cpu_percent(interval=1)
    2.0
    >>> # non-blocking (percentage since last call)
    >>> p.cpu_percent(interval=None)
    2.9

  .. note::
    the returned value can be > 100.0 in case of a process running multiple
    threads on different CPU cores.

  .. note::
    the returned value is explicitly *not* split evenly between all available
    CPUs (differently from :func:`psutil.cpu_percent()`).
    This means that a busy loop process running on a system with 2 logical
    CPUs will be reported as having 100% CPU utilization instead of 50%.
    This was done in order to be consistent with ``top`` UNIX utility
    and also to make it easier to identify processes hogging CPU resources
    independently from the number of CPUs.
    It must be noted that ``taskmgr.exe`` on Windows does not behave like
    this (it would report 50% usage instead).
    To emulate Windows ``taskmgr.exe`` behavior you can do:
    ``p.cpu_percent() / psutil.cpu_count()``.

  .. warning::
    the first time this method is called with interval = ``0.0`` or
    ``None`` it will return a meaningless ``0.0`` value which you are
    supposed to ignore.

.. method:: cpu_affinity(cpus=None)

  Get or set process current
  `CPU affinity <http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6799?page=0,0>`__.
  CPU affinity consists in telling the OS to run a process on a limited set
  of CPUs only (on Linux cmdline, ``taskset`` command is typically used).
  If no argument is passed it returns the current CPU affinity as a list
  of integers.
  If passed it must be a list of integers specifying the new CPUs affinity.
  If an empty list is passed all eligible CPUs are assumed (and set).
  On some systems such as Linux this may not necessarily mean all available
  logical CPUs as in ``list(range(psutil.cpu_count()))``).

    >>> import psutil
    >>> psutil.cpu_count()
    4
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> # get
    >>> p.cpu_affinity()
    [0, 1, 2, 3]
    >>> # set; from now on, process will run on CPU #0 and #1 only
    >>> p.cpu_affinity([0, 1])
    >>> p.cpu_affinity()
    [0, 1]
    >>> # reset affinity against all eligible CPUs
    >>> p.cpu_affinity([])

  Availability: Linux, Windows, FreeBSD

  .. versionchanged:: 2.2.0 added support for FreeBSD
  .. versionchanged:: 5.1.0 an empty list can be passed to set affinity
    against all eligible CPUs.

.. method:: cpu_num()

  Return what CPU this process is currently running on.
  The returned number should be ``<=`` :func:`psutil.cpu_count()`.
  On FreeBSD certain kernel process may return ``-1``.
  It may be used in conjunction with ``psutil.cpu_percent(percpu=True)`` to
  observe the system workload distributed across multiple CPUs as shown by
  `cpu_distribution.py`_ example script.

  Availability: Linux, FreeBSD, SunOS

  .. versionadded:: 5.1.0

.. method:: memory_info()

  Return a named tuple with variable fields depending on the platform
  representing memory information about the process.
  The "portable" fields available on all platforms are `rss` and `vms`.
  All numbers are expressed in bytes.

  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | Linux   | macOS   | BSD   | Solaris | AIX | Windows                      |
  +=========+=========+=======+=========+=====+==============================+
  | rss     | rss     | rss   | rss     | rss | rss (alias for ``wset``)     |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | vms     | vms     | vms   | vms     | vms | vms (alias for ``pagefile``) |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | shared  | pfaults | text  |         |     | num_page_faults              |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | text    | pageins | data  |         |     | peak_wset                    |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | lib     |         | stack |         |     | wset                         |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | data    |         |       |         |     | peak_paged_pool              |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  | dirty   |         |       |         |     | paged_pool                   |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  |         |         |       |         |     | peak_nonpaged_pool           |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  |         |         |       |         |     | nonpaged_pool                |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  |         |         |       |         |     | pagefile                     |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  |         |         |       |         |     | peak_pagefile                |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+
  |         |         |       |         |     | private                      |
  +---------+---------+-------+---------+-----+------------------------------+

  - **rss**: aka "Resident Set Size", this is the non-swapped physical
    memory a process has used.
    On UNIX it matches "top"'s RES column).
    On Windows this is an alias for `wset` field and it matches "Mem Usage"
    column of taskmgr.exe.

  - **vms**: aka "Virtual Memory Size", this is the total amount of virtual
    memory used by the process.
    On UNIX it matches "top"'s VIRT column.
    On Windows this is an alias for `pagefile` field and it matches
    "Mem Usage" "VM Size" column of taskmgr.exe.

  - **shared**: *(Linux)*
    memory that could be potentially shared with other processes.
    This matches "top"'s SHR column).

  - **text** *(Linux, BSD)*:
    aka TRS (text resident set) the amount of memory devoted to
    executable code. This matches "top"'s CODE column).

  - **data** *(Linux, BSD)*:
    aka DRS (data resident set) the amount of physical memory devoted to
    other than executable code. It matches "top"'s DATA column).

  - **lib** *(Linux)*: the memory used by shared libraries.

  - **dirty** *(Linux)*: the number of dirty pages.

  - **pfaults** *(macOS)*: number of page faults.

  - **pageins** *(macOS)*: number of actual pageins.

  For on explanation of Windows fields rely on `PROCESS_MEMORY_COUNTERS_EX`_
  structure doc. Example on Linux:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.memory_info()
    pmem(rss=15491072, vms=84025344, shared=5206016, text=2555904, lib=0, data=9891840, dirty=0)

  .. versionchanged::
    4.0.0 multiple fields are returned, not only `rss` and `vms`.

.. method:: memory_info_ex()

  Same as :meth:`memory_info` (deprecated).

  .. warning::
    deprecated in version 4.0.0; use :meth:`memory_info` instead.

.. method:: memory_full_info()

  This method returns the same information as :meth:`memory_info`, plus, on
  some platform (Linux, macOS, Windows), also provides additional metrics
  (USS, PSS and swap).
  The additional metrics provide a better representation of "effective"
  process memory consumption (in case of USS) as explained in detail in this
  `blog post <https://gmpy.dev/blog/2016/real-process-memory-and-environ-in-python>`__.
  It does so by passing through the whole process address.
  As such it usually requires higher user privileges than
  :meth:`memory_info` and is considerably slower.
  On platforms where extra fields are not implemented this simply returns the
  same metrics as :meth:`memory_info`.

  - **uss** *(Linux, macOS, Windows)*:
    aka "Unique Set Size", this is the memory which is unique to a process
    and which would be freed if the process was terminated right now.

  - **pss** *(Linux)*: aka "Proportional Set Size", is the amount of memory
    shared with other processes, accounted in a way that the amount is
    divided evenly between the processes that share it.
    I.e. if a process has 10 MBs all to itself and 10 MBs shared with
    another process its PSS will be 15 MBs.

  - **swap** *(Linux)*: amount of memory that has been swapped out to disk.

  .. note::
    `uss` is probably the most representative metric for determining how
    much memory is actually being used by a process.
    It represents the amount of memory that would be freed if the process
    was terminated right now.

  Example on Linux:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.memory_full_info()
    pfullmem(rss=10199040, vms=52133888, shared=3887104, text=2867200, lib=0, data=5967872, dirty=0, uss=6545408, pss=6872064, swap=0)
    >>>

  See also `procsmem.py`_ for an example application.

  .. versionadded:: 4.0.0

.. method:: memory_percent(memtype="rss")

  Compare process memory to total physical system memory and calculate
  process memory utilization as a percentage.
  *memtype* argument is a string that dictates what type of process memory
  you want to compare against. You can choose between the named tuple field
  names returned by :meth:`memory_info` and :meth:`memory_full_info`
  (defaults to ``"rss"``).

  .. versionchanged:: 4.0.0 added `memtype` parameter.

.. method:: memory_maps(grouped=True)

  Return process's mapped memory regions as a list of named tuples whose
  fields are variable depending on the platform.
  This method is useful to obtain a detailed representation of process
  memory usage as explained
  `here <http://bmaurer.blogspot.it/2006/03/memory-usage-with-smaps.html>`__
  (the most important value is "private" memory).
  If *grouped* is ``True`` the mapped regions with the same *path* are
  grouped together and the different memory fields are summed.  If *grouped*
  is ``False`` each mapped region is shown as a single entity and the
  named tuple will also include the mapped region's address space (*addr*)
  and permission set (*perms*).
  See `pmap.py`_ for an example application.

  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | Linux         | Windows | FreeBSD      | Solaris   |
  +===============+=========+==============+===========+
  | rss           | rss     | rss          | rss       |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | size          |         | private      | anonymous |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | pss           |         | ref_count    | locked    |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | shared_clean  |         | shadow_count |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | shared_dirty  |         |              |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | private_clean |         |              |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | private_dirty |         |              |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | referenced    |         |              |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | anonymous     |         |              |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
  | swap          |         |              |           |
  +---------------+---------+--------------+-----------+

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process()
    >>> p.memory_maps()
    [pmmap_grouped(path='/lib/x8664-linux-gnu/libutil-2.15.so', rss=32768, size=2125824, pss=32768, shared_clean=0, shared_dirty=0, private_clean=20480, private_dirty=12288, referenced=32768, anonymous=12288, swap=0),
     pmmap_grouped(path='/lib/x8664-linux-gnu/libc-2.15.so', rss=3821568, size=3842048, pss=3821568, shared_clean=0, shared_dirty=0, private_clean=0, private_dirty=3821568, referenced=3575808, anonymous=3821568, swap=0),
     ...]

  Availability: Linux, Windows, FreeBSD, SunOS

  .. versionchanged::
    5.6.0 removed macOS support because inherently broken (see
    issue `#1291 <https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/1291>`__)

.. method:: children(recursive=False)

  Return the children of this process as a list of :class:`Process`
  instances.
  If recursive is `True` return all the parent descendants.
  Pseudo code example assuming *A == this process*:
  ::

    A ─┐
       │
       ├─ B (child) ─┐
       │             └─ X (grandchild) ─┐
       │                                └─ Y (great grandchild)
       ├─ C (child)
       └─ D (child)

    >>> p.children()
    B, C, D
    >>> p.children(recursive=True)
    B, X, Y, C, D

  Note that in the example above if process X disappears process Y won't be
  returned either as the reference to process A is lost.
  This concept is well summaried by this
  `unit test <https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/blob/65a52341b55faaab41f68ebc4ed31f18f0929754/psutil/tests/test_process.py#L1064-L1075>`__.
  See also how to `kill a process tree <#kill-process-tree>`__ and
  `terminate my children <#terminate-my-children>`__.

.. method:: open_files()

  Return regular files opened by process as a list of named tuples including
  the following fields:

  - **path**: the absolute file name.
  - **fd**: the file descriptor number; on Windows this is always ``-1``.

  Linux only:

  - **position** (*Linux*): the file (offset) position.
  - **mode** (*Linux*): a string indicating how the file was opened, similarly
    to `open`_ builtin ``mode`` argument.
    Possible values are ``'r'``, ``'w'``, ``'a'``, ``'r+'`` and ``'a+'``.
    There's no distinction between files opened in binary or text mode
    (``"b"`` or ``"t"``).
  - **flags** (*Linux*): the flags which were passed to the underlying
    `os.open`_ C call when the file was opened (e.g. `os.O_RDONLY`_,
    `os.O_TRUNC`_, etc).

  >>> import psutil
  >>> f = open('file.ext', 'w')
  >>> p = psutil.Process()
  >>> p.open_files()
  [popenfile(path='/home/giampaolo/svn/psutil/file.ext', fd=3, position=0, mode='w', flags=32769)]

  .. warning::
    on Windows this method is not reliable due to some limitations of the
    underlying Windows API which may hang when retrieving certain file
    handles.
    In order to work around that psutil spawns a thread to determine the file
    handle name and kills it if it's not responding after 100ms.
    That implies that this method on Windows is not guaranteed to enumerate
    all regular file handles (see
    `issue 597 <https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/597>`_).
    Tools like ProcessHacker has the same limitation.

  .. warning::
    on BSD this method can return files with a null path ("") due to a
    kernel bug, hence it's not reliable
    (see `issue 595 <https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/595>`_).

  .. versionchanged::
    3.1.0 no longer hangs on Windows.

  .. versionchanged::
    4.1.0 new *position*, *mode* and *flags* fields on Linux.

.. method:: connections(kind="inet")

  Return socket connections opened by process as a list of named tuples.
  To get system-wide connections use :func:`psutil.net_connections()`.
  Every named tuple provides 6 attributes:

  - **fd**: the socket file descriptor. This can be passed to `socket.fromfd`_
    to obtain a usable socket object. On Windows, FreeBSD and SunOS this is
    always set to ``-1``.
  - **family**: the address family, either `AF_INET`_, `AF_INET6`_ or
    `AF_UNIX`_.
  - **type**: the address type, either `SOCK_STREAM`_, `SOCK_DGRAM`_ or
    `SOCK_SEQPACKET`_.  .
  - **laddr**: the local address as a ``(ip, port)`` named tuple or a ``path``
    in case of AF_UNIX sockets. For UNIX sockets see notes below.
  - **raddr**: the remote address as a ``(ip, port)`` named tuple or an
    absolute ``path`` in case of UNIX sockets.
    When the remote endpoint is not connected you'll get an empty tuple
    (AF_INET*) or ``""`` (AF_UNIX). For UNIX sockets see notes below.
  - **status**: represents the status of a TCP connection. The return value
    is one of the :data:`psutil.CONN_* <psutil.CONN_ESTABLISHED>` constants.
    For UDP and UNIX sockets this is always going to be
    :const:`psutil.CONN_NONE`.

  The *kind* parameter is a string which filters for connections that fit the
  following criteria:

  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | **Kind value** | **Connections using**                               |
  +================+=====================================================+
  | ``"inet"``     | IPv4 and IPv6                                       |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"inet4"``    | IPv4                                                |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"inet6"``    | IPv6                                                |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"tcp"``      | TCP                                                 |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"tcp4"``     | TCP over IPv4                                       |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"tcp6"``     | TCP over IPv6                                       |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"udp"``      | UDP                                                 |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"udp4"``     | UDP over IPv4                                       |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"udp6"``     | UDP over IPv6                                       |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"unix"``     | UNIX socket (both UDP and TCP protocols)            |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  | ``"all"``      | the sum of all the possible families and protocols  |
  +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------+

  Example:

    >>> import psutil
    >>> p = psutil.Process(1694)
    >>> p.name()
    'firefox'
    >>> p.connections()
    [pconn(fd=115, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=48776), raddr=addr(ip='93.186.135.91', port=80), status='ESTABLISHED'),
     pconn(fd=117, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=43761), raddr=addr(ip='72.14.234.100', port=80), status='CLOSING'),
     pconn(fd=119, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=60759), raddr=addr(ip='72.14.234.104', port=80), status='ESTABLISHED'),
     pconn(fd=123, family=<AddressFamily.AF_INET: 2>, type=<SocketType.SOCK_STREAM: 1>, laddr=addr(ip='10.0.0.1', port=51314), raddr=addr(ip='72.14.234.83', port=443), status='SYN_SENT')]

  .. note::
    (Solaris) UNIX sockets are not supported.

  .. note::
     (Linux, FreeBSD) "raddr" field for UNIX sockets is always set to "".
     This is a limitation of the OS.

  .. note::
     (OpenBSD) "laddr" and "raddr" fields for UNIX sockets are always set to
     "". This is a limitation of the OS.

  .. note::
    (AIX) :class:`psutil.AccessDenied` is always raised unless running
    as root (lsof does the same).

  .. versionchanged:: 5.3.0 : "laddr" and "raddr" are named tuples.

.. method:: is_running()

  Return whether the current process is running in the current process list.
  This is reliable also in case the process is gone and its PID reused by
  another process, therefore it must be preferred over doing
  ``psutil.pid_exists(p.pid)``.

  .. note::
    this will return ``True`` also if the process is a zombie
    (``p.status() == psutil.STATUS_ZOMBIE``).

.. method:: send_signal(signal)

  Send a signal to process (see `signal module`_ constants) preemptively
  checking whether PID has been reused.
  On UNIX this is the same as ``os.kill(pid, sig)``.
  On Windows only *SIGTERM*, *CTRL_C_EVENT* and *CTRL_BREAK_EVENT* signals
  are supported and *SIGTERM* is treated as an alias for :meth:`kill()`.
  See also how to `kill a process tree <#kill-process-tree>`__ and
  `terminate my children <#terminate-my-children>`__.

  .. versionchanged::
    3.2.0 support for CTRL_C_EVENT and CTRL_BREAK_EVENT signals on Windows
    was added.

.. method:: suspend()

  Suspend process execution with *SIGSTOP* signal preemptively checking
  whether PID has been reused.
  On UNIX this is the same as ``os.kill(pid, signal.SIGSTOP)``.
  On Windows this is done by suspending all process threads execution.

.. method:: resume()

  Resume process execution with *SIGCONT* signal preemptively checking
  whether PID has been reused.
  On UNIX this is the same as ``os.kill(pid, signal.SIGCONT)``.
  On Windows this is done by resuming all process threads execution.

.. method:: terminate()

  Terminate the process with *SIGTERM* signal preemptively checking
  whether PID has been reused.
  On UNIX this is the same as ``os.kill(pid, signal.SIGTERM)``.
  On Windows this is an alias for :meth:`kill`.
  See also how to `kill a process tree <#kill-process-tree>`__ and
  `terminate my children <#terminate-my-children>`__.

.. method:: kill()

  Kill the current process by using *SIGKILL* signal preemptively
  checking whether PID has been reused.
  On UNIX this is the same as ``os.kill(pid, signal.SIGKILL)``.
  On Windows this is done by using `TerminateProcess`_.
  See also how to `kill a process tree <#kill-process-tree>`__ and
  `terminate my children <#terminate-my-children>`__.

.. method:: wait(timeout=None)

  Wait for a process PID to terminate. The details about the return value
  differ on UNIX and Windows.

  *On UNIX*: if the process terminated normally, the return value is a
  positive integer >= 0 indicating the exit code.
  If the process was terminated by a signal return the negated value of the
  signal which caused the termination (e.g. ``-SIGTERM``).
  If PID is not a children of `os.getpid`_ (current process) just wait until
  the process disappears and return ``None``.
  If PID does not exist return ``None`` immediately.

  *On Windows*: always return the exit code, which is a positive integer as
  returned by `GetExitCodeProcess`_.

  *timeout* is expressed in seconds. If specified and the process is still
  alive raise :class:`TimeoutExpired` exception.
  ``timeout=0`` can be used in non-blocking apps: it will either return
  immediately or raise :class:`TimeoutExpired`.

  The return value is cached.
  To wait for multiple processes use :func:`psutil.wait_procs()`.

  >>> import psutil
  >>> p = psutil.Process(9891)
  >>> p.terminate()
  >>> p.wait()
  <Negsignal.SIGTERM: -15>

  .. versionchanged:: 5.7.1 return value is cached (instead of returning
    ``None``).

  .. versionchanged:: 5.7.1 on POSIX, in case of negative signal, return it
    as a human readable `enum`_.

Same as subprocess.Popen but in addition it provides all :class:`psutil.Process` methods in a single class. For the following methods which are common to both classes, psutil implementation takes precedence: :meth:`send_signal() <psutil.Process.send_signal()>`, :meth:`terminate() <psutil.Process.terminate()>`, :meth:`kill() <psutil.Process.kill()>`. This is done in order to avoid killing another process in case its PID has been reused, fixing BPO-6973.

>>> import psutil
>>> from subprocess import PIPE
>>>
>>> p = psutil.Popen(["/usr/bin/python", "-c", "print('hello')"], stdout=PIPE)
>>> p.name()
'python'
>>> p.username()
'giampaolo'
>>> p.communicate()
('hello\n', None)
>>> p.wait(timeout=2)
0
>>>
.. versionchanged:: 4.4.0 added context manager support

Windows services

.. function:: win_service_iter()

  Return an iterator yielding a :class:`WindowsService` class instance for all
  Windows services installed.

  .. versionadded:: 4.2.0

  Availability: Windows

.. function:: win_service_get(name)

  Get a Windows service by name, returning a :class:`WindowsService` instance.
  Raise :class:`psutil.NoSuchProcess` if no service with such name exists.

  .. versionadded:: 4.2.0

  Availability: Windows

Represents a Windows service with the given name. This class is returned by :func:`win_service_iter` and :func:`win_service_get` functions and it is not supposed to be instantiated directly.

.. method:: name()

  The service name. This string is how a service is referenced and can be
  passed to :func:`win_service_get` to get a new :class:`WindowsService`
  instance.

.. method:: display_name()

  The service display name. The value is cached when this class is
  instantiated.

.. method:: binpath()

  The fully qualified path to the service binary/exe file as a string,
  including command line arguments.

.. method:: username()

  The name of the user that owns this service.

.. method:: start_type()

  A string which can either be `"automatic"`, `"manual"` or `"disabled"`.

.. method:: pid()

  The process PID, if any, else `None`. This can be passed to
  :class:`Process` class to control the service's process.

.. method:: status()

  Service status as a string, which may be either `"running"`, `"paused"`,
  `"start_pending"`, `"pause_pending"`, `"continue_pending"`,
  `"stop_pending"` or `"stopped"`.

.. method:: description()

  Service long description.

.. method:: as_dict()

  Utility method retrieving all the information above as a dictionary.

.. versionadded:: 4.2.0

Availability: Windows

Example code:

>>> import psutil
>>> list(psutil.win_service_iter())
[<WindowsService(name='AeLookupSvc', display_name='Application Experience') at 38850096>,
 <WindowsService(name='ALG', display_name='Application Layer Gateway Service') at 38850128>,
 <WindowsService(name='APNMCP', display_name='Ask Update Service') at 38850160>,
 <WindowsService(name='AppIDSvc', display_name='Application Identity') at 38850192>,
 ...]
>>> s = psutil.win_service_get('alg')
>>> s.as_dict()
{'binpath': 'C:\\Windows\\System32\\alg.exe',
 'description': 'Provides support for 3rd party protocol plug-ins for Internet Connection Sharing',
 'display_name': 'Application Layer Gateway Service',
 'name': 'alg',
 'pid': None,
 'start_type': 'manual',
 'status': 'stopped',
 'username': 'NT AUTHORITY\\LocalService'}

Constants

Operating system constants

.. data:: POSIX
.. data:: LINUX
.. data:: WINDOWS
.. data:: MACOS
.. data:: FREEBSD
.. data:: NETBSD
.. data:: OPENBSD
.. data:: BSD
.. data:: SUNOS
.. data:: AIX

  ``bool`` constants which define what platform you're on. E.g. if on Windows,
  :const:`WINDOWS` constant will be ``True``, all others will be ``False``.

  .. versionadded:: 4.0.0
  .. versionchanged:: 5.4.0 added AIX

.. data:: OSX

  Alias for :const:`MACOS`.

  .. warning::
    deprecated in version 5.4.7; use :const:`MACOS` instead.

.. data:: PROCFS_PATH

  The path of the /proc filesystem on Linux, Solaris and AIX (defaults to
  ``"/proc"``).
  You may want to re-set this constant right after importing psutil in case
  your /proc filesystem is mounted elsewhere or if you want to retrieve
  information about Linux containers such as Docker, Heroku or LXC (see
  `here <https://fabiokung.com/2014/03/13/memory-inside-linux-containers/>`__
  for more info).
  It must be noted that this trick works only for APIs which rely on /proc
  filesystem (e.g. `memory`_ APIs and most :class:`Process` class methods).

  Availability: Linux, Solaris, AIX

  .. versionadded:: 3.2.3
  .. versionchanged:: 3.4.2 also available on Solaris.
  .. versionchanged:: 5.4.0 also available on AIX.

Process status constants

.. data:: STATUS_RUNNING
.. data:: STATUS_SLEEPING
.. data:: STATUS_DISK_SLEEP
.. data:: STATUS_STOPPED
.. data:: STATUS_TRACING_STOP
.. data:: STATUS_ZOMBIE
.. data:: STATUS_DEAD
.. data:: STATUS_WAKE_KILL
.. data:: STATUS_WAKING
.. data:: STATUS_PARKED (Linux)
.. data:: STATUS_IDLE (Linux, macOS, FreeBSD)
.. data:: STATUS_LOCKED (FreeBSD)
.. data:: STATUS_WAITING (FreeBSD)
.. data:: STATUS_SUSPENDED (NetBSD)

  Represent a process status. Returned by :meth:`psutil.Process.status()`.

  .. versionadded:: 3.4.1 ``STATUS_SUSPENDED`` (NetBSD)
  .. versionadded:: 5.4.7 ``STATUS_PARKED`` (Linux)

Process priority constants

.. data:: REALTIME_PRIORITY_CLASS
.. data:: HIGH_PRIORITY_CLASS
.. data:: ABOVE_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS
.. data:: NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS
.. data:: IDLE_PRIORITY_CLASS
.. data:: BELOW_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS

  Represent the priority of a process on Windows (see `SetPriorityClass`_).
  They can be used in conjunction with :meth:`psutil.Process.nice()` to get or
  set process priority.

  Availability: Windows

.. data:: IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE
.. data:: IOPRIO_CLASS_RT
.. data:: IOPRIO_CLASS_BE
.. data:: IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE

  A set of integers representing the I/O priority of a process on Linux. They
  can be used in conjunction with :meth:`psutil.Process.ionice()` to get or set
  process I/O priority.
  *IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE* and *IOPRIO_CLASS_BE* (best effort) is the default for
  any process that hasn't set a specific I/O priority.
  *IOPRIO_CLASS_RT* (real time) means the process is given first access to the
  disk, regardless of what else is going on in the system.
  *IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE* means the process will get I/O time when no-one else
  needs the disk.
  For further information refer to manuals of
  `ionice <http://linux.die.net/man/1/ionice>`__ command line utility or
  `ioprio_get`_ system call.

  Availability: Linux

.. data:: IOPRIO_VERYLOW
.. data:: IOPRIO_LOW
.. data:: IOPRIO_NORMAL
.. data:: IOPRIO_HIGH

  A set of integers representing the I/O priority of a process on Windows.
  They can be used in conjunction with :meth:`psutil.Process.ionice()` to get
  or set process I/O priority.

  Availability: Windows

  .. versionadded:: 5.6.2

Process resources constants

Linux / FreeBSD:

.. data:: RLIM_INFINITY
.. data:: RLIMIT_AS
.. data:: RLIMIT_CORE
.. data:: RLIMIT_CPU
.. data:: RLIMIT_DATA
.. data:: RLIMIT_FSIZE
.. data:: RLIMIT_MEMLOCK
.. data:: RLIMIT_NOFILE
.. data:: RLIMIT_NPROC
.. data:: RLIMIT_RSS
.. data:: RLIMIT_STACK

Linux specific:

.. data:: RLIMIT_LOCKS
.. data:: RLIMIT_MSGQUEUE
.. data:: RLIMIT_NICE
.. data:: RLIMIT_RTPRIO
.. data:: RLIMIT_RTTIME
.. data:: RLIMIT_SIGPENDING

FreeBSD specific:

.. data:: RLIMIT_SWAP
.. data:: RLIMIT_SBSIZE
.. data:: RLIMIT_NPTS

Constants used for getting and setting process resource limits to be used in conjunction with :meth:`psutil.Process.rlimit()`. See resource.getrlimit for further information.

Availability: Linux, FreeBSD

.. versionchanged:: 5.7.3 added FreeBSD support, added ``RLIMIT_SWAP``,
  ``RLIMIT_SBSIZE``, ``RLIMIT_NPTS``.

Connections constants

.. data:: CONN_ESTABLISHED
.. data:: CONN_SYN_SENT
.. data:: CONN_SYN_RECV
.. data:: CONN_FIN_WAIT1
.. data:: CONN_FIN_WAIT2
.. data:: CONN_TIME_WAIT
.. data:: CONN_CLOSE
.. data:: CONN_CLOSE_WAIT
.. data:: CONN_LAST_ACK
.. data:: CONN_LISTEN
.. data:: CONN_CLOSING
.. data:: CONN_NONE
.. data:: CONN_DELETE_TCB (Windows)
.. data:: CONN_IDLE (Solaris)
.. data:: CONN_BOUND (Solaris)

  A set of strings representing the status of a TCP connection.
  Returned by :meth:`psutil.Process.connections()` and
  :func:`psutil.net_connections` (`status` field).

Hardware constants

.. data:: AF_LINK

  Constant which identifies a MAC address associated with a network interface.
  To be used in conjunction with :func:`psutil.net_if_addrs()`.

  .. versionadded:: 3.0.0

.. data:: NIC_DUPLEX_FULL
.. data:: NIC_DUPLEX_HALF
.. data:: NIC_DUPLEX_UNKNOWN

  Constants which identifies whether a NIC (network interface card) has full or
  half mode speed.  NIC_DUPLEX_FULL means the NIC is able to send and receive
  data (files) simultaneously, NIC_DUPLEX_FULL means the NIC can either send or
  receive data at a time.
  To be used in conjunction with :func:`psutil.net_if_stats()`.

  .. versionadded:: 3.0.0

.. data:: POWER_TIME_UNKNOWN
.. data:: POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED

  Whether the remaining time of the battery cannot be determined or is
  unlimited.
  May be assigned to :func:`psutil.sensors_battery()`'s *secsleft* field.

  .. versionadded:: 5.1.0

.. data:: version_info

  A tuple to check psutil installed version. Example:

      >>> import psutil
      >>> if psutil.version_info >= (4, 5):
      ...    pass

Recipes

Find process by name

Check string against :meth:`Process.name()`:

import psutil

def find_procs_by_name(name):
    "Return a list of processes matching 'name'."
    ls = []
    for p in psutil.process_iter(['name']):
        if p.info['name'] == name:
            ls.append(p)
    return ls

A bit more advanced, check string against :meth:`Process.name()`, :meth:`Process.exe()` and :meth:`Process.cmdline()`:

import os
import psutil

def find_procs_by_name(name):
    "Return a list of processes matching 'name'."
    ls = []
    for p in psutil.process_iter(["name", "exe", "cmdline"]):
        if name == p.info['name'] or \
                p.info['exe'] and os.path.basename(p.info['exe']) == name or \
                p.info['cmdline'] and p.info['cmdline'][0] == name:
            ls.append(p)
    return ls

Kill process tree

import os
import signal
import psutil

def kill_proc_tree(pid, sig=signal.SIGTERM, include_parent=True,
                   timeout=None, on_terminate=None):
    """Kill a process tree (including grandchildren) with signal
    "sig" and return a (gone, still_alive) tuple.
    "on_terminate", if specified, is a callback function which is
    called as soon as a child terminates.
    """
    assert pid != os.getpid(), "won't kill myself"
    parent = psutil.Process(pid)
    children = parent.children(recursive=True)
    if include_parent:
        children.append(parent)
    for p in children:
        try:
            p.send_signal(sig)
        except psutil.NoSuchProcess:
            pass
    gone, alive = psutil.wait_procs(children, timeout=timeout,
                                    callback=on_terminate)
    return (gone, alive)

Filtering and sorting processes

A collection of code samples showing how to use :func:`process_iter()` to filter processes and sort them. Setup:

>>> import psutil
>>> from pprint import pprint as pp

Processes owned by user:

>>> import getpass
>>> pp([(p.pid, p.info['name']) for p in psutil.process_iter(['name', 'username']) if p.info['username'] == getpass.getuser()])
(16832, 'bash'),
(19772, 'ssh'),
(20492, 'python')]

Processes actively running:

>>> pp([(p.pid, p.info) for p in psutil.process_iter(['name', 'status']) if p.info['status'] == psutil.STATUS_RUNNING])
[(1150, {'name': 'Xorg', 'status': 'running'}),
 (1776, {'name': 'unity-panel-service', 'status': 'running'}),
 (20492, {'name': 'python', 'status': 'running'})]

Processes using log files:

>>> for p in psutil.process_iter(['name', 'open_files']):
...      for file in p.info['open_files'] or []:
...          if file.path.endswith('.log'):
...               print("%-5s %-10s %s" % (p.pid, p.info['name'][:10], file.path))
...
1510  upstart    /home/giampaolo/.cache/upstart/unity-settings-daemon.log
2174  nautilus   /home/giampaolo/.local/share/gvfs-metadata/home-ce08efac.log
2650  chrome     /home/giampaolo/.config/google-chrome/Default/data_reduction_proxy_leveldb/000003.log

Processes consuming more than 500M of memory:

>>> pp([(p.pid, p.info['name'], p.info['memory_info'].rss) for p in psutil.process_iter(['name', 'memory_info']) if p.info['memory_info'].rss > 500 * 1024 * 1024])
[(2650, 'chrome', 532324352),
 (3038, 'chrome', 1120088064),
 (21915, 'sublime_text', 615407616)]

Top 3 processes which consumed the most CPU time:

>>> pp([(p.pid, p.info['name'], sum(p.info['cpu_times'])) for p in sorted(psutil.process_iter(['name', 'cpu_times']), key=lambda p: sum(p.info['cpu_times'][:2]))][-3:])
[(2721, 'chrome', 10219.73),
 (1150, 'Xorg', 11116.989999999998),
 (2650, 'chrome', 18451.97)]

Bytes conversion

import psutil

def bytes2human(n):
    # http://code.activestate.com/recipes/578019
    # >>> bytes2human(10000)
    # '9.8K'
    # >>> bytes2human(100001221)
    # '95.4M'
    symbols = ('K', 'M', 'G', 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', 'Y')
    prefix = {}
    for i, s in enumerate(symbols):
        prefix[s] = 1 << (i + 1) * 10
    for s in reversed(symbols):
        if n >= prefix[s]:
            value = float(n) / prefix[s]
            return '%.1f%s' % (value, s)
    return "%sB" % n

total = psutil.disk_usage('/').total
print(total)
print(bytes2human(total))

...prints:

100399730688
93.5G

FAQs

  • Q: Why do I get :class:`AccessDenied` for certain processes?
  • A: This may happen when you query processes owned by another user, especially on macOS (see issue #883) and Windows. Unfortunately there's not much you can do about this except running the Python process with higher privileges. On Unix you may run the Python process as root or use the SUID bit (ps and netstat does this). On Windows you may run the Python process as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM or install the Python script as a Windows service (ProcessHacker does this).
  • Q: is MinGW supported on Windows?
  • A: no, you should Visual Studio (see development guide).

Running tests

$ python3 -m psutil.tests

Debug mode

If you want to debug unusual situations or want to report a bug, it may be useful to enable debug mode via PSUTIL_DEBUG environment variable. In this mode, psutil may (or may not) print additional information to stderr. Usually these are error conditions which are not severe, and hence are ignored (instead of crashing). Unit tests automatically run with debug mode enabled. On UNIX:

$ PSUTIL_DEBUG=1 python3 script.py
psutil-debug [psutil/_psutil_linux.c:150]> setmntent() failed (ignored)

On Windows:

set PSUTIL_DEBUG=1 python.exe script.py
psutil-debug [psutil/arch/windows/process_info.c:90]> NtWow64ReadVirtualMemory64(pbi64.PebBaseAddress) -> 998 (Unknown error) (ignored)

Security

To report a security vulnerability, please use the Tidelift security contact. Tidelift will coordinate the fix and disclosure.

Development guide

If you want to develop psutil take a look at the development guide.

Platforms support history

  • psutil 5.9.1 (2022-05): drop Python 2.6 support
  • psutil 5.9.0 (2021-12): MidnightBSD
  • psutil 5.8.0 (2020-12): PyPy 2 on Windows
  • psutil 5.7.1 (2020-07): Windows Nano
  • psutil 5.7.0 (2020-02): drop Windows XP & Server 2003 support
  • psutil 5.7.0 (2020-02): PyPy 3 on Windows
  • psutil 5.4.0 (2017-11): AIX
  • psutil 3.4.1 (2016-01): NetBSD
  • psutil 3.3.0 (2015-11): OpenBSD
  • psutil 1.0.0 (2013-07): Solaris
  • psutil 0.1.1 (2009-03): FreeBSD
  • psutil 0.1.0 (2009-01): Linux, Windows, macOS

Supported Python versions are 2.7, 3.4+ and PyPy3.

Timeline