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Custom Output Formats
Custom Output Formats
Hugo can output content in multiple formats, including calendar events, e-book formats, Google AMP, and JSON search indexes, or any custom text format.
2017-03-22
2017-03-22
2017-03-22
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This page describes how to properly configure your site with the media types and output formats, as well as where to create your templates for your custom outputs.

Media Types

A media type (also known as MIME type and content type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet.

This is the full set of built-in media types in Hugo:

{{< datatable "media" "types" "type" "suffix" >}}

Note:

  • It is possible to add custom media types or change the defaults; e.g., if you want to change the suffix for text/html to asp.
  • The Suffix is the value that will be used for URLs and filenames for that media type in Hugo.
  • The Type is the identifier that must be used when defining new/custom Output Formats (see below).
  • The full set of media types will be registered in Hugo's built-in development server to make sure they are recognized by the browser.

To add or modify a media type, define it in a mediaTypes section in your site configuration, either for all sites or for a given language.

{{< code-toggle file="config" >}} [mediaTypes] [mediaTypes."text/enriched"] suffix = "enr" [mediaTypes."text/html"] suffix = "asp" {{</ code-toggle >}}

The above example adds one new media type, text/enriched, and changes the suffix for the built-in text/html media type.

Note: these media types are configured for your output formats. If you want to redefine one of Hugo's default output formats (e.g. HTML), you also need to redefine the output format. So, if you want to change the suffix of the HTML output format from html (default) to htm:

[mediaTypes]
[mediaTypes."text/html"]
suffix = "htm"

# Redefine HTML to update its media type.
[outputFormats]
[outputFormats.HTML]
mediaType = "text/html"

Note that for the above to work, you also need to add an outputs definition in your site config.

Output Format Definitions

Given a media type and some additional configuration, you get an Output Format.

This is the full set of Hugo's built-in output formats:

{{< datatable "output" "formats" "name" "mediaType" "path" "baseName" "rel" "protocol" "isPlainText" "isHTML" "noUgly" "permalinkable" >}}

  • A page can be output in as many output formats as you want, and you can have an infinite amount of output formats defined as long as they resolve to a unique path on the file system. In the above table, the best example of this is AMP vs. HTML. AMP has the value amp for Path so it doesn't overwrite the HTML version; e.g. we can now have both /index.html and /amp/index.html.
  • The MediaType must match the Type of an already defined media type.
  • You can define new output formats or redefine built-in output formats; e.g., if you want to put AMP pages in a different path.

To add or modify an output format, define it in an outputFormats section in your site's configuration file, either for all sites or for a given language.

{{< code-toggle file="config" >}} [outputFormats.MyEnrichedFormat] mediaType = "text/enriched" baseName = "myindex" isPlainText = true protocol = "bep://" {{</ code-toggle >}}

The above example is fictional, but if used for the homepage on a site with baseURL https://example.org, it will produce a plain text homepage with the URL bep://example.org/myindex.enr.

Configure Output Formats

The following is the full list of configuration options for output formats and their default values:

name : the output format identifier. This is used to define what output format(s) you want for your pages.

mediaType : this must match the Type of a defined media type.

path : sub path to save the output files.

baseName : the base filename for the list filenames (homepage, etc.). Default: index.

rel : can be used to create rel values in link tags. Default: alternate.

protocol : will replace the "http://" or "https://" in your baseURL for this output format.

isPlainText : use Go's plain text templates parser for the templates. Default: false.

isHTML : used in situations only relevant for HTML-type formats; e.g., page aliases.

noUgly : used to turn off ugly URLs If uglyURLs is set to true in your site. Default: false.

notAlternative : enable if it doesn't make sense to include this format in an AlternativeOutputFormats format listing on Page (e.g., with CSS). Note that we use the term alternative and not alternate here, as it does not necessarily replace the other format. Default: false.

permalinkable : make .Permalink and .RelPermalink return the rendering Output Format rather than main (see below). This is enabled by default for HTML and AMP. Default: false.

Output Formats for Pages

A Page in Hugo can be rendered to multiple output formats on the file system.

Default Output Formats

Every Page has a Kind attribute, and the default Output Formats are set based on that.

Kind Default Output Formats
page HTML
home HTML, RSS
section HTML, RSS
taxonomyTerm HTML, RSS
taxonomy HTML, RSS

Customizing Output Formats

This can be changed by defining an outputs list of output formats in either the Page front matter or in the site configuration (either for all sites or per language).

Example from site config file:

{{< code-toggle file="config" >}} [outputs] home = ["HTML", "AMP", "RSS"] page = ["HTML"] {{</ code-toggle >}}

Note that in the above examples, the output formats for section, taxonomyTerm and taxonomy will stay at their default value ["HTML", "RSS"].

  • The outputs definition is per Page Kind (page, home, section, taxonomy, or taxonomyTerm).
  • The names (e.g. HTML, AMP) used must match the Name of a defined Output Format.
    • These names are case insensitive.
  • These can be overridden per Page in the front matter of content files.

The following is an example of YAML front matter in a content file that defines output formats for the rendered Page:

---
date: "2016-03-19"
outputs:
- html
- amp
- json
---

List Output formats

Each Page has both an .OutputFormats (all formats, including the current) and an .AlternativeOutputFormats variable, the latter of which is useful for creating a link rel list in your site's <head>:

{{ range .AlternativeOutputFormats -}}
<link rel="{{ .Rel }}" type="{{ .MediaType.Type }}" href="{{ .Permalink | safeURL }}">
{{ end -}}

Link to Output Formats

.Permalink and .RelPermalink on Page will return the first output format defined for that page (usually HTML if nothing else is defined). This is regardless of the template file they are being called from.

from single.json.json:

{{ .RelPermalink }} > /that-page/
{{ with  .OutputFormats.Get "json" -}}
{{ .RelPermalink }} > /that-page/index.json
{{- end }}

In order for them to return the output format of the current template file instead, the given output format should have its permalinkable setting set to true.

Same template file as above with json output format's permalinkable set to true:

{{ .RelPermalink }} > /that-page/index.json
{{ with  .OutputFormats.Get "html" -}}
{{ .RelPermalink }} > /that-page/
{{- end }}

From content files, you can use the ref or relref shortcodes:

[Neat]({{</* ref "blog/neat.md" "amp" */>}})
[Who]({{</* relref "about.md#who" "amp" */>}})

Templates for Your Output Formats

A new output format needs a corresponding template in order to render anything useful.

{{% note %}} The key distinction for Hugo versions 0.20 and newer is that Hugo looks at an output format's Name and MediaType's Suffix when choosing the template used to render a given Page. {{% /note %}}

The following table shows examples of different output formats, the suffix used, and Hugo's respective template lookup order. All of the examples in the table can:

{{< datatable "output" "layouts" "Example" "OutputFormat" "Suffix" "Template Lookup Order" >}}

Hugo will now also detect the media type and output format of partials, if possible, and use that information to decide if the partial should be parsed as a plain text template or not.

Hugo will look for the name given, so you can name it whatever you want. But if you want it treated as plain text, you should use the file suffix and, if needed, the name of the Output Format. The pattern is as follows:

[partial name].[OutputFormat].[suffix]

The partial below is a plain text template (Outpuf Format is CSV, and since this is the only output format with the suffix csv, we don't need to include the Output Format's Name):

{{ partial "mytextpartial.csv" . }}
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