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remote.c: add command line option parser for "--force-with-lease"
Update "git push" and "git send-pack" to parse this commnd line option. The intended sematics is: * "--force-with-lease" alone, without specifying the details, will protect _all_ remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their current value to be the same as some reasonable default, unless otherwise specified; * "--force-with-lease=refname", without specifying the expected value, will protect that refname, if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as some reasonable default. * "--force-with-lease=refname:value" will protect that refname, if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the specified value; and * "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the command line. For now, "some reasonable default" is tentatively defined as "the value of the remote-tracking branch we have for the ref of the remote being updated", and it is an error if we do not have such a remote-tracking branch. But this is known to be fragile, its use is not yet recommended, and hopefully we will find more reasonable default as we gain experience with this feature. The manual marks the feature as experimental unless the expected value is specified explicitly for this reason. Because the command line options are parsed _before_ we know which remote we are pushing to, there needs further processing to the parsed data after we instantiate the transport object to: * expand "refname" given by the user to a full refname to be matched with the list of "struct ref" used in match_push_refs() and set_ref_status_for_push(); and * learning the actual local ref that is the remote-tracking branch for the specified remote ref. Further, some processing need to be deferred until we find the set of remote refs and match_push_refs() returns in order to find the ones that need to be checked after explicit ones have been processed for "--force-with-lease" (no specific details). These post-processing will be the topic of the next patch. This option was originally called "cas" (for "compare and swap"), the name which nobody liked because it was too technical. The second attempt called it "lockref" (because it is conceptually like pushing after taking a lock) but the word "lock" was hated because it implied that it may reject push by others, which is not the way this option works. This round calls it "force-with-lease". You assume you took the lease on the ref when you fetched to decide what the rebased history should be, and you can push back only if the lease has not been broken. Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <firstname.lastname@example.org>
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