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\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[usenames,dvipsnames]{xcolor}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{pgfplotstable}
\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage[top = 2cm]{geometry}
\usepackage{listings}
\title{A test of Knitr, pgfplotstable and gnuplot with \LaTeX}
\author{Guillermo Juli\'an Moreno}
\date{\today}
\begin{document}
\maketitle
First of all, let's see how does R behave.
<<>>=
data = read.table('datafile.txt');
first_col = data$V1
second_col = data$V2
mean(second_col) # Only the last line prints the output
@
Seems nice enough, isn't it? I can also inline R results, so I can say that there are $\Sexpr{length(first_col)}$ values in that datafile, and the maximum of the first colum is $\Sexpr{max(first_col)}$. I could include those values in more complicated equations, such as \[ \max \{\mathrm{data}\} - \min \{\mathrm{data}\} = \Sexpr{max(first_col)} - \Sexpr{min(first_col)} = \Sexpr{max(first_col) - min(first_col)}\]
If the file changes, the results change too.
On to a more real-life example: using R to create a plot. Just disabling the code output with \texttt{echo = FALSE} and setting a label to refer to the figure \ref{fig:RTest}
<<RTest, fig.lp='fig:', fig.cap = 'This is the caption for the figure', echo = FALSE, cache= TRUE, fig.height = 2.5, fig.pos = 'hbtp'>>=
par(mar = c(2,1,1.5,1)) # Just something to reduce the margins
boxplot(second_col, horizontal = TRUE, main = "Testing the waters")
@
We could also include a Gnuplot script: just input the \textit{.tex} file and the results shows in figure \ref{fig:Gnuplot}.
\begin{figure}[hbtp]
\centering
\input{graph.tex}
\caption{A graph directly from Gnuplot}
\label{fig:Gnuplot}
\end{figure}
And, finally, the \textit{pgfplotstable} sample: take a look at table \ref{tab:testTable}.
\begin{table}[hbtp]
\centering
\pgfplotstableread{datafile.txt}\datatable
\pgfplotstabletypeset[
columns/0/.style={column name={Column 1}},
columns/1/.style={column name={Column 2}},
every head row/.style={
before row=\toprule, % booktabs rules
after row=\midrule
},
every last row/.style={
after row=\bottomrule
}]{\datatable}
\caption{A test table.}
\label{tab:testTable}
\end{table}
\end{document}