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<body class="manpage">
<div id="header">
<h1>
git-commit-tree(1) Manual Page
</h1>
<h2>NAME</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<p>git-commit-tree -
Create a new commit object
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_synopsis">SYNOPSIS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="verseblock">
<pre class="content"><em>git commit-tree</em> &lt;tree&gt; [(-p &lt;parent&gt;)&#8230;]
<em>git commit-tree</em> [(-p &lt;parent&gt;)&#8230;] [-S[&lt;keyid&gt;]] [(-m &lt;message&gt;)&#8230;]
[(-F &lt;file&gt;)&#8230;] &lt;tree&gt;</pre>
<div class="attribution">
</div></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_description">DESCRIPTION</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
<a href="git-commit.html">git-commit(1)</a> instead.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
emits the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read
from the standard input, unless <code>-m</code> or <code>-F</code> options are given.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes
the commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root)
commits have no parents.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
to get there.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
doesn&#8217;t care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
<code>.git/HEAD</code>, so that we can always see what the last committed
state was.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_options">OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;tree&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
An existing tree object
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-p &lt;parent&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Each <em>-p</em> indicates the id of a parent commit object.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-m &lt;message&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
once and each &lt;message&gt; becomes its own paragraph.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-F &lt;file&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Read the commit log message from the given file. Use <code>-</code> to read
from the standard input.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-S[&lt;keyid&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--gpg-sign[=&lt;keyid&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
GPG-sign commits. The <code>keyid</code> argument is optional and
defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
stuck to the option without a space.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-gpg-sign
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Countermand <code>commit.gpgSign</code> configuration variable that is
set to force each and every commit to be signed.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_commit_information">Commit Information</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>A commit encapsulates:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
all parent object ids
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
author name, email and date
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
committer name and email and the commit time.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and
committer information is taken from the following environment variables,
if set:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
GIT_COMMITTER_DATE</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>(nb "&lt;", "&gt;" and "\n"s are stripped)</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information
is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set,
system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
from <code>/etc/mailname</code> and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when
that file does not exist).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog
entry is not provided via "&lt;" redirection, <em>git commit-tree</em> will just wait
for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_date_formats">DATE FORMATS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables
support the following date formats:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
Git internal format
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
It is <code>&lt;unix timestamp&gt; &lt;time zone offset&gt;</code>, where <code>&lt;unix
timestamp&gt;</code> is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.
<code>&lt;time zone offset&gt;</code> is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
For example CET (which is 2 hours ahead UTC) is <code>+0200</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
RFC 2822
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
<code>Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ISO 8601
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
<code>2005-04-07T22:13:13</code>. The parser accepts a space instead of the
<code>T</code> character as well.
</p>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats:
<code>YYYY.MM.DD</code>, <code>MM/DD/YYYY</code> and <code>DD.MM.YYYY</code>.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_discussion">Discussion</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences
of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core
level.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This
applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as
path names in command line arguments, environment variables
and config files (<code>.git/config</code> (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>),
<a href="gitignore.html">gitignore(5)</a>, <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a> and
<a href="gitmodules.html">gitmodules(5)</a>).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using
non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file
systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However,
repositories created on such systems will not work properly on
UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to
be UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but <em>not</em> UTF-16/32,
EBCDIC and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5,
EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded
in UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to
force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular
project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git
does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in
mind.</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
<em>git commit</em> and <em>git commit-tree</em> issues
a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look
like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to
have i18n.commitencoding in <code>.git/config</code> file, like this:
</p>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>[i18n]
commitencoding = ISO-8859-1</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Commit objects created with the above setting record the value
of <code>i18n.commitencoding</code> in its <code>encoding</code> header. This is to
help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header
implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>git log</em>, <em>git show</em>, <em>git blame</em> and friends look at the
<code>encoding</code> header of a commit object, and try to re-code the
log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
specify the desired output encoding with
<code>i18n.logoutputencoding</code> in <code>.git/config</code> file, like this:
</p>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>[i18n]
logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
<code>i18n.commitencoding</code> is used instead.</p></div>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log
message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit
object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a
reversible operation.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_files">FILES</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>/etc/mailname</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_see_also">SEE ALSO</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p><a href="git-write-tree.html">git-write-tree(1)</a></p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_git">GIT</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Part of the <a href="git.html">git(1)</a> suite</p></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footnotes"><hr /></div>
<div id="footer">
<div id="footer-text">
Last updated 2015-10-26 16:13:38 PDT
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