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// Copyright 2012 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package ssh
import (
"bytes"
"errors"
"fmt"
"io"
"net"
"sort"
"time"
)
// These constants from [PROTOCOL.certkeys] represent the algorithm names
// for certificate types supported by this package.
const (
CertAlgoRSAv01 = "ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com"
CertAlgoDSAv01 = "ssh-dss-cert-v01@openssh.com"
CertAlgoECDSA256v01 = "ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com"
CertAlgoECDSA384v01 = "ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com"
CertAlgoECDSA521v01 = "ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com"
CertAlgoED25519v01 = "ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com"
)
// Certificate types distinguish between host and user
// certificates. The values can be set in the CertType field of
// Certificate.
const (
UserCert = 1
HostCert = 2
)
// Signature represents a cryptographic signature.
type Signature struct {
Format string
Blob []byte
}
// CertTimeInfinity can be used for OpenSSHCertV01.ValidBefore to indicate that
// a certificate does not expire.
const CertTimeInfinity = 1<<64 - 1
// An Certificate represents an OpenSSH certificate as defined in
// [PROTOCOL.certkeys]?rev=1.8. The Certificate type implements the
// PublicKey interface, so it can be unmarshaled using
// ParsePublicKey.
type Certificate struct {
Nonce []byte
Key PublicKey
Serial uint64
CertType uint32
KeyId string
ValidPrincipals []string
ValidAfter uint64
ValidBefore uint64
Permissions
Reserved []byte
SignatureKey PublicKey
Signature *Signature
}
// genericCertData holds the key-independent part of the certificate data.
// Overall, certificates contain an nonce, public key fields and
// key-independent fields.
type genericCertData struct {
Serial uint64
CertType uint32
KeyId string
ValidPrincipals []byte
ValidAfter uint64
ValidBefore uint64
CriticalOptions []byte
Extensions []byte
Reserved []byte
SignatureKey []byte
Signature []byte
}
func marshalStringList(namelist []string) []byte {
var to []byte
for _, name := range namelist {
s := struct{ N string }{name}
to = append(to, Marshal(&s)...)
}
return to
}
type optionsTuple struct {
Key string
Value []byte
}
type optionsTupleValue struct {
Value string
}
// serialize a map of critical options or extensions
// issue #10569 - per [PROTOCOL.certkeys] and SSH implementation,
// we need two length prefixes for a non-empty string value
func marshalTuples(tups map[string]string) []byte {
keys := make([]string, 0, len(tups))
for key := range tups {
keys = append(keys, key)
}
sort.Strings(keys)
var ret []byte
for _, key := range keys {
s := optionsTuple{Key: key}
if value := tups[key]; len(value) > 0 {
s.Value = Marshal(&optionsTupleValue{value})
}
ret = append(ret, Marshal(&s)...)
}
return ret
}
// issue #10569 - per [PROTOCOL.certkeys] and SSH implementation,
// we need two length prefixes for a non-empty option value
func parseTuples(in []byte) (map[string]string, error) {
tups := map[string]string{}
var lastKey string
var haveLastKey bool
for len(in) > 0 {
var key, val, extra []byte
var ok bool
if key, in, ok = parseString(in); !ok {
return nil, errShortRead
}
keyStr := string(key)
// according to [PROTOCOL.certkeys], the names must be in
// lexical order.
if haveLastKey && keyStr <= lastKey {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("ssh: certificate options are not in lexical order")
}
lastKey, haveLastKey = keyStr, true
// the next field is a data field, which if non-empty has a string embedded
if val, in, ok = parseString(in); !ok {
return nil, errShortRead
}
if len(val) > 0 {
val, extra, ok = parseString(val)
if !ok {
return nil, errShortRead
}
if len(extra) > 0 {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("ssh: unexpected trailing data after certificate option value")
}
tups[keyStr] = string(val)
} else {
tups[keyStr] = ""
}
}
return tups, nil
}
func parseCert(in []byte, privAlgo string) (*Certificate, error) {
nonce, rest, ok := parseString(in)
if !ok {
return nil, errShortRead
}
key, rest, err := parsePubKey(rest, privAlgo)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
var g genericCertData
if err := Unmarshal(rest, &g); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
c := &Certificate{
Nonce: nonce,
Key: key,
Serial: g.Serial,
CertType: g.CertType,
KeyId: g.KeyId,
ValidAfter: g.ValidAfter,
ValidBefore: g.ValidBefore,
}
for principals := g.ValidPrincipals; len(principals) > 0; {
principal, rest, ok := parseString(principals)
if !ok {
return nil, errShortRead
}
c.ValidPrincipals = append(c.ValidPrincipals, string(principal))
principals = rest
}
c.CriticalOptions, err = parseTuples(g.CriticalOptions)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
c.Extensions, err = parseTuples(g.Extensions)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
c.Reserved = g.Reserved
k, err := ParsePublicKey(g.SignatureKey)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
c.SignatureKey = k
c.Signature, rest, ok = parseSignatureBody(g.Signature)
if !ok || len(rest) > 0 {
return nil, errors.New("ssh: signature parse error")
}
return c, nil
}
type openSSHCertSigner struct {
pub *Certificate
signer Signer
}
// NewCertSigner returns a Signer that signs with the given Certificate, whose
// private key is held by signer. It returns an error if the public key in cert
// doesn't match the key used by signer.
func NewCertSigner(cert *Certificate, signer Signer) (Signer, error) {
if bytes.Compare(cert.Key.Marshal(), signer.PublicKey().Marshal()) != 0 {
return nil, errors.New("ssh: signer and cert have different public key")
}
return &openSSHCertSigner{cert, signer}, nil
}
func (s *openSSHCertSigner) Sign(rand io.Reader, data []byte) (*Signature, error) {
return s.signer.Sign(rand, data)
}
func (s *openSSHCertSigner) PublicKey() PublicKey {
return s.pub
}
const sourceAddressCriticalOption = "source-address"
// CertChecker does the work of verifying a certificate. Its methods
// can be plugged into ClientConfig.HostKeyCallback and
// ServerConfig.PublicKeyCallback. For the CertChecker to work,
// minimally, the IsAuthority callback should be set.
type CertChecker struct {
// SupportedCriticalOptions lists the CriticalOptions that the
// server application layer understands. These are only used
// for user certificates.
SupportedCriticalOptions []string
// IsUserAuthority should return true if the key is recognized as an
// authority for the given user certificate. This allows for
// certificates to be signed by other certificates. This must be set
// if this CertChecker will be checking user certificates.
IsUserAuthority func(auth PublicKey) bool
// IsHostAuthority should report whether the key is recognized as
// an authority for this host. This allows for certificates to be
// signed by other keys, and for those other keys to only be valid
// signers for particular hostnames. This must be set if this
// CertChecker will be checking host certificates.
IsHostAuthority func(auth PublicKey, address string) bool
// Clock is used for verifying time stamps. If nil, time.Now
// is used.
Clock func() time.Time
// UserKeyFallback is called when CertChecker.Authenticate encounters a
// public key that is not a certificate. It must implement validation
// of user keys or else, if nil, all such keys are rejected.
UserKeyFallback func(conn ConnMetadata, key PublicKey) (*Permissions, error)
// HostKeyFallback is called when CertChecker.CheckHostKey encounters a
// public key that is not a certificate. It must implement host key
// validation or else, if nil, all such keys are rejected.
HostKeyFallback HostKeyCallback
// IsRevoked is called for each certificate so that revocation checking
// can be implemented. It should return true if the given certificate
// is revoked and false otherwise. If nil, no certificates are
// considered to have been revoked.
IsRevoked func(cert *Certificate) bool
}
// CheckHostKey checks a host key certificate. This method can be
// plugged into ClientConfig.HostKeyCallback.
func (c *CertChecker) CheckHostKey(addr string, remote net.Addr, key PublicKey) error {
cert, ok := key.(*Certificate)
if !ok {
if c.HostKeyFallback != nil {
return c.HostKeyFallback(addr, remote, key)
}
return errors.New("ssh: non-certificate host key")
}
if cert.CertType != HostCert {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: certificate presented as a host key has type %d", cert.CertType)
}
if !c.IsHostAuthority(cert.SignatureKey, addr) {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: no authorities for hostname: %v", addr)
}
hostname, _, err := net.SplitHostPort(addr)
if err != nil {
return err
}
// Pass hostname only as principal for host certificates (consistent with OpenSSH)
return c.CheckCert(hostname, cert)
}
// Authenticate checks a user certificate. Authenticate can be used as
// a value for ServerConfig.PublicKeyCallback.
func (c *CertChecker) Authenticate(conn ConnMetadata, pubKey PublicKey) (*Permissions, error) {
cert, ok := pubKey.(*Certificate)
if !ok {
if c.UserKeyFallback != nil {
return c.UserKeyFallback(conn, pubKey)
}
return nil, errors.New("ssh: normal key pairs not accepted")
}
if cert.CertType != UserCert {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("ssh: cert has type %d", cert.CertType)
}
if !c.IsUserAuthority(cert.SignatureKey) {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("ssh: certificate signed by unrecognized authority")
}
if err := c.CheckCert(conn.User(), cert); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
return &cert.Permissions, nil
}
// CheckCert checks CriticalOptions, ValidPrincipals, revocation, timestamp and
// the signature of the certificate.
func (c *CertChecker) CheckCert(principal string, cert *Certificate) error {
if c.IsRevoked != nil && c.IsRevoked(cert) {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: certificate serial %d revoked", cert.Serial)
}
for opt := range cert.CriticalOptions {
// sourceAddressCriticalOption will be enforced by
// serverAuthenticate
if opt == sourceAddressCriticalOption {
continue
}
found := false
for _, supp := range c.SupportedCriticalOptions {
if supp == opt {
found = true
break
}
}
if !found {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: unsupported critical option %q in certificate", opt)
}
}
if len(cert.ValidPrincipals) > 0 {
// By default, certs are valid for all users/hosts.
found := false
for _, p := range cert.ValidPrincipals {
if p == principal {
found = true
break
}
}
if !found {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: principal %q not in the set of valid principals for given certificate: %q", principal, cert.ValidPrincipals)
}
}
clock := c.Clock
if clock == nil {
clock = time.Now
}
unixNow := clock().Unix()
if after := int64(cert.ValidAfter); after < 0 || unixNow < int64(cert.ValidAfter) {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: cert is not yet valid")
}
if before := int64(cert.ValidBefore); cert.ValidBefore != uint64(CertTimeInfinity) && (unixNow >= before || before < 0) {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: cert has expired")
}
if err := cert.SignatureKey.Verify(cert.bytesForSigning(), cert.Signature); err != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("ssh: certificate signature does not verify")
}
return nil
}
// SignCert sets c.SignatureKey to the authority's public key and stores a
// Signature, by authority, in the certificate.
func (c *Certificate) SignCert(rand io.Reader, authority Signer) error {
c.Nonce = make([]byte, 32)
if _, err := io.ReadFull(rand, c.Nonce); err != nil {
return err
}
c.SignatureKey = authority.PublicKey()
sig, err := authority.Sign(rand, c.bytesForSigning())
if err != nil {
return err
}
c.Signature = sig
return nil
}
var certAlgoNames = map[string]string{
KeyAlgoRSA: CertAlgoRSAv01,
KeyAlgoDSA: CertAlgoDSAv01,
KeyAlgoECDSA256: CertAlgoECDSA256v01,
KeyAlgoECDSA384: CertAlgoECDSA384v01,
KeyAlgoECDSA521: CertAlgoECDSA521v01,
KeyAlgoED25519: CertAlgoED25519v01,
}
// certToPrivAlgo returns the underlying algorithm for a certificate algorithm.
// Panics if a non-certificate algorithm is passed.
func certToPrivAlgo(algo string) string {
for privAlgo, pubAlgo := range certAlgoNames {
if pubAlgo == algo {
return privAlgo
}
}
panic("unknown cert algorithm")
}
func (cert *Certificate) bytesForSigning() []byte {
c2 := *cert
c2.Signature = nil
out := c2.Marshal()
// Drop trailing signature length.
return out[:len(out)-4]
}
// Marshal serializes c into OpenSSH's wire format. It is part of the
// PublicKey interface.
func (c *Certificate) Marshal() []byte {
generic := genericCertData{
Serial: c.Serial,
CertType: c.CertType,
KeyId: c.KeyId,
ValidPrincipals: marshalStringList(c.ValidPrincipals),
ValidAfter: uint64(c.ValidAfter),
ValidBefore: uint64(c.ValidBefore),
CriticalOptions: marshalTuples(c.CriticalOptions),
Extensions: marshalTuples(c.Extensions),
Reserved: c.Reserved,
SignatureKey: c.SignatureKey.Marshal(),
}
if c.Signature != nil {
generic.Signature = Marshal(c.Signature)
}
genericBytes := Marshal(&generic)
keyBytes := c.Key.Marshal()
_, keyBytes, _ = parseString(keyBytes)
prefix := Marshal(&struct {
Name string
Nonce []byte
Key []byte `ssh:"rest"`
}{c.Type(), c.Nonce, keyBytes})
result := make([]byte, 0, len(prefix)+len(genericBytes))
result = append(result, prefix...)
result = append(result, genericBytes...)
return result
}
// Type returns the key name. It is part of the PublicKey interface.
func (c *Certificate) Type() string {
algo, ok := certAlgoNames[c.Key.Type()]
if !ok {
panic("unknown cert key type " + c.Key.Type())
}
return algo
}
// Verify verifies a signature against the certificate's public
// key. It is part of the PublicKey interface.
func (c *Certificate) Verify(data []byte, sig *Signature) error {
return c.Key.Verify(data, sig)
}
func parseSignatureBody(in []byte) (out *Signature, rest []byte, ok bool) {
format, in, ok := parseString(in)
if !ok {
return
}
out = &Signature{
Format: string(format),
}
if out.Blob, in, ok = parseString(in); !ok {
return
}
return out, in, ok
}
func parseSignature(in []byte) (out *Signature, rest []byte, ok bool) {
sigBytes, rest, ok := parseString(in)
if !ok {
return
}
out, trailing, ok := parseSignatureBody(sigBytes)
if !ok || len(trailing) > 0 {
return nil, nil, false
}
return
}