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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# test_git.py
# Copyright (C) 2008, 2009 Michael Trier (mtrier@gmail.com) and contributors
#
# This module is part of GitPython and is released under
# the BSD License: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php
import os
from git.test.lib import TestBase
from git.test.lib.helper import with_rw_directory
import os.path
class Tutorials(TestBase):
def tearDown(self):
import gc
gc.collect()
# @skipIf(HIDE_WINDOWS_KNOWN_ERRORS, ## ACTUALLY skipped by `git.submodule.base#L869`.
# "FIXME: helper.wrapper fails with: PermissionError: [WinError 5] Access is denied: "
# "'C:\\Users\\appveyor\\AppData\\Local\\Temp\\1\\test_work_tree_unsupportedryfa60di\\master_repo\\.git\\objects\\pack\\pack-bc9e0787aef9f69e1591ef38ea0a6f566ec66fe3.idx") # noqa E501
@with_rw_directory
def test_init_repo_object(self, rw_dir):
# [1-test_init_repo_object]
from git import Repo
# rorepo is a Repo instance pointing to the git-python repository.
# For all you know, the first argument to Repo is a path to the repository
# you want to work with
repo = Repo(self.rorepo.working_tree_dir)
assert not repo.bare
# ![1-test_init_repo_object]
# [2-test_init_repo_object]
bare_repo = Repo.init(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'bare-repo'), bare=True)
assert bare_repo.bare
# ![2-test_init_repo_object]
# [3-test_init_repo_object]
repo.config_reader() # get a config reader for read-only access
with repo.config_writer(): # get a config writer to change configuration
pass # call release() to be sure changes are written and locks are released
# ![3-test_init_repo_object]
# [4-test_init_repo_object]
assert not bare_repo.is_dirty() # check the dirty state
repo.untracked_files # retrieve a list of untracked files
# ['my_untracked_file']
# ![4-test_init_repo_object]
# [5-test_init_repo_object]
cloned_repo = repo.clone(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'to/this/path'))
assert cloned_repo.__class__ is Repo # clone an existing repository
assert Repo.init(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'path/for/new/repo')).__class__ is Repo
# ![5-test_init_repo_object]
# [6-test_init_repo_object]
with open(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'repo.tar'), 'wb') as fp:
repo.archive(fp)
# ![6-test_init_repo_object]
# repository paths
# [7-test_init_repo_object]
assert os.path.isdir(cloned_repo.working_tree_dir) # directory with your work files
assert cloned_repo.git_dir.startswith(cloned_repo.working_tree_dir) # directory containing the git repository
assert bare_repo.working_tree_dir is None # bare repositories have no working tree
# ![7-test_init_repo_object]
# heads, tags and references
# heads are branches in git-speak
# [8-test_init_repo_object]
self.assertEqual(repo.head.ref, repo.heads.master, # head is a sym-ref pointing to master
"It's ok if TC not running from `master`.")
self.assertEqual(repo.tags['0.3.5'], repo.tag('refs/tags/0.3.5')) # you can access tags in various ways too
self.assertEqual(repo.refs.master, repo.heads['master']) # .refs provides all refs, ie heads ...
if 'TRAVIS' not in os.environ:
self.assertEqual(repo.refs['origin/master'], repo.remotes.origin.refs.master) # ... remotes ...
self.assertEqual(repo.refs['0.3.5'], repo.tags['0.3.5']) # ... and tags
# ![8-test_init_repo_object]
# create a new head/branch
# [9-test_init_repo_object]
new_branch = cloned_repo.create_head('feature') # create a new branch ...
assert cloned_repo.active_branch != new_branch # which wasn't checked out yet ...
self.assertEqual(new_branch.commit, cloned_repo.active_branch.commit) # pointing to the checked-out commit
# It's easy to let a branch point to the previous commit, without affecting anything else
# Each reference provides access to the git object it points to, usually commits
assert new_branch.set_commit('HEAD~1').commit == cloned_repo.active_branch.commit.parents[0]
# ![9-test_init_repo_object]
# create a new tag reference
# [10-test_init_repo_object]
past = cloned_repo.create_tag('past', ref=new_branch,
message="This is a tag-object pointing to %s" % new_branch.name)
self.assertEqual(past.commit, new_branch.commit) # the tag points to the specified commit
assert past.tag.message.startswith("This is") # and its object carries the message provided
now = cloned_repo.create_tag('now') # This is a tag-reference. It may not carry meta-data
assert now.tag is None
# ![10-test_init_repo_object]
# Object handling
# [11-test_init_repo_object]
assert now.commit.message != past.commit.message
# You can read objects directly through binary streams, no working tree required
assert (now.commit.tree / 'VERSION').data_stream.read().decode('ascii').startswith('3')
# You can traverse trees as well to handle all contained files of a particular commit
file_count = 0
tree_count = 0
tree = past.commit.tree
for item in tree.traverse():
file_count += item.type == 'blob'
tree_count += item.type == 'tree'
assert file_count and tree_count # we have accumulated all directories and files
self.assertEqual(len(tree.blobs) + len(tree.trees), len(tree)) # a tree is iterable on its children
# ![11-test_init_repo_object]
# remotes allow handling push, pull and fetch operations
# [12-test_init_repo_object]
from git import RemoteProgress
class MyProgressPrinter(RemoteProgress):
def update(self, op_code, cur_count, max_count=None, message=''):
print(op_code, cur_count, max_count, cur_count / (max_count or 100.0), message or "NO MESSAGE")
# end
self.assertEqual(len(cloned_repo.remotes), 1) # we have been cloned, so should be one remote
self.assertEqual(len(bare_repo.remotes), 0) # this one was just initialized
origin = bare_repo.create_remote('origin', url=cloned_repo.working_tree_dir)
assert origin.exists()
for fetch_info in origin.fetch(progress=MyProgressPrinter()):
print("Updated %s to %s" % (fetch_info.ref, fetch_info.commit))
# create a local branch at the latest fetched master. We specify the name statically, but you have all
# information to do it programatically as well.
bare_master = bare_repo.create_head('master', origin.refs.master)
bare_repo.head.set_reference(bare_master)
assert not bare_repo.delete_remote(origin).exists()
# push and pull behave very similarly
# ![12-test_init_repo_object]
# index
# [13-test_init_repo_object]
self.assertEqual(new_branch.checkout(), cloned_repo.active_branch) # checking out branch adjusts the wtree
self.assertEqual(new_branch.commit, past.commit) # Now the past is checked out
new_file_path = os.path.join(cloned_repo.working_tree_dir, 'my-new-file')
open(new_file_path, 'wb').close() # create new file in working tree
cloned_repo.index.add([new_file_path]) # add it to the index
# Commit the changes to deviate masters history
cloned_repo.index.commit("Added a new file in the past - for later merege")
# prepare a merge
master = cloned_repo.heads.master # right-hand side is ahead of us, in the future
merge_base = cloned_repo.merge_base(new_branch, master) # allwos for a three-way merge
cloned_repo.index.merge_tree(master, base=merge_base) # write the merge result into index
cloned_repo.index.commit("Merged past and now into future ;)",
parent_commits=(new_branch.commit, master.commit))
# now new_branch is ahead of master, which probably should be checked out and reset softly.
# note that all these operations didn't touch the working tree, as we managed it ourselves.
# This definitely requires you to know what you are doing :) !
assert os.path.basename(new_file_path) in new_branch.commit.tree # new file is now in tree
master.commit = new_branch.commit # let master point to most recent commit
cloned_repo.head.reference = master # we adjusted just the reference, not the working tree or index
# ![13-test_init_repo_object]
# submodules
# [14-test_init_repo_object]
# create a new submodule and check it out on the spot, setup to track master branch of `bare_repo`
# As our GitPython repository has submodules already that point to GitHub, make sure we don't
# interact with them
for sm in cloned_repo.submodules:
assert not sm.remove().exists() # after removal, the sm doesn't exist anymore
sm = cloned_repo.create_submodule('mysubrepo', 'path/to/subrepo', url=bare_repo.git_dir, branch='master')
# .gitmodules was written and added to the index, which is now being committed
cloned_repo.index.commit("Added submodule")
assert sm.exists() and sm.module_exists() # this submodule is defintely available
sm.remove(module=True, configuration=False) # remove the working tree
assert sm.exists() and not sm.module_exists() # the submodule itself is still available
# update all submodules, non-recursively to save time, this method is very powerful, go have a look
cloned_repo.submodule_update(recursive=False)
assert sm.module_exists() # The submodules working tree was checked out by update
# ![14-test_init_repo_object]
@with_rw_directory
def test_references_and_objects(self, rw_dir):
# [1-test_references_and_objects]
import git
repo = git.Repo.clone_from(self._small_repo_url(), os.path.join(rw_dir, 'repo'), branch='master')
heads = repo.heads
master = heads.master # lists can be accessed by name for convenience
master.commit # the commit pointed to by head called master
master.rename('new_name') # rename heads
master.rename('master')
# ![1-test_references_and_objects]
# [2-test_references_and_objects]
tags = repo.tags
tagref = tags[0]
tagref.tag # tags may have tag objects carrying additional information
tagref.commit # but they always point to commits
repo.delete_tag(tagref) # delete or
repo.create_tag("my_tag") # create tags using the repo for convenience
# ![2-test_references_and_objects]
# [3-test_references_and_objects]
head = repo.head # the head points to the active branch/ref
master = head.reference # retrieve the reference the head points to
master.commit # from here you use it as any other reference
# ![3-test_references_and_objects]
#
# [4-test_references_and_objects]
log = master.log()
log[0] # first (i.e. oldest) reflog entry
log[-1] # last (i.e. most recent) reflog entry
# ![4-test_references_and_objects]
# [5-test_references_and_objects]
new_branch = repo.create_head('new') # create a new one
new_branch.commit = 'HEAD~10' # set branch to another commit without changing index or working trees
repo.delete_head(new_branch) # delete an existing head - only works if it is not checked out
# ![5-test_references_and_objects]
# [6-test_references_and_objects]
new_tag = repo.create_tag('my_new_tag', message='my message')
# You cannot change the commit a tag points to. Tags need to be re-created
self.failUnlessRaises(AttributeError, setattr, new_tag, 'commit', repo.commit('HEAD~1'))
repo.delete_tag(new_tag)
# ![6-test_references_and_objects]
# [7-test_references_and_objects]
new_branch = repo.create_head('another-branch')
repo.head.reference = new_branch
# ![7-test_references_and_objects]
# [8-test_references_and_objects]
hc = repo.head.commit
hct = hc.tree
hc != hct # @NoEffect
hc != repo.tags[0] # @NoEffect
hc == repo.head.reference.commit # @NoEffect
# ![8-test_references_and_objects]
# [9-test_references_and_objects]
self.assertEqual(hct.type, 'tree') # preset string type, being a class attribute
assert hct.size > 0 # size in bytes
assert len(hct.hexsha) == 40
assert len(hct.binsha) == 20
# ![9-test_references_and_objects]
# [10-test_references_and_objects]
self.assertEqual(hct.path, '') # root tree has no path
assert hct.trees[0].path != '' # the first contained item has one though
self.assertEqual(hct.mode, 0o40000) # trees have the mode of a linux directory
self.assertEqual(hct.blobs[0].mode, 0o100644) # blobs have specific mode, comparable to a standard linux fs
# ![10-test_references_and_objects]
# [11-test_references_and_objects]
hct.blobs[0].data_stream.read() # stream object to read data from
hct.blobs[0].stream_data(open(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'blob_data'), 'wb')) # write data to given stream
# ![11-test_references_and_objects]
# [12-test_references_and_objects]
repo.commit('master')
repo.commit('v0.8.1')
repo.commit('HEAD~10')
# ![12-test_references_and_objects]
# [13-test_references_and_objects]
fifty_first_commits = list(repo.iter_commits('master', max_count=50))
assert len(fifty_first_commits) == 50
# this will return commits 21-30 from the commit list as traversed backwards master
ten_commits_past_twenty = list(repo.iter_commits('master', max_count=10, skip=20))
assert len(ten_commits_past_twenty) == 10
assert fifty_first_commits[20:30] == ten_commits_past_twenty
# ![13-test_references_and_objects]
# [14-test_references_and_objects]
headcommit = repo.head.commit
assert len(headcommit.hexsha) == 40
assert len(headcommit.parents) > 0
assert headcommit.tree.type == 'tree'
assert len(headcommit.author.name) != 0
assert isinstance(headcommit.authored_date, int)
assert len(headcommit.committer.name) != 0
assert isinstance(headcommit.committed_date, int)
assert headcommit.message != ''
# ![14-test_references_and_objects]
# [15-test_references_and_objects]
import time
time.asctime(time.gmtime(headcommit.committed_date))
time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M", time.gmtime(headcommit.committed_date))
# ![15-test_references_and_objects]
# [16-test_references_and_objects]
assert headcommit.parents[0].parents[0].parents[0] == repo.commit('master^^^')
# ![16-test_references_and_objects]
# [17-test_references_and_objects]
tree = repo.heads.master.commit.tree
assert len(tree.hexsha) == 40
# ![17-test_references_and_objects]
# [18-test_references_and_objects]
assert len(tree.trees) > 0 # trees are subdirectories
assert len(tree.blobs) > 0 # blobs are files
assert len(tree.blobs) + len(tree.trees) == len(tree)
# ![18-test_references_and_objects]
# [19-test_references_and_objects]
self.assertEqual(tree['smmap'], tree / 'smmap') # access by index and by sub-path
for entry in tree: # intuitive iteration of tree members
print(entry)
blob = tree.trees[0].blobs[0] # let's get a blob in a sub-tree
assert blob.name
assert len(blob.path) < len(blob.abspath)
self.assertEqual(tree.trees[0].name + '/' + blob.name, blob.path) # this is how relative blob path generated
self.assertEqual(tree[blob.path], blob) # you can use paths like 'dir/file' in tree
# ![19-test_references_and_objects]
# [20-test_references_and_objects]
assert tree / 'smmap' == tree['smmap']
assert tree / blob.path == tree[blob.path]
# ![20-test_references_and_objects]
# [21-test_references_and_objects]
# This example shows the various types of allowed ref-specs
assert repo.tree() == repo.head.commit.tree
past = repo.commit('HEAD~5')
assert repo.tree(past) == repo.tree(past.hexsha)
self.assertEqual(repo.tree('v0.8.1').type, 'tree') # yes, you can provide any refspec - works everywhere
# ![21-test_references_and_objects]
# [22-test_references_and_objects]
assert len(tree) < len(list(tree.traverse()))
# ![22-test_references_and_objects]
# [23-test_references_and_objects]
index = repo.index
# The index contains all blobs in a flat list
assert len(list(index.iter_blobs())) == len([o for o in repo.head.commit.tree.traverse() if o.type == 'blob'])
# Access blob objects
for (path, _stage), entry in index.entries.items():
pass
new_file_path = os.path.join(repo.working_tree_dir, 'new-file-name')
open(new_file_path, 'w').close()
index.add([new_file_path]) # add a new file to the index
index.remove(['LICENSE']) # remove an existing one
assert os.path.isfile(os.path.join(repo.working_tree_dir, 'LICENSE')) # working tree is untouched
self.assertEqual(index.commit("my commit message").type, 'commit') # commit changed index
repo.active_branch.commit = repo.commit('HEAD~1') # forget last commit
from git import Actor
author = Actor("An author", "author@example.com")
committer = Actor("A committer", "committer@example.com")
# commit by commit message and author and committer
index.commit("my commit message", author=author, committer=committer)
# ![23-test_references_and_objects]
# [24-test_references_and_objects]
from git import IndexFile
# loads a tree into a temporary index, which exists just in memory
IndexFile.from_tree(repo, 'HEAD~1')
# merge two trees three-way into memory
merge_index = IndexFile.from_tree(repo, 'HEAD~10', 'HEAD', repo.merge_base('HEAD~10', 'HEAD'))
# and persist it
merge_index.write(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'merged_index'))
# ![24-test_references_and_objects]
# [25-test_references_and_objects]
empty_repo = git.Repo.init(os.path.join(rw_dir, 'empty'))
origin = empty_repo.create_remote('origin', repo.remotes.origin.url)
assert origin.exists()
assert origin == empty_repo.remotes.origin == empty_repo.remotes['origin']
origin.fetch() # assure we actually have data. fetch() returns useful information
# Setup a local tracking branch of a remote branch
empty_repo.create_head('master', origin.refs.master) # create local branch "master" from remote "master"
empty_repo.heads.master.set_tracking_branch(origin.refs.master) # set local "master" to track remote "master
empty_repo.heads.master.checkout() # checkout local "master" to working tree
# Three above commands in one:
empty_repo.create_head('master', origin.refs.master).set_tracking_branch(origin.refs.master).checkout()
# rename remotes
origin.rename('new_origin')
# push and pull behaves similarly to `git push|pull`
origin.pull()
origin.push()
# assert not empty_repo.delete_remote(origin).exists() # create and delete remotes
# ![25-test_references_and_objects]
# [26-test_references_and_objects]
assert origin.url == repo.remotes.origin.url
with origin.config_writer as cw:
cw.set("pushurl", "other_url")
# Please note that in python 2, writing origin.config_writer.set(...) is totally safe.
# In py3 __del__ calls can be delayed, thus not writing changes in time.
# ![26-test_references_and_objects]
# [27-test_references_and_objects]
hcommit = repo.head.commit
hcommit.diff() # diff tree against index
hcommit.diff('HEAD~1') # diff tree against previous tree
hcommit.diff(None) # diff tree against working tree
index = repo.index
index.diff() # diff index against itself yielding empty diff
index.diff(None) # diff index against working copy
index.diff('HEAD') # diff index against current HEAD tree
# ![27-test_references_and_objects]
# [28-test_references_and_objects]
# Traverse added Diff objects only
for diff_added in hcommit.diff('HEAD~1').iter_change_type('A'):
print(diff_added)
# ![28-test_references_and_objects]
# [29-test_references_and_objects]
# Reset our working tree 10 commits into the past
past_branch = repo.create_head('past_branch', 'HEAD~10')
repo.head.reference = past_branch
assert not repo.head.is_detached
# reset the index and working tree to match the pointed-to commit
repo.head.reset(index=True, working_tree=True)
# To detach your head, you have to point to a commit directly
repo.head.reference = repo.commit('HEAD~5')
assert repo.head.is_detached
# now our head points 15 commits into the past, whereas the working tree
# and index are 10 commits in the past
# ![29-test_references_and_objects]
# [30-test_references_and_objects]
# checkout the branch using git-checkout. It will fail as the working tree appears dirty
self.failUnlessRaises(git.GitCommandError, repo.heads.master.checkout)
repo.heads.past_branch.checkout()
# ![30-test_references_and_objects]
# [31-test_references_and_objects]
git = repo.git
git.checkout('HEAD', b="my_new_branch") # create a new branch
git.branch('another-new-one')
git.branch('-D', 'another-new-one') # pass strings for full control over argument order
git.for_each_ref() # '-' becomes '_' when calling it
# ![31-test_references_and_objects]
repo.git.clear_cache()
def test_submodules(self):
# [1-test_submodules]
repo = self.rorepo
sms = repo.submodules
assert len(sms) == 1
sm = sms[0]
self.assertEqual(sm.name, 'gitdb') # git-python has gitdb as single submodule ...
self.assertEqual(sm.children()[0].name, 'smmap') # ... which has smmap as single submodule
# The module is the repository referenced by the submodule
assert sm.module_exists() # the module is available, which doesn't have to be the case.
assert sm.module().working_tree_dir.endswith('gitdb')
# the submodule's absolute path is the module's path
assert sm.abspath == sm.module().working_tree_dir
self.assertEqual(len(sm.hexsha), 40) # Its sha defines the commit to checkout
assert sm.exists() # yes, this submodule is valid and exists
# read its configuration conveniently
assert sm.config_reader().get_value('path') == sm.path
self.assertEqual(len(sm.children()), 1) # query the submodule hierarchy
# ![1-test_submodules]
@with_rw_directory
def test_add_file_and_commit(self, rw_dir):
import git
repo_dir = os.path.join(rw_dir, 'my-new-repo')
file_name = os.path.join(repo_dir, 'new-file')
r = git.Repo.init(repo_dir)
# This function just creates an empty file ...
open(file_name, 'wb').close()
r.index.add([file_name])
r.index.commit("initial commit")
# ![test_add_file_and_commit]
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