Style guide for LiveScript - feel free to discuss or send pull requests
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README.md Merge pull request #11 from vendethiel/patch-1 Jun 13, 2015

README.md

LiveScript Style Guide

This is a style guide for the LiveScript programming language.

Code Layout

Indentation

Use 4 spaces per indentation level, not tabs, not another amount of spaces.

Blank Lines

Separate top level class and function definitions with a blank line. Add blank lines as needed for readability.

Trailing Whitespace

Don't leave any trailing whitespace.

Line End

Don't end your lines with semicolons. Just use a newline. Only use semicolons to separate multiple statements on a single line.

Statements per Line

Only have one statement per line.

x = 0
x + y

Alignment

Align short form switch statements:

switch
| n <= 0     => []
| empty list => []
| otherwise  => [x] ++ take n - 1, xs

Naming

Use dashes instead of camel case or underscores to name everything and access existing names.

to-upper-case = -> it.to-upper-case!

Except for class names, use PascalCase for those:

class WidgetThing extends Base
  ...

Literals

Booleans

true and false are preferred over their aliases (yes, no, on, off), unless the code is much more readable using the alias.

Numbers

When you can, insert a number comment to specify the units, if it helps readability.

period = 7days * 52weeks

Strings

Use single quotes 'hello world', except if you need to use string interpolation or have a string with many single quotes in it, in which case use double quotes "hello #var".

Lists

List of Words

Use starting and ending whitespace before the first word and after the last, eg.

<[ list of words ]>

not

<[list of words]>

Spacing

Use a single space after the comma, do not use a space before the comma. Eg.

[x, y, z]

This

Use @ for this except when it is stand alone.

Prototype

Use :: instead of .prototype.

Array::slice

Operators

Spacing

Singly space operators, except in the case of their use in array access.

x = 1 + 2
list[i-1]

Aliases

English vs Symbols

Use and, or, etc. over &&, || except when you need the special functionality of &&, || etc. (they do not close implicit calls, unlike and, or, etc.)

x = false
y = true
(not) x or y #=> true  [(not)(x) || y]
(not) x || y #=> false [(not)(x || y)]

is not / isnt

Use isnt over is not.

Commas

When you can, avoid commas. This means you can leave them out when the preceding item is a non-callable in a list (this includes arguments). However, keep it consistent within a call or a list. Either use commas between all items, or don't use them at all.

[1 2 3]
add-numbers 5 x
[1, x, 3]

Parentheses

Avoid the use of parentheses whenever possible.

Do not use them when calling functions:

Math.pow 2 3

You can use do instead of parentheses if you are calling against a block for instance:

some-func do
    prop:  3
    other: 5

Avoid them with chaining, access and logic closes implicit calls:

$ '#content .slider' .find 'a' .slide-up!

You can avoid using them in lists by using a semicolon as a separator when a comma won't work.

[add 2 3; times 2 3]

Calling Functions

As mentioned earlier, if you can avoid using commas in the argument list, do so.

If you are calling with no arguments, use a bang call:

func!

Unless you are negating or boolean casting the result, then use () as otherwise it looks funny.

!func()
!!func()

List Access

Use list.0 instead of list[0]. Only use the brackets if you need to do some math, e.g. list[i+0].8

Switch

As mentioned earlier, align your switch statements.

Short vs Long Form

If you can fit the body of each case on a single line, except for the otherwise case, use the short form. Otherwise, use the long form.

switch
| even x    => x
| even y    => y
| otherwise =>
    x + y

switch
case f x
    blah
    ...
case g x
    asdf
    ...
default
    ...

Default

Use default with the long form.

Use | otherwise => with the short form, unless your test cases are very short, in which case you can use | _ =>

switch x
| 2 => 7
| 3 => 8
| 4 => 9
| _ => 10