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Taxonomies
Hugo includes support for user-defined taxonomies to help you demonstrate logical relationships between content for the end users of your website.
2017-02-01
2017-02-01
2017-02-01
taxonomies
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docs
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/taxonomies/overview/
/taxonomies/usage/
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What is a Taxonomy?

Hugo includes support for user-defined groupings of content called taxonomies. Taxonomies are classifications of logical relationships between content.

Definitions

Taxonomy : a categorization that can be used to classify content

Term : a key within the taxonomy

Value : a piece of content assigned to a term

{{< youtube pCPCQgqC8RA >}}

Example Taxonomy: Movie Website

Let's assume you are making a website about movies. You may want to include the following taxonomies:

  • Actors
  • Directors
  • Studios
  • Genre
  • Year
  • Awards

Then, in each of the movies, you would specify terms for each of these taxonomies (i.e., in the front matter of each of your movie content files). From these terms, Hugo would automatically create pages for each Actor, Director, Studio, Genre, Year, and Award, with each listing all of the Movies that matched that specific Actor, Director, Studio, Genre, Year, and Award.

Movie Taxonomy Organization

To continue with the example of a movie site, the following demonstrates content relationships from the perspective of the taxonomy:

Actor                    <- Taxonomy
    Bruce Willis         <- Term
        The Sixth Sense  <- Value
        Unbreakable      <- Value
        Moonrise Kingdom <- Value
    Samuel L. Jackson    <- Term
        Unbreakable      <- Value
        The Avengers     <- Value
        xXx              <- Value

From the perspective of the content, the relationships would appear differently, although the data and labels used are the same:

Unbreakable                 <- Value
    Actors                  <- Taxonomy
        Bruce Willis        <- Term
        Samuel L. Jackson   <- Term
    Director                <- Taxonomy
        M. Night Shyamalan  <- Term
    ...
Moonrise Kingdom            <- Value
    Actors                  <- Taxonomy
        Bruce Willis        <- Term
        Bill Murray         <- Term
    Director                <- Taxonomy
        Wes Anderson        <- Term
    ...

Hugo Taxonomy Defaults {#default-taxonomies}

Hugo natively supports taxonomies.

Without adding a single line to your site config file, Hugo will automatically create taxonomies for tags and categories. That would be the same as manually configuring your taxonomies as below:

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} [taxonomies] tag = "tags" category = "categories" {{</ code-toggle >}}

If you do not want Hugo to create any taxonomies, set disableKinds in your site config to the following:

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} disableKinds = ["taxonomy","taxonomyTerm"] {{</ code-toggle >}}

Default Destinations

When taxonomies are used---and taxonomy templates are provided---Hugo will automatically create both a page listing all the taxonomy's terms and individual pages with lists of content associated with each term. For example, a categories taxonomy declared in your configuration and used in your content front matter will create the following pages:

Configure Taxonomies {#configuring-taxonomies}

Custom taxonomies other than the defaults must be defined in your site config before they can be used throughout the site. You need to provide both the plural and singular labels for each taxonomy. For example, singular key = "plural value" for TOML and singular key: "plural value" for YAML.

Example: Adding a custom taxonomy named "series"

{{% note %}} While adding custom taxonomies, you need to put in the default taxonomies too, if you want to keep them. {{% /note %}}

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} [taxonomies] tag = "tags" category = "categories" series = "series" {{</ code-toggle >}}

Example: Removing default taxonomies

If you want to have just the default tags taxonomy, and remove the categories taxonomy for your site, you can do so by modifying the taxonomies value in your site config.

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} [taxonomies] tag = "tags" {{</ code-toggle >}}

If you want to disable all taxonomies altogether, see the use of disableKinds in Hugo Taxonomy Defaults.

Preserve Taxonomy Values

By default, taxonomy names are normalized.

Therefore, if you want to have a taxonomy term with special characters such as Gérard Depardieu instead of Gerard Depardieu, set the value for preserveTaxonomyNames to true in your site config. Hugo will then preserve special characters in taxonomy values but will still normalize them in URLs.

Note that if you use preserveTaxonomyNames and intend to manually construct URLs to the archive pages, you will need to pass the taxonomy values through the urlize template function.

{{% note %}} You can add content and front matter to your taxonomy list and taxonomy terms pages. See Content Organization for more information on how to add an _index.md for this purpose.

Much like regular pages, taxonomy list permalinks are configurable, but taxonomy term page permalinks are not. {{% /note %}}

{{% warning "preserveTaxonomyNames behaviour change" %}} Before 0.49, Hugo would make the first character upper case for the taxonomy values for titles even if preserveTaxonomyNames was active. This no longer the case, which (for instance) makes it possible to have fully lower-case values.

If you actually need to title-ize these values, you can do so using the strings.FirstUpper template function. {{% /warning %}}

Add Taxonomies to Content

Once a taxonomy is defined at the site level, any piece of content can be assigned to it, regardless of content type or content section.

Assigning content to a taxonomy is done in the front matter. Simply create a variable with the plural name of the taxonomy and assign all terms you want to apply to the instance of the content type.

{{% note %}} If you would like the ability to quickly generate content files with preconfigured taxonomies or terms, read the docs on Hugo archetypes. {{% /note %}}

Example: Front Matter with Taxonomies

{{< code-toggle copy="false">}} title = "Hugo: A fast and flexible static site generator" tags = [ "Development", "Go", "fast", "Blogging" ] categories = [ "Development" ] series = [ "Go Web Dev" ] slug = "hugo" project_url = "https://github.com/gohugoio/hugo" {{</ code-toggle >}}

Order Taxonomies

A content file can assign weight for each of its associate taxonomies. Taxonomic weight can be used for sorting or ordering content in taxonomy list templates and is declared in a content file's front matter. The convention for declaring taxonomic weight is taxonomyname_weight.

The following TOML and YAML examples show a piece of content that has a weight of 22, which can be used for ordering purposes when rendering the pages assigned to the "a", "b" and "c" values of the tags taxonomy. It has also been assigned the weight of 44 when rendering the "d" category page.

Example: Taxonomic weight

{{< code-toggle copy="false" >}} title = "foo" tags = [ "a", "b", "c" ] tags_weight = 22 categories = ["d"] categories_weight = 44 {{</ code-toggle >}}

By using taxonomic weight, the same piece of content can appear in different positions in different taxonomies.

{{% note "Limits to Ordering Taxonomies" %}} Currently taxonomies only support the default weight => date ordering of list content. For more information, see the documentation on taxonomy templates. {{% /note %}}

Add custom metadata to a Taxonomy Term

If you need to add custom metadata to your taxonomy terms, you will need to create a page for that term at /content/<TAXONOMY>/<TERM>/_index.md and add your metadata in it's front matter. Continuing with our 'Actors' example, let's say you want to add a wikipedia page link to each actor. Your terms pages would be something like this:

{{< code file="/content/actors/bruce-willis/_index.md" >}}

title: "Bruce Willis" wikipedia: "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Willis"

{{< /code >}}

You can later use your custom metadata as shown in the Taxonomy Terms Templates documentation.