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<body class="manpage">
<div id="header">
<h1>
git-show(1) Manual Page
</h1>
<h2>NAME</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<p>git-show -
Show various types of objects
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_synopsis">SYNOPSIS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="verseblock">
<pre class="content"><em>git show</em> [options] &lt;object&gt;&#8230;</pre>
<div class="attribution">
</div></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_description">DESCRIPTION</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also
presents the merge commit in a special format as produced by
<em>git diff-tree --cc</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to <em>git ls-tree</em>
with --name-only).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The command takes options applicable to the <em>git diff-tree</em> command to
control how the changes the commit introduces are shown.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_options">OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;object&gt;&#8230;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The names of objects to show.
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in <a href="gitrevisions.html">gitrevisions(7)</a>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pretty[=&lt;format&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--format=&lt;format&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
where <em>&lt;format&gt;</em> can be one of <em>oneline</em>, <em>short</em>, <em>medium</em>,
<em>full</em>, <em>fuller</em>, <em>email</em>, <em>raw</em>, <em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em>
and <em>tformat:&lt;string&gt;</em>. When <em>&lt;format&gt;</em> is none of the above,
and has <em>%placeholder</em> in it, it acts as if
<em>--pretty=tformat:&lt;format&gt;</em> were given.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
format. When <em>=&lt;format&gt;</em> part is omitted, it defaults to <em>medium</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
configuration (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--abbrev-commit
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of
digits can be specified with "--abbrev=&lt;n&gt;" (which also modifies
diff output, if it is displayed).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
people using 80-column terminals.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-abbrev-commit
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
<code>--abbrev-commit</code> and those options which imply it such as
"--oneline". It also overrides the <em>log.abbrevCommit</em> variable.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--oneline
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
used together.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--encoding=&lt;encoding&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this
defaults to UTF-8.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--notes[=&lt;ref&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the notes (see <a href="git-notes.html">git-notes(1)</a>) that annotate the
commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default
for <code>git log</code>, <code>git show</code> and <code>git whatchanged</code> commands when
there is no <code>--pretty</code>, <code>--format</code>, or <code>--oneline</code> option given
on the command line.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
<em>core.notesRef</em> and <em>notes.displayRef</em> variables (or corresponding
environment overrides). See <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a> for more details.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>With an optional <em>&lt;ref&gt;</em> argument, show this notes ref instead of the
default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to be in <code>refs/notes/</code> if it
is not qualified.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
"refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
"refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-notes
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not show notes. This negates the above <code>--notes</code> option, by
resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
"--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
from "refs/notes/bar".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-notes[=&lt;ref&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--[no-]standard-notes
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
options instead.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-signature
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
to <code>gpg --verify</code> and show the output.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_pretty_formats">PRETTY FORMATS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format
is not <em>oneline</em>, <em>email</em> or <em>raw</em>, an additional line is
inserted before the <em>Author:</em> line. This line begins with
"Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed,
separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
necessarily be the list of the <strong>direct</strong> parent commits if you
have limited your view of history: for example, if you are
only interested in changes related to a certain directory or
file.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>There are several built-in formats, and you can define
additional formats by setting a pretty.&lt;name&gt;
config option to either another format name, or a
<em>format:</em> string, as described below (see
<a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). Here are the details of the
built-in formats:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>oneline</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;sha1&gt; &lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This is designed to be as compact as possible.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>short</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>medium</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
Date: &lt;author date&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>full</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
Commit: &lt;committer&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>fuller</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
AuthorDate: &lt;author date&gt;
Commit: &lt;committer&gt;
CommitDate: &lt;committer date&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>email</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>From &lt;sha1&gt; &lt;date&gt;
From: &lt;author&gt;
Date: &lt;author date&gt;
Subject: [PATCH] &lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>raw</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>raw</em> format shows the entire commit exactly as
stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are
displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and <em>parents</em> information show the
true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
simplification into account.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em> format allows you to specify which information
you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format,
with the notable exception that you get a newline with <em>%n</em>
instead of <em>\n</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>E.g, <em>format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was &gt;&gt;%s&lt;&lt;%n"</em>
would show something like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
The title was &gt;&gt;t4119: test autocomputing -p&lt;n&gt; for traditional diff input.&lt;&lt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The placeholders are:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>%H</em>: commit hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%h</em>: abbreviated commit hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%T</em>: tree hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%t</em>: abbreviated tree hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%P</em>: parent hashes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%p</em>: abbreviated parent hashes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%an</em>: author name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aN</em>: author name (respecting .mailmap, see <a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>
or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ae</em>: author email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aE</em>: author email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ad</em>: author date (format respects --date= option)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aD</em>: author date, RFC2822 style
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ar</em>: author date, relative
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%at</em>: author date, UNIX timestamp
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ai</em>: author date, ISO 8601-like format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aI</em>: author date, strict ISO 8601 format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cn</em>: committer name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cN</em>: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ce</em>: committer email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cE</em>: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cd</em>: committer date (format respects --date= option)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cD</em>: committer date, RFC2822 style
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cr</em>: committer date, relative
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ct</em>: committer date, UNIX timestamp
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ci</em>: committer date, ISO 8601-like format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cI</em>: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%d</em>: ref names, like the --decorate option of <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%D</em>: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%e</em>: encoding
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%s</em>: subject
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%f</em>: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%b</em>: body
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%B</em>: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%N</em>: commit notes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GG</em>: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%G?</em>: show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature, "U" for a good,
untrusted signature and "N" for no signature
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GS</em>: show the name of the signer for a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GK</em>: show the key used to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gD</em>: reflog selector, e.g., <code>refs/stash@{1}</code>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gd</em>: shortened reflog selector, e.g., <code>stash@{1}</code>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gn</em>: reflog identity name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gN</em>: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ge</em>: reflog identity email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gE</em>: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gs</em>: reflog subject
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cred</em>: switch color to red
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cgreen</em>: switch color to green
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cblue</em>: switch color to blue
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Creset</em>: reset color
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%C(&#8230;)</em>: color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option;
adding <code>auto,</code> at the beginning will emit color only when colors are
enabled for log output (by <code>color.diff</code>, <code>color.ui</code>, or <code>--color</code>, and
respecting the <code>auto</code> settings of the former if we are going to a
terminal). <code>auto</code> alone (i.e. <code>%C(auto)</code>) will turn on auto coloring
on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%m</em>: left, right or boundary mark
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%n</em>: newline
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%%</em>: a raw <em>%</em>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%x00</em>: print a byte from a hex code
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%w([&lt;w&gt;[,&lt;i1&gt;[,&lt;i2&gt;]]])</em>: switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])</em>: make the next placeholder take at
least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc)
or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns.
Note that truncating only works correctly with N &gt;= 2.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, but padding spaces on the left
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces
than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>% &lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the <code>%g*</code> reflog options will
insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
<code>git log -g</code>). The <code>%d</code> and <code>%D</code> placeholders will use the "short"
decoration format if <code>--decorate</code> was not already provided on the command
line.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a <code>+</code> (plus sign) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, a line-feed
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a <code>-</code> (minus sign) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, line-feeds that
immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
placeholder expands to an empty string.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a ` ` (space) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, a space
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>tformat:</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>tformat:</em> format works exactly like <em>format:</em>, except that it
provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a
newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries.
This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly
terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does.
For example:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In addition, any unrecognized string that has a <code>%</code> in it is interpreted
as if it has <code>tformat:</code> in front of it. For example, these two are
equivalent:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
$ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_common_diff_options">COMMON DIFF OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-p
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-u
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-s
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-patch
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like <code>git show</code> that
show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of <code>--patch</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-U&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--unified=&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate diffs with &lt;n&gt; lines of context instead of
the usual three.
Implies <code>-p</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--raw
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate the raw format.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch-with-raw
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>-p --raw</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--minimal
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
diff is produced.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patience
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--histogram
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>default</code>, <code>myers</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>minimal</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
produced.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>patience</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>histogram</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
low-occurrence common elements".
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
have to use <code>--diff-algorithm=default</code> option.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--stat[=&lt;width&gt;[,&lt;name-width&gt;[,&lt;count&gt;]]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns
if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by
<code>&lt;width&gt;</code>. The width of the filename part can be limited by
giving another width <code>&lt;name-width&gt;</code> after a comma. The width
of the graph part can be limited by using
<code>--stat-graph-width=&lt;width&gt;</code> (affects all commands generating
a stat graph) or by setting <code>diff.statGraphWidth=&lt;width&gt;</code>
(does not affect <code>git format-patch</code>).
By giving a third parameter <code>&lt;count&gt;</code>, you can limit the
output to the first <code>&lt;count&gt;</code> lines, followed by <code>...</code> if
there are more.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>These parameters can also be set individually with <code>--stat-width=&lt;width&gt;</code>,
<code>--stat-name-width=&lt;name-width&gt;</code> and <code>--stat-count=&lt;count&gt;</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--numstat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Similar to <code>--stat</code>, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two <code>-</code> instead of saying
<code>0 0</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--shortstat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output only the last line of the <code>--stat</code> format containing total
number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
lines.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dirstat[=&lt;param1,param2,&#8230;&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
sub-directory. The behavior of <code>--dirstat</code> can be customized by
passing it a comma separated list of parameters.
The defaults are controlled by the <code>diff.dirstat</code> configuration
variable (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).
The following parameters are available:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>changes</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been
removed from the source, or added to the destination. This ignores
the amount of pure code movements within a file. In other words,
rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as other changes.
This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>lines</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff
analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary
files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive <code>--dirstat</code>
behavior than the <code>changes</code> behavior, but it does count rearranged
lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output
is consistent with what you get from the other <code>--*stat</code> options.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>files</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed.
Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is
the computationally cheapest <code>--dirstat</code> behavior, since it does
not have to look at the file contents at all.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>cumulative</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well.
Note that when using <code>cumulative</code>, the sum of the percentages
reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior can
be specified with the <code>noncumulative</code> parameter.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;limit&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default).
Directories contributing less than this percentage of the changes
are not shown in the output.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed files,
and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories:
<code>--dirstat=files,10,cumulative</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--summary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
such as creations, renames and mode changes.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch-with-stat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>-p --stat</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-z
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Also, when <code>--raw</code> or <code>--numstat</code> has been given, do not munge
pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
and backslash characters replaced with <code>\t</code>, <code>\n</code>, <code>\"</code>, and <code>\\</code>,
respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
any of those replacements occurred.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--name-only
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only names of changed files.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--name-status
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
of the <code>--diff-filter</code> option on what the status letters mean.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--submodule[=&lt;format&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When <code>--submodule</code>
or <code>--submodule=log</code> is given, the <em>log</em> format is used. This format lists
the commits in the range like <a href="git-submodule.html">git-submodule(1)</a> <code>summary</code> does.
Omitting the <code>--submodule</code> option or specifying <code>--submodule=short</code>,
uses the <em>short</em> format. This format just shows the names of the commits
at the beginning and end of the range. Can be tweaked via the
<code>diff.submodule</code> configuration variable.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color[=&lt;when&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show colored diff.
<code>--color</code> (i.e. without <em>=&lt;when&gt;</em>) is the same as <code>--color=always</code>.
<em>&lt;when&gt;</em> can be one of <code>always</code>, <code>never</code>, or <code>auto</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-color
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off colored diff.
It is the same as <code>--color=never</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--word-diff[=&lt;mode&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show a word diff, using the &lt;mode&gt; to delimit changed words.
By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
<code>--word-diff-regex</code> below. The &lt;mode&gt; defaults to <em>plain</em>, and
must be one of:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
color
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies <code>--color</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
plain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show words as <code>[-removed-]</code> and <code>{+added+}</code>. Makes no
attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the input,
so the output may be ambiguous.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
porcelain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use a special line-based format intended for script
consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
usual unified diff format, starting with a <code>+</code>/<code>-</code>/` `
character at the beginning of the line and extending to the
end of the line. Newlines in the input are represented by a
tilde <code>~</code> on a line of its own.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
none
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable word diff again.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--word-diff-regex=&lt;regex&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use &lt;regex&gt; to decide what a word is, instead of considering
runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies
<code>--word-diff</code> unless it was already enabled.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Every non-overlapping match of the
&lt;regex&gt; is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
differences. You may want to append <code>|[^[:space:]]</code> to your regular
expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters.
A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
newline.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
<a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(1)</a> or <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>. Giving it explicitly
overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
override configuration settings.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-words[=&lt;regex&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Equivalent to <code>--word-diff=color</code> plus (if a regex was
specified) <code>--word-diff-regex=&lt;regex&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-renames
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
file gives the default to do so.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--check
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors. What are
considered whitespace errors is controlled by <code>core.whitespace</code>
configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including
lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space character
that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the
initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
with --exit-code.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-index
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
line when generating patch format output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--binary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
In addition to <code>--full-index</code>, output a binary diff that
can be applied with <code>git-apply</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--abbrev[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
lines, show only a partial prefix. This is
independent of the <code>--full-index</code> option above, which controls
the diff-patch output format. Non default number of
digits can be specified with <code>--abbrev=&lt;n&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-B[&lt;n&gt;][/&lt;m&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--break-rewrites[=[&lt;n&gt;][/&lt;m&gt;]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
create. This serves two purposes:
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file
not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very
few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number <code>m</code> controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). <code>-B/70%</code> specifies that less than 30% of the
original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the
source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared
as the source of a rename), and the number <code>n</code> controls this aspect of
the -B option (defaults to 50%). <code>-B20%</code> specifies that a change with
addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file&#8217;s size are
eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
another file.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-M[&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-renames[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit.
For following files across renames while traversing history, see
<code>--follow</code>.
If <code>n</code> is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
file&#8217;s size). For example, <code>-M90%</code> means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn&#8217;t changed. Without a <code>%</code> sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., <code>-M5</code> becomes
0.5, and is thus the same as <code>-M50%</code>. Similarly, <code>-M05</code> is
the same as <code>-M5%</code>. To limit detection to exact renames, use
<code>-M100%</code>. The default similarity index is 50%.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-C[&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-copies[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Detect copies as well as renames. See also <code>--find-copies-harder</code>.
If <code>n</code> is specified, it has the same meaning as for <code>-M&lt;n&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-copies-harder
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
For performance reasons, by default, <code>-C</code> option finds copies only
if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
changeset. This flag makes the command
inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one
<code>-C</code> option has the same effect.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-D
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--irreversible-delete
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
the diff between the preimage and <code>/dev/null</code>. The resulting patch
is not meant to be applied with <code>patch</code> or <code>git apply</code>; this is
solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack
enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
hence the name of the option.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When used together with <code>-B</code>, omit also the preimage in the deletion part
of a delete/create pair.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-l&lt;num&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The <code>-M</code> and <code>-C</code> options require O(n^2) processing time where n
is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This
option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
number.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)&#8230;[*]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Select only files that are Added (<code>A</code>), Copied (<code>C</code>),
Deleted (<code>D</code>), Modified (<code>M</code>), Renamed (<code>R</code>), have their
type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, &#8230;) changed (<code>T</code>),
are Unmerged (<code>U</code>), are
Unknown (<code>X</code>), or have had their pairing Broken (<code>B</code>).
Any combination of the filter characters (including none) can be used.
When <code>*</code> (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
paths are selected if there is any file that matches
other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-S&lt;string&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
Intended for the scripter&#8217;s use.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It is useful when you&#8217;re looking for an exact block of code (like a
struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
block in the preimage back into <code>-S</code>, and keep going until you get the
very first version of the block.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-G&lt;regex&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
lines that match &lt;regex&gt;.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>To illustrate the difference between <code>-S&lt;regex&gt; --pickaxe-regex</code> and
<code>-G&lt;regex&gt;</code>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
file:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>+ return !regexec(regexp, two-&gt;ptr, 1, &amp;regmatch, 0);
...
- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &amp;regmatch, 0);</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>While <code>git log -G"regexec\(regexp"</code> will show this commit, <code>git log
-S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex</code> will not (because the number of
occurrences of that string did not change).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>See the <em>pickaxe</em> entry in <a href="gitdiffcore.html">gitdiffcore(7)</a> for more
information.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pickaxe-all
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>-S</code> or <code>-G</code> finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
in &lt;string&gt;.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pickaxe-regex
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Treat the &lt;string&gt; given to <code>-S</code> as an extended POSIX regular
expression to match.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-O&lt;orderfile&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output the patch in the order specified in the
&lt;orderfile&gt;, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
This overrides the <code>diff.orderfile</code> configuration variable
(see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). To cancel <code>diff.orderfile</code>,
use <code>-O/dev/null</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-R
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
on-disk file to tree contents.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--relative[=&lt;path&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a &lt;path&gt; as an argument.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-a
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--text
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Treat all files as text.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-space-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-b
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-space-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-w
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-all-space
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-blank-lines
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--inter-hunk-context=&lt;lines&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-W
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--function-context
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show whole surrounding functions of changes.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ext-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
external diff driver with <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a>, you need
to use this option with <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a> and friends.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-ext-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disallow external diff drivers.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--textconv
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-textconv
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run
when comparing binary files. See <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a> for
details. Because textconv filters are typically a one-way
conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human
consumption, but cannot be applied. For this reason, textconv
filters are enabled by default only for <a href="git-diff.html">git-diff(1)</a> and
<a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>, but not for <a href="git-format-patch.html">git-format-patch(1)</a> or
diff plumbing commands.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-submodules[=&lt;when&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. &lt;when&gt; can be
either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
<em>ignore</em> option in <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a> or <a href="gitmodules.html">gitmodules(5)</a>. When
"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they only
contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for modified
content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of submodules,
only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are shown (this was
the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to submodules.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--src-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dst-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-prefix
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not show any source or destination prefix.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
<a href="gitdiffcore.html">gitdiffcore(7)</a>.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_generating_patches_with_p">Generating patches with -p</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
with a <em>-p</em> option, "git diff" without the <em>--raw</em> option, or
"git log" with the "-p" option, they
do not produce the output described above; instead they produce a
patch file. You can customize the creation of such patches via the
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
diff format:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --git a/file1 b/file2</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>a/</code> and <code>b/</code> filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
<code>/dev/null</code> is <em>not</em> used in place of the <code>a/</code> or <code>b/</code> filenames.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When rename/copy is involved, <code>file1</code> and <code>file2</code> show the
name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name of
the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>old mode &lt;mode&gt;
new mode &lt;mode&gt;
deleted file mode &lt;mode&gt;
new file mode &lt;mode&gt;
copy from &lt;path&gt;
copy to &lt;path&gt;
rename from &lt;path&gt;
rename to &lt;path&gt;
similarity index &lt;number&gt;
dissimilarity index &lt;number&gt;
index &lt;hash&gt;..&lt;hash&gt; &lt;mode&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file type
and file permission bits.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Path names in extended headers do not include the <code>a/</code> and <code>b/</code> prefixes.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and
the dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It
is a rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The
similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal
files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old
file made it into the new one.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change.
The &lt;mode&gt; is included if the file mode does not change; otherwise,
separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames
are represented as <code>\t</code>, <code>\n</code>, <code>\"</code> and <code>\\</code>, respectively.
If there is need for such substitution then the whole
pathname is put in double quotes.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
All the <code>file1</code> files in the output refer to files before the
commit, and all the <code>file2</code> files refer to files after the commit.
It is incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially. For
example, this patch will swap a and b:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --git a/a b/b
rename from a
rename to b
diff --git a/b b/a
rename from b
rename to a</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
</ol></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_combined_diff_format">combined diff format</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Any diff-generating command can take the &#8216;-c` or <code>--cc</code> option to
produce a <em>combined diff</em> when showing a merge. This is the default
format when showing merges with <a href="git-diff.html">git-diff(1)</a> or
<a href="git-show.html">git-show(1)</a>. Note also that you can give the `-m&#8217; option to any
of these commands to force generation of diffs with individual parents
of a merge.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A <em>combined diff</em> format looks like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --combined describe.c
index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
--- a/describe.c
+++ b/describe.c
@@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
return (a_date &gt; b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
}
- static void describe(char *arg)
-static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
{
+ unsigned char sha1[20];
+ struct commit *cmit;
struct commit_list *list;
static int initialized = 0;
struct commit_name *n;
+ if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) &lt; 0)
+ usage(describe_usage);
+ cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
+ if (!cmit)
+ usage(describe_usage);
+
if (!initialized) {
initialized = 1;
for_each_ref(get_name);</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
this (when <em>-c</em> option is used):
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --combined file</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>or like this (when <em>--cc</em> option is used):</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --cc file</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
It is followed by one or more extended header lines
(this example shows a merge with two parents):
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>index &lt;hash&gt;,&lt;hash&gt;..&lt;hash&gt;
mode &lt;mode&gt;,&lt;mode&gt;..&lt;mode&gt;
new file mode &lt;mode&gt;
deleted file mode &lt;mode&gt;,&lt;mode&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>mode &lt;mode&gt;,&lt;mode&gt;..&lt;mode&gt;</code> line appears only if at least one of
the &lt;mode&gt; is different from the rest. Extended headers with
information about detected contents movement (renames and
copying detection) are designed to work with diff of two
&lt;tree-ish&gt; and are not used by combined diff format.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>--- a/file
+++ b/file</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Similar to two-line header for traditional <em>unified</em> diff
format, <code>/dev/null</code> is used to signal created or deleted
files.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
accidentally feeding it to <code>patch -p1</code>. Combined diff format
was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the
extended <em>index</em> header:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>@@@ &lt;from-file-range&gt; &lt;from-file-range&gt; &lt;to-file-range&gt; @@@</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>There are (number of parents + 1) <code>@</code> characters in the chunk
header for combined diff format.</p></div>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Unlike the traditional <em>unified</em> diff format, which shows two
files A and B with a single column that has <code>-</code> (minus&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;appears in A but removed in B), <code>+</code> (plus&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;missing in A but
added to B), or <code>" "</code> (space&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;unchanged) prefix, this format
compares two or more files file1, file2,&#8230; with one file X, and
shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for each of
fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X&#8217;s line is
different from it.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A <code>-</code> character in the column N means that the line appears in
fileN but it does not appear in the result. A <code>+</code> character
in the column N means that the line appears in the result,
and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
added, from the point of view of that parent).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In the above example output, the function signature was changed
from both files (hence two <code>-</code> removals from both file1 and
file2, plus <code>++</code> to mean one line that was added does not appear
in either file1 or file2). Also eight other lines are the same
from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with <code>+</code>).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When shown by <code>git diff-tree -c</code>, it compares the parents of a
merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the
parents). When shown by <code>git diff-files -c</code>, it compares the
two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
(i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka
"their version").</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_examples">EXAMPLES</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>git show v1.0.0</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Shows the tag <code>v1.0.0</code>, along with the object the tags
points at.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>git show v1.0.0^{tree}</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Shows the tree pointed to by the tag <code>v1.0.0</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>git show -s --format=%s v1.0.0^{commit}</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Shows the subject of the commit pointed to by the
tag <code>v1.0.0</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>git show next~10:Documentation/README</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Shows the contents of the file <code>Documentation/README</code> as
they were current in the 10th last commit of the branch
<code>next</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head
of the branch <code>master</code>.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_discussion">Discussion</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>At the core level, Git is character encoding agnostic.</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects
are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.
What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared
with the data Git keeps track of, which in turn are expected
to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such
thing as pathname encoding translation.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences
of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core
level.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL
bytes.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded
in UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to
force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular
project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git
does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in
mind.</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
<em>git commit</em> and <em>git commit-tree</em> issues
a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look
like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to
have i18n.commitencoding in <code>.git/config</code> file, like this:
</p>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>[i18n]
commitencoding = ISO-8859-1</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Commit objects created with the above setting record the value
of <code>i18n.commitencoding</code> in its <code>encoding</code> header. This is to
help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header
implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>git log</em>, <em>git show</em>, <em>git blame</em> and friends look at the
<code>encoding</code> header of a commit object, and try to re-code the
log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
specify the desired output encoding with
<code>i18n.logoutputencoding</code> in <code>.git/config</code> file, like this:
</p>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>[i18n]
logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
<code>i18n.commitencoding</code> is used instead.</p></div>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log
message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit
object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a
reversible operation.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_git">GIT</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Part of the <a href="git.html">git(1)</a> suite</p></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footnotes"><hr /></div>
<div id="footer">
<div id="footer-text">
Last updated 2013-08-20 08:40:27 PDT
</div>
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