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VDOM Media Type

This documents the mimetype application/vdom.v1+json as used in Jupyter and nteract frontends.


The top level object is a VDOMElement, defined in JavaScript as:

  // HTML tags like h1, b, p, marquee, etc.
  tagName: string,  // Should allow standard elements & web components

  // See below
  children: VDOMNode,
  attributes: Object,

  // Optional
  key: number | string | null

What makes up a VDOMElement?

⚠️ Frontends can disallow certain attributes or elements to mitigate XSS security concerns. ⚠️


A VDOMNode may be a VDOMEl, a string an Array<VDOMNode>, or null.


The tagName can be any HTML element. By extension, this means any web component that is available on the page will work as well, in addition to other new elements.


children can be a VDOMNode, which is a VDOMEl, a string an Array<VDOMNode>, or null


The literal attributes to passthrough to the element.


The style attribute is expected to be an object with camelCased properties, matching with the DOM API for CSS in JavaScript.

An example

A VDOMElement represented in JSON:

  "tagName": "a",
  "attributes": {
    "href": ""
  "children": "nteract site"

becomes the following HTML:

<a href="">nteract site</a>

Coding style and syntax

All DOM properties and attributes should be camelCased. This may no longer be a restriction in the future however.

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