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Front Matter
Hugo allows you to add front matter in yaml, toml, or json to your content files.
2017-01-09
2017-01-09
2017-02-24
content management
front matter
yaml
toml
json
metadata
archetypes
docs
parent weight
content-management
30
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false
/content/front-matter/
true

Front matter allows you to keep metadata attached to an instance of a content type---i.e., embedded inside a content file---and is one of the many features that gives Hugo its strength.

{{< youtube Yh2xKRJGff4 >}}

Front Matter Formats

Hugo supports four formats for front matter, each with their own identifying tokens.

TOML : identified by opening and closing +++.

YAML : identified by opening and closing ---.

JSON : a single JSON object surrounded by '{' and '}', followed by a new line.

ORG : a group of Org mode keywords in the format '#+KEY: VALUE'. Any line that does not start with #+ ends the front matter section. Keyword values can be either strings (#+KEY: VALUE) or a whitespace separated list of strings (#+KEY[]: VALUE_1 VALUE_2).

Example

{{< code-toggle >}} title = "spf13-vim 3.0 release and new website" description = "spf13-vim is a cross platform distribution of vim plugins and resources for Vim." tags = [ ".vimrc", "plugins", "spf13-vim", "vim" ] date = "2012-04-06" categories = [ "Development", "VIM" ] slug = "spf13-vim-3-0-release-and-new-website" {{< /code-toggle >}}

Front Matter Variables

Predefined

There are a few predefined variables that Hugo is aware of. See Page Variables for how to call many of these predefined variables in your templates.

aliases : an array of one or more aliases (e.g., old published paths of renamed content) that will be created in the output directory structure . See Aliases for details.

audio : an array of paths to audio files related to the page; used by the opengraph internal template to populate og:audio.

cascade : a map of Front Matter keys whose values are passed down to the page's descendents unless overwritten by self or a closer ancestor's cascade. See Front Matter Cascade for details.

date : the datetime assigned to this page. This is usually fetched from the date field in front matter, but this behaviour is configurable.

description : the description for the content.

draft : if true, the content will not be rendered unless the --buildDrafts flag is passed to the hugo command.

expiryDate : the datetime at which the content should no longer be published by Hugo; expired content will not be rendered unless the --buildExpired flag is passed to the hugo command.

headless : if true, sets a leaf bundle to be headless.

images : an array of paths to images related to the page; used by internal templates such as _internal/twitter_cards.html.

isCJKLanguage : if true, Hugo will explicitly treat the content as a CJK language; both .Summary and .WordCount work properly in CJK languages.

keywords : the meta keywords for the content.

layout : the layout Hugo should select from the lookup order when rendering the content. If a type is not specified in the front matter, Hugo will look for the layout of the same name in the layout directory that corresponds with a content's section. See "Defining a Content Type"

lastmod : the datetime at which the content was last modified.

linkTitle : used for creating links to content; if set, Hugo defaults to using the linktitle before the title. Hugo can also order lists of content by linktitle.

markup : experimental; specify "rst" for reStructuredText (requiresrst2html) or "md" (default) for Markdown.

outputs : allows you to specify output formats specific to the content. See output formats.

publishDate : if in the future, content will not be rendered unless the --buildFuture flag is passed to hugo.

resources : used for configuring page bundle resources. See Page Resources.

series : an array of series this page belongs to, as a subset of the series taxonomy; used by the opengraph internal template to populate og:see_also.

slug : appears as the tail of the output URL. A value specified in front matter will override the segment of the URL based on the filename.

summary : text used when providing a summary of the article in the .Summary page variable; details available in the content-summaries section.

title : the title for the content.

type : the type of the content; this value will be automatically derived from the directory (i.e., the section) if not specified in front matter.

url : the full path to the content from the web root. It makes no assumptions about the path of the content file. It also ignores any language prefixes of the multilingual feature.

videos : an array of paths to videos related to the page; used by the opengraph internal template to populate og:video.

weight : used for ordering your content in lists. Lower weight gets higher precedence. So content with lower weight will come first. If set, weights should be non-zero, as 0 is interpreted as an unset weight.

<taxonomies> : field name of the plural form of the index. See tags and categories in the above front matter examples. Note that the plural form of user-defined taxonomies cannot be the same as any of the predefined front matter variables.

{{% note "Hugo's Default URL Destinations" %}} If neither slug nor url is present and permalinks are not configured otherwise in your site config file, Hugo will use the filename of your content to create the output URL. See Content Organization for an explanation of paths in Hugo and URL Management for ways to customize Hugo's default behaviors. {{% /note %}}

User-Defined

You can add fields to your front matter arbitrarily to meet your needs. These user-defined key-values are placed into a single .Params variable for use in your templates.

The following fields can be accessed via .Params.include_toc and .Params.show_comments, respectively. The Variables section provides more information on using Hugo's page- and site-level variables in your templates.

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} include_toc: true show_comments: false {{</ code-toggle >}}

Front Matter Cascade

Any node or section can pass down to descendents a set of Front Matter values as long as defined underneath the reserved cascade Front Matter key.

Target Specific Pages

{{< new-in "0.76.0" >}}

Since Hugo 0.76 the cascade block can be a slice with a optional _target keyword, allowing for multiple cascade values targeting different page sets.

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} title ="Blog" [[cascade]] background = "yosemite.jpg" [cascade._target] path="/blog/**" lang="en" kind="page" [[cascade]] background = "goldenbridge.jpg" [cascade._target] kind="section" {{</ code-toggle >}}

Keywords available for _target:

path : A Glob pattern matching the content path below /content. Expects Unix-styled slashes. Note that this is the virtual path, so it starts at the mount root. The matching support double-asterisks so you can match for patterns like /blog/*/** to match anything from the third level and down.

kind : The Page's Kind, e.g. "section".

lang : A Glob pattern matching the Page's language, e.g. "{en,sv}".

Any of the above can be omitted.

Example

In content/blog/_index.md

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} title: Blog cascade: banner: images/typewriter.jpg {{</ code-toggle >}}

With the above example the Blog section page and its descendents will return images/typewriter.jpg when .Params.banner is invoked unless:

  • Said descendent has its own banner value set
  • Or a closer ancestor node has its own cascade.banner value set.

Order Content Through Front Matter

You can assign content-specific weight in the front matter of your content. These values are especially useful for ordering in list views. You can use weight for ordering of content and the convention of <TAXONOMY>_weight for ordering content within a taxonomy. See Ordering and Grouping Hugo Lists to see how weight can be used to organize your content in list views.

Override Global Markdown Configuration

It's possible to set some options for Markdown rendering in a content's front matter as an override to the BlackFriday rendering options set in your project configuration.

Front Matter Format Specs