Skip to content
Switch branches/tags
Go to file
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

Signal Metadata Format Specification v1.0.0


The Signal Metadata Format (SigMF) specifies a way to describe sets of recorded digital signal samples with metadata written in JSON. SigMF can be used to describe general information about a collection of samples, the characteristics of the system that generated the samples, features of signals themselves, and the relationship between different recordings.

Copyright Notice

This document is available under the CC-BY-SA License.

Creative Commons License

Copyright of contributions to SigMF are retained by their original authors. All contributions under these terms are welcome.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Sharing sets of recorded signal data is an important part of science and engineering. It enables multiple parties to collaborate, is often a necessary part of reproducing scientific results (a requirement of scientific rigor), and enables sharing data with those who do not have direct access to the equipment required to capture it.

Unfortunately, these datasets have historically not been very portable, and there is not an agreed upon method of sharing metadata descriptions of the recorded data itself. This is the problem that SigMF solves.

By providing a standard way to describe data recordings, SigMF facilitates the sharing of data, prevents the "bitrot" of datasets wherein details of the capture are lost over time, and makes it possible for different tools to operate on the same dataset, thus enabling data portability between tools and workflows.

Conventions Used in this Document

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

JSON keywords are used as defined in ECMA-404.

Augmented Backus-Naur form (ABNF) is used as defined by RFC 5234 and updated by RFC 7405.

Fields defined as "human-readable", a "string", or simply as "text" shall be treated as plaintext where whitespace is significant, unless otherwise specified. Fields defined "human/machine-readable" should be short, simple text strings without whitespace that are easily understood by a human and readily parsed by software.

Specific keywords with semantic meaning in the context of this specification are capitalized after being introduced (e.g., Recording).


The SigMF specification fundamentally describes two types of information: datasets, and metadata associated with those datasets. Taken together, a dataset with its SigMF metadata is a SigMF Recording.

Datasets, for purposes of this specification, are sets of digital measurements generically called samples in this document. The samples can represent any time-varying source of information. They may, for example, be digital samples created by digital synthesis or by an Analog-to-Digital Converter. They could also be geolocation coordinates from a GNSS receiver, temperature readings from a thermal sensor, or any other stored digital measurement information.

Metadata describes the dataset with which it is associated. The metadata includes information meant for the human users of the dataset, such as a title and description, and information meant for computer applications (tools) that operate on the dataset.

This specification defines a schema for metadata using a core namespace that is a reserved name and can only be defined by this specification. Other metadata may be described by extension namespaces. This specification also defines a model and format for how SigMF data should be stored at-rest (on-disk) using JSON.


A SigMF Recording is the fundamental unit of SigMF, and consists of two files: a SigMF Metadata file and a Dataset file. The Dataset file is a binary file of digital samples, and the Metadata file contains information that describes the dataset. Multiple Recordings MAY be organized in a SigMF Collection, which describes relationships between Recordings, and is defined in a collection file.

SigMF Metadata and Dataset rules:

  1. The Metadata and Dataset MUST be in separate files.
  2. The Metadata file MUST only describe one dataset file.
  3. The Metadata file MUST be stored in UTF-8 encoding.
  4. The Metadata file MUST have a .sigmf-meta filename extension.
  5. The Dataset file MUST have a .sigmf-data filename extension.
  6. The names of the Metadata and Dataset files must be identical (excepting their extensions).
  7. It is RECOMMENDED that the Metadata and Dataset files use hyphens to separate words rather than whitespace or underscores.

SigMF Collection rules:

  1. The Collection MUST be defined in its own file, separate from any Recording's metadata.
  2. The Collection file MUST be stored in UTF-8 encoding.
  3. The Collection file MUST have a .sigmf-collection filename extension.
  4. The sigmf-collection file MUST be EITHER in the same directory as the Recordings that it references, or in the top-level directory of an Archive (described in later section).
  5. It is RECOMMENDED that the Collection file use hyphens to separate words rather than whitespace or underscores.

SigMF Archives

The Metadata and Dataset files that comprise a SigMF Recording may be combined into a file archive. A SigMF Archive may contain multiple SigMF Recordings, which may be related by a SigMF Collection.

  1. The Archive MUST use the tar archive format, as specified by POSIX.1-2001.
  2. The Archive file's filename extension MUST be .sigmf.
  3. The Archive MUST contain the following files: for each contained recording with some name given here meta-syntactically as N, files named N (a directory), N/N.sigmf-meta, and N/N.sigmf-data.
  4. The Archive MAY contain a .sigmf-collection file in the top-level directory.
  5. It is RECOMMENDED that if Recordings in an archive represent continuous data that has been split into separate Recordings, that their filenames reflect the order of the series by appending a hyphenated zero-based index (e.g., N-0, N-1, N-2, etc.,).

Each Recording in an Archive, even if connected to others by being part of a larger dataset, MUST be evaluated independently for compliance to the SigMF standard, and thus all metadata MAY be different between the Recordings.

Dataset Format

The samples in the Dataset must be in a SigMF-supported format. There are four orthogonal characteristics of sample data: complex or real, floating-point or integer, bit-width, and endianness. The following ABNF rules specify the dataset formats defined in the Core namespace:

    dataset-format = (real / complex) ((type endianness) / byte)

    real = "r"
    complex = "c"

    type = floating-point / signed-integer / unsigned-integer
    floating-point = "f32"
    signed-integer = "i32" / "i16"
    unsigned-integer = "u32" / "u16"

    endianness = little-endian / big-endian
    little-endian = "_le"
    big-endian = "_be"

    byte = "i8" / "u8"

So, for example, the string "cf32_le" specifies "complex 32-bit floating-point samples stored in little-endian", the string "ru16_be" specifies "real unsigned 16-bit samples stored in big-endian", and the string "cu8" specifies "complex unsigned byte".

Note that only IEEE-754 single-precision floating-point is supported by the SigMF Core namespace.

The samples should be written to the Dataset file without separation, and the Dataset file MUST NOT contain any other characters (e.g., delimiters, whitespace, line-endings, EOF characters).

Complex samples should be interleaved, with the in-phase component first (i.e., I[0] Q[0] I[1] Q[1] ... I[n] Q[n]). When core:num_channels in the Global object (described below) indicates that the Recording contains more than one channel, samples from those channels should be interleaved in the same manner, with the same index from each channel's sample serially in the recording. For example, a Recording with two channels of i16_le representing real-valued audio data from a stereo recording and here labeled L for left and R for right, the data should appear as L[0] R[0] L[1] R[1] ... L[n] R[n]. The data type specified by core:data_type applies to all channels of data both real and imaginary parts.

Metadata Format

SigMF metadata fundamentally takes the form of key/value pairs, taking the following form:

"namespace:name": value,

When stored on-disk (at-rest), these rules apply:

  1. The Metadata file MUST be written in JSON, as specified by ECMA-404.
  2. The entire contents of the Metadata file MUST be contained within a single top-level JSON Object.
  3. The top-level Object MUST contain three JSON Objects named global, captures, and annotations.
  4. Metadata key/value pairs SHALL NOT be assumed to have carried over between capture or annotation segments. If a name/value pair applies to a particular segment, then it must appear in that segment, even if the value is unchanged relative to the previous segment.

All SigMF metadata is defined using the structural concepts of JSON, and when stored on-disk, metadata MUST be proper JSON to be SigMF compliant.


The values in each key/value pair must be one of the following datatypes.

type long-form name description
int integer Signed 64-bit integer.
uint unsigned long Unsigned 64-bit integer.
double double-precision floating-point number A 64-bit float as defined by IEEE 754.
string string A string of characters, as defined by the JSON standard.
boolean boolean Either true or false, as defined by the JSON standard.
null null null, as defined by the JSON standard.
array JSON array An array of other values, as defined by the JSON standard.
object JSON object An object of other values, as defined by the JSON standard.
GeoJSON GeoJSON point object A single GeoJSON point object as defined by RFC 7946.


Namespaces provide a way to further classify key/value pairs in metadata. This specification defines the core namespace. Only this specification may add fields to the Core namespace.

The goal of the Core namespace is to capture the foundational metadata necessary to work with SigMF data. Some keys within the Core namespace are optional, and others are required. The fields that are required are those that are minimally necessary to parse and process the Dataset, or that have obvious defaults that are valid. Other fields are 'optional', even if they are highly encouraged.

Extension Namespaces

Fields not defined in the Core namespace may be defined in extension namespaces. The SigMF specification defines some extension namespaces to provide canonical definitions for commonly needed metadata fields that do not belong in Core. These canonical extension namespaces can be found in the extensions/ directory of the official SigMF repository. Other extension namespaces may be defined by the user as needed.

  1. An extension namespace MUST be defined in a single file, named meta-syntactically as, where N is the name of the extension.
  2. A file MUST be a Github-Flavored Markdown file stored in UTF-8 encoding.
  3. Extensions MUST have version numbers. It is RECOMMENDED that extensions use Semantic Versioning.
  4. An extension namespace MAY define new top-level SigMF Objects, key/value pairs, new files, new dataset formats, or new datatypes.
  5. New key/value pairs defined by an extension namespace MUST be defined in the context of a specific SigMF top-level object - i.e., global, captures, annotations, or a new user-defined object.
  6. It is RECOMMENDED that an extension namespace file follow the structure of the canonical extension namespaces.

Global Object

The global object consists of key/value pairs that provide information applicable to the entire Dataset. It contains the information that is minimally necessary to open and parse the Dataset file, as well as general information about the Recording itself.

The following names are specified in the Core namespace and should be used in the Global object:

name required type description
datatype true string The SigMF Dataset format of the stored samples in the dataset file.
sample_rate false double The sample rate of the signal in samples per second.
version true string The version of the SigMF specification used to create the Metadata file.
num_channels false uint Total number of interleaved channels in the dataset file. If omitted, this defaults to one.
sha512 false string The SHA512 hash of the Dataset file associated with the SigMF file.
offset false uint The index number of the first sample in the Dataset. If not provided, this value defaults to zero. Typically used when a Recording is split over multiple files. All sample indices in SigMF are absolute, and so all other indices referenced in metadata for this recording should be greater than or equal to this value.
description false string A text description of the SigMF Recording.
author false string The author's name (and optionally e-mail address) of the form "Bruce Wayne".
meta_doi false string The registered DOI (ISO 26324) for a Recording's Metadata file.
data_doi false string The registered DOI (ISO 26324) for a Recording's Hataset file.
recorder false string The name of the software used to make this SigMF Recording.
license false string A URL for the license document under which the Recording is offered.
hw false string A text description of the hardware used to make the Recording.
geolocation false GeoJSON point object The location of the Recording system.
hagl false double Antenna height above ground level (in meters).
extensions false array A list of JSON Objects describing extensions used by this Recording.
collection false string The base filename of a collection with which this Recording is associated.
The geolocation Field

The core:geolocation field in the Global Object is used to store the location of the recording system. The location is stored as a single RFC 7946 GeoJSON point object using the convention defined by RFC 5870. Per the GeoJSON specification, the point coordinates use the WGS84 coordinate reference system and are longitude, latitude (required, in decimal degrees), and altitude (optional, in meters above the WGS84 ellipsoid) - in that order. An example including the optional third altitude value is shown below:

  "global": {
    "core:geolocation": {
      "type": "Point",
      "coordinates": [-107.6183682, 34.0787916, 2120.0]
The extensions Field

The core:extensions field in the Global Object is an array of extension objects that describe SigMF extensions. Extension Objects MUST contain the three key/value pairs defined below, and MUST NOT contain any other fields.

name required type description
name true string The name of the SigMF extension namespace.
version true string The version of the extension namespace specification used.
optional true boolean If this field is true, the extension is required to parse this recording.

In the example below, extension-01 is used, but not required, and version 1.2.3 of extension-02 is required.

  "global": {
    "core:extensions" : [
        "name": "extension-01",
        "version": "0.0.5",
        "optional": true
        "name": "extension-02",
        "version": "1.2.3",
        "optional": false
The collection Field

This field is used to indicate that this Recording is part of a SigMF Collection (described later in this document). It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that if you are building a Collection, that each Recording referenced by that Collection use this field to associate up to the relevant sigmf-collection file.

Captures Array

The captures value is an array of capture segment objects that describe the parameters of the signal capture. It MUST be sorted by the value of each capture segment's core:sample_start key, ascending.

Capture Segment Objects

Capture Segment Objects are composed of key/value pairs.

Each Capture Segment Object must contain a core:sample_start key/value pair, which indicates the first index at which the rest of the Segment's key/value pairs apply. The fields that are described within a Capture Segment are scoped to that Segment only and must be declared again if they are valid in subsequent Segments.

The following names are specified in the Core namespace and should be used in Capture Segment Objects:

name required type description
sample_start true uint The sample index in the Dataset file at which this Segment takes effect.
global_index false uint If the sample source provides a global sample count, this is the global index that maps to sample_start.
frequency false double The center frequency of the signal in Hz.
datetime false string An ISO-8601 string indicating the timestamp of the sample index specified by sample_start.
The global_index Pair

Some hardware devices are capable of 'counting' samples, or assigning sample indices relative to the sample stream produced or consumed by the device. Note this is different from the sample index used to reference a sample in the SigMF Dataset file.

These numbers are most commonly used to indicate that data was dropped in transfer between the hardware device and processing. For example, if the hardware driver provides a packet of data, labeled with samples 0 to 1000, and the following packet labels its first sample as number 1500, that indicates that 500 samples were dropped between those two packets. This field allows you to indicate such a discontinuity in the recorded sample stream as seen by the application (e.g., a SigMF writer or reader).

The datetime Pair

This key/value pair must be an ISO-8601 string, as defined by RFC 3339, where the only allowed time-offset is Z, indicating the UTC/Zulu timezone. The ABNF description is:

   date-fullyear   = 4DIGIT
   date-month      = 2DIGIT  ; 01-12
   date-mday       = 2DIGIT  ; 01-28, 01-29, 01-30, 01-31 based on
                             ; month/year
   time-hour       = 2DIGIT  ; 00-23
   time-minute     = 2DIGIT  ; 00-59
   time-second     = 2DIGIT  ; 00-58, 00-59, 00-60 based on leap second
                             ; rules
   time-secfrac    = "." 1*DIGIT
   time-offset     = "Z"

   partial-time    = time-hour ":" time-minute ":" time-second [time-secfrac]
   full-date       = date-fullyear "-" date-month "-" date-mday
   full-time       = partial-time time-offset

   date-time       = full-date "T" full-time

Thus, timestamps take the form of YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.SSSZ, where any number of digits for fractional seconds is permitted.

Annotations Array

The annotations value is an array of annotation segment objects that describe anything regarding the signal data not part of the Captures and Global objects. It MUST be sorted by the value of each Annotation Segment's core:sample_start key, ascending.

Annotation Segment Objects

Annotation segment objects contain key/value pairs and MUST contain a core:sample_start key/value pair, which indicates the first index at which the rest of the Segment's key/value pairs apply.

The following names are specified in the Core namespace and should be used in Annotation Segment Objects:

name required type description
sample_start true uint The sample index at which this Segment takes effect.
sample_count false uint The number of samples that this Segment applies to.
generator false string Human-readable name of the entity that created this annotation.
label false string A short form human/machine-readable label for the annotation.
comment false string A human-readable comment.
freq_lower_edge false double The frequency (Hz) of the lower edge of the feature described by this annotation.
freq_upper_edge false double The frequency (Hz) of the upper edge of the feature described by this annotation.
latitude false The latitude corresponding to the annotation (DEPRECATED, use core:geolocation).
longitude false The longitude corresponding to the annotation (DEPRECATED, use core:geolocation).

There is no limit to the number of annotations that can apply to the same group of samples. If two annotations have the same sample_start, there is no defined ordering between them. If sample_count is not provided, it should be assumed that the annotation applies from sample_start through the end of the dataset, in all other cases sample_count should be provided.

The freq_lower_edge and freq_upper_edge fields should be at RF if the feature is at a known RF frequency. If there is no known center frequency (as defined by the frequency field in the relevant Capture Segment Object), or the center frequency is at baseband, the freq_lower_edge and freq_upper_edge fields may be relative to baseband. It is REQUIRED that both freq_lower_edge and freq_upper_edge be provided, or neither; the use of just one field is not allowed.

The label field may be used for any purpose, but it is RECOMMENDED that it be limited to no more than 20 characters as a common use is a short form GUI indicator. Similarly, it is RECOMMENDED that any user interface making use of this field be capable of displaying up to 20 characters.

Collection Format

The sigmf-collection file contains metadata in a single top-level object called a collection. The Collection Object contains key/value pairs that describe relationships between SigMF Recordings.

The Collection object points to specific recordings via a SigMF Recording tuple, which references the base-name of the Recording and the SHA512 hash of the Metadata file. Tuples may be the singular value in a key/value pair, or provided in an ordered list via a JSON array.

  1. The Collection Object MUST be the only top-level object in the file.
  2. The Collection Object MUST only contain SigMF key/value pairs.
  3. Keys in the Collection Object MUST use SigMF Recording Tuples to reference Recordings.
  4. SigMF Recording Tuples MUST take the form of ["N", "hash"], where N is the base-name of a SigMF Recording and hash is the SHA512 hash of the Recording's Metadata file N.sigmf-meta.
  5. If a value contains multiple SigMF Recording Tuples, they MUST appear in a JSON array.

The following names are specified in the core namespace for use in the collection object.

name required type description
version true string The version of the SigMF specification used to create the Collection file.
description false string A text description of the SigMF Collection.
author false string The author's name (and optionally e-mail address) of the form "Bruce Wayne".
collection_doi false string The registered DOI (ISO 26324) for a Collection.
license false string A URL for the license document under which this Collection metadata is offered.
hagl false SigMF Recording Tuple Antenna height above ground level (in meters).
extensions false array A list of objects describing extensions used by this Collection.
streams false array An ordered array of SigMF Recording Tuples, indicating multiple recorded streams of data (e.g., phased array collections).

Example top-level.sigmf-collection file:

    "collection": {
       "core:version": "v1.0.0",

        "core:extensions" : [
            "name": "antenna",
            "version": "1.0.0",
            "optional": false

        "core:hagl": ["hagl-basename", "hash"],

        "antenna:azimuth_angle": ["azimuth-angle-basename", "hash"],

        "core:streams": [
            ["example-channel-0-basename", "hash"],
            ["example-channel-1-basename", "hash"]


Open licenses are recommended but you can specify any license. You can refer to resources provided by the Open Data Commons when deciding which open license fits your needs best. Cornell University has also created a guide to help you make these choices.

SigMF Compliance by Applications

In order to be SigMF Compliant, an application must meet the following requirements:

  1. Adheres to and supports the file rules, dataset formats, objects, namespaces, and names specified by this document.
  2. Must be able to ignore any object or namespace not specified by this document and still function normally.
  3. Capture Segments referring to non-existent samples should be ignored.
  4. Must treat consecutive Capture Segments whose metadata is equivalent for purposes of that application (i.e., it may be different in values ignored by the application such as optional values or unknown extensions) as it would a single segment.
  5. Supports all fields in the core namespace.

Citing SigMF

To cite the SigMF specification, we recommend the following format:

The Signal Metadata Format (SigMF), <release>, <date of release>,


This specification originated at the DARPA Brussels Hackfest 2017.