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// Copyright 2014 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package runtime
import (
"internal/cpu"
"runtime/internal/atomic"
"runtime/internal/sys"
"unsafe"
)
var buildVersion = sys.TheVersion
// set using cmd/go/internal/modload.ModInfoProg
var modinfo string
// Goroutine scheduler
// The scheduler's job is to distribute ready-to-run goroutines over worker threads.
//
// The main concepts are:
// G - goroutine.
// M - worker thread, or machine.
// P - processor, a resource that is required to execute Go code.
// M must have an associated P to execute Go code, however it can be
// blocked or in a syscall w/o an associated P.
//
// Design doc at https://golang.org/s/go11sched.
// Worker thread parking/unparking.
// We need to balance between keeping enough running worker threads to utilize
// available hardware parallelism and parking excessive running worker threads
// to conserve CPU resources and power. This is not simple for two reasons:
// (1) scheduler state is intentionally distributed (in particular, per-P work
// queues), so it is not possible to compute global predicates on fast paths;
// (2) for optimal thread management we would need to know the future (don't park
// a worker thread when a new goroutine will be readied in near future).
//
// Three rejected approaches that would work badly:
// 1. Centralize all scheduler state (would inhibit scalability).
// 2. Direct goroutine handoff. That is, when we ready a new goroutine and there
// is a spare P, unpark a thread and handoff it the thread and the goroutine.
// This would lead to thread state thrashing, as the thread that readied the
// goroutine can be out of work the very next moment, we will need to park it.
// Also, it would destroy locality of computation as we want to preserve
// dependent goroutines on the same thread; and introduce additional latency.
// 3. Unpark an additional thread whenever we ready a goroutine and there is an
// idle P, but don't do handoff. This would lead to excessive thread parking/
// unparking as the additional threads will instantly park without discovering
// any work to do.
//
// The current approach:
// We unpark an additional thread when we ready a goroutine if (1) there is an
// idle P and there are no "spinning" worker threads. A worker thread is considered
// spinning if it is out of local work and did not find work in global run queue/
// netpoller; the spinning state is denoted in m.spinning and in sched.nmspinning.
// Threads unparked this way are also considered spinning; we don't do goroutine
// handoff so such threads are out of work initially. Spinning threads do some
// spinning looking for work in per-P run queues before parking. If a spinning
// thread finds work it takes itself out of the spinning state and proceeds to
// execution. If it does not find work it takes itself out of the spinning state
// and then parks.
// If there is at least one spinning thread (sched.nmspinning>1), we don't unpark
// new threads when readying goroutines. To compensate for that, if the last spinning
// thread finds work and stops spinning, it must unpark a new spinning thread.
// This approach smooths out unjustified spikes of thread unparking,
// but at the same time guarantees eventual maximal CPU parallelism utilization.
//
// The main implementation complication is that we need to be very careful during
// spinning->non-spinning thread transition. This transition can race with submission
// of a new goroutine, and either one part or another needs to unpark another worker
// thread. If they both fail to do that, we can end up with semi-persistent CPU
// underutilization. The general pattern for goroutine readying is: submit a goroutine
// to local work queue, #StoreLoad-style memory barrier, check sched.nmspinning.
// The general pattern for spinning->non-spinning transition is: decrement nmspinning,
// #StoreLoad-style memory barrier, check all per-P work queues for new work.
// Note that all this complexity does not apply to global run queue as we are not
// sloppy about thread unparking when submitting to global queue. Also see comments
// for nmspinning manipulation.
var (
m0 m
g0 g
raceprocctx0 uintptr
)
//go:linkname runtime_inittask runtime..inittask
var runtime_inittask initTask
//go:linkname main_inittask main..inittask
var main_inittask initTask
// main_init_done is a signal used by cgocallbackg that initialization
// has been completed. It is made before _cgo_notify_runtime_init_done,
// so all cgo calls can rely on it existing. When main_init is complete,
// it is closed, meaning cgocallbackg can reliably receive from it.
var main_init_done chan bool
//go:linkname main_main main.main
func main_main()
// mainStarted indicates that the main M has started.
var mainStarted bool
// runtimeInitTime is the nanotime() at which the runtime started.
var runtimeInitTime int64
// Value to use for signal mask for newly created M's.
var initSigmask sigset
// The main goroutine.
func main() {
g := getg()
// Racectx of m0->g0 is used only as the parent of the main goroutine.
// It must not be used for anything else.
g.m.g0.racectx = 0
// Max stack size is 1 GB on 64-bit, 250 MB on 32-bit.
// Using decimal instead of binary GB and MB because
// they look nicer in the stack overflow failure message.
if sys.PtrSize == 8 {
maxstacksize = 1000000000
} else {
maxstacksize = 250000000
}
// Allow newproc to start new Ms.
mainStarted = true
if GOARCH != "wasm" { // no threads on wasm yet, so no sysmon
systemstack(func() {
newm(sysmon, nil)
})
}
// Lock the main goroutine onto this, the main OS thread,
// during initialization. Most programs won't care, but a few
// do require certain calls to be made by the main thread.
// Those can arrange for main.main to run in the main thread
// by calling runtime.LockOSThread during initialization
// to preserve the lock.
lockOSThread()
if g.m != &m0 {
throw("runtime.main not on m0")
}
doInit(&runtime_inittask) // must be before defer
if nanotime() == 0 {
throw("nanotime returning zero")
}
// Defer unlock so that runtime.Goexit during init does the unlock too.
needUnlock := true
defer func() {
if needUnlock {
unlockOSThread()
}
}()
// Record when the world started.
runtimeInitTime = nanotime()
gcenable()
main_init_done = make(chan bool)
if iscgo {
if _cgo_thread_start == nil {
throw("_cgo_thread_start missing")
}
if GOOS != "windows" {
if _cgo_setenv == nil {
throw("_cgo_setenv missing")
}
if _cgo_unsetenv == nil {
throw("_cgo_unsetenv missing")
}
}
if _cgo_notify_runtime_init_done == nil {
throw("_cgo_notify_runtime_init_done missing")
}
// Start the template thread in case we enter Go from
// a C-created thread and need to create a new thread.
startTemplateThread()
cgocall(_cgo_notify_runtime_init_done, nil)
}
doInit(&main_inittask)
close(main_init_done)
needUnlock = false
unlockOSThread()
if isarchive || islibrary {
// A program compiled with -buildmode=c-archive or c-shared
// has a main, but it is not executed.
return
}
fn := main_main // make an indirect call, as the linker doesn't know the address of the main package when laying down the runtime
fn()
if raceenabled {
racefini()
}
// Make racy client program work: if panicking on
// another goroutine at the same time as main returns,
// let the other goroutine finish printing the panic trace.
// Once it does, it will exit. See issues 3934 and 20018.
if atomic.Load(&runningPanicDefers) != 0 {
// Running deferred functions should not take long.
for c := 0; c < 1000; c++ {
if atomic.Load(&runningPanicDefers) == 0 {
break
}
Gosched()
}
}
if atomic.Load(&panicking) != 0 {
gopark(nil, nil, waitReasonPanicWait, traceEvGoStop, 1)
}
exit(0)
for {
var x *int32
*x = 0
}
}
// os_beforeExit is called from os.Exit(0).
//go:linkname os_beforeExit os.runtime_beforeExit
func os_beforeExit() {
if raceenabled {
racefini()
}
}
// start forcegc helper goroutine
func init() {
go forcegchelper()
}
func forcegchelper() {
forcegc.g = getg()
for {
lock(&forcegc.lock)
if forcegc.idle != 0 {
throw("forcegc: phase error")
}
atomic.Store(&forcegc.idle, 1)
goparkunlock(&forcegc.lock, waitReasonForceGGIdle, traceEvGoBlock, 1)
// this goroutine is explicitly resumed by sysmon
if debug.gctrace > 0 {
println("GC forced")
}
// Time-triggered, fully concurrent.
gcStart(gcTrigger{kind: gcTriggerTime, now: nanotime()})
}
}
//go:nosplit
// Gosched yields the processor, allowing other goroutines to run. It does not
// suspend the current goroutine, so execution resumes automatically.
func Gosched() {
checkTimeouts()
mcall(gosched_m)
}
// goschedguarded yields the processor like gosched, but also checks
// for forbidden states and opts out of the yield in those cases.
//go:nosplit
func goschedguarded() {
mcall(goschedguarded_m)
}
// Puts the current goroutine into a waiting state and calls unlockf.
// If unlockf returns false, the goroutine is resumed.
// unlockf must not access this G's stack, as it may be moved between
// the call to gopark and the call to unlockf.
// Reason explains why the goroutine has been parked.
// It is displayed in stack traces and heap dumps.
// Reasons should be unique and descriptive.
// Do not re-use reasons, add new ones.
func gopark(unlockf func(*g, unsafe.Pointer) bool, lock unsafe.Pointer, reason waitReason, traceEv byte, traceskip int) {
if reason != waitReasonSleep {
checkTimeouts() // timeouts may expire while two goroutines keep the scheduler busy
}
mp := acquirem()
gp := mp.curg
status := readgstatus(gp)
if status != _Grunning && status != _Gscanrunning {
throw("gopark: bad g status")
}
mp.waitlock = lock
mp.waitunlockf = unlockf
gp.waitreason = reason
mp.waittraceev = traceEv
mp.waittraceskip = traceskip
releasem(mp)
// can't do anything that might move the G between Ms here.
mcall(park_m)
}
// Puts the current goroutine into a waiting state and unlocks the lock.
// The goroutine can be made runnable again by calling goready(gp).
func goparkunlock(lock *mutex, reason waitReason, traceEv byte, traceskip int) {
gopark(parkunlock_c, unsafe.Pointer(lock), reason, traceEv, traceskip)
}
func goready(gp *g, traceskip int) {
systemstack(func() {
ready(gp, traceskip, true)
})
}
//go:nosplit
func acquireSudog() *sudog {
// Delicate dance: the semaphore implementation calls
// acquireSudog, acquireSudog calls new(sudog),
// new calls malloc, malloc can call the garbage collector,
// and the garbage collector calls the semaphore implementation
// in stopTheWorld.
// Break the cycle by doing acquirem/releasem around new(sudog).
// The acquirem/releasem increments m.locks during new(sudog),
// which keeps the garbage collector from being invoked.
mp := acquirem()
pp := mp.p.ptr()
if len(pp.sudogcache) == 0 {
lock(&sched.sudoglock)
// First, try to grab a batch from central cache.
for len(pp.sudogcache) < cap(pp.sudogcache)/2 && sched.sudogcache != nil {
s := sched.sudogcache
sched.sudogcache = s.next
s.next = nil
pp.sudogcache = append(pp.sudogcache, s)
}
unlock(&sched.sudoglock)
// If the central cache is empty, allocate a new one.
if len(pp.sudogcache) == 0 {
pp.sudogcache = append(pp.sudogcache, new(sudog))
}
}
n := len(pp.sudogcache)
s := pp.sudogcache[n-1]
pp.sudogcache[n-1] = nil
pp.sudogcache = pp.sudogcache[:n-1]
if s.elem != nil {
throw("acquireSudog: found s.elem != nil in cache")
}
releasem(mp)
return s
}
//go:nosplit
func releaseSudog(s *sudog) {
if s.elem != nil {
throw("runtime: sudog with non-nil elem")
}
if s.isSelect {
throw("runtime: sudog with non-false isSelect")
}
if s.next != nil {
throw("runtime: sudog with non-nil next")
}
if s.prev != nil {
throw("runtime: sudog with non-nil prev")
}
if s.waitlink != nil {
throw("runtime: sudog with non-nil waitlink")
}
if s.c != nil {
throw("runtime: sudog with non-nil c")
}
gp := getg()
if gp.param != nil {
throw("runtime: releaseSudog with non-nil gp.param")
}
mp := acquirem() // avoid rescheduling to another P
pp := mp.p.ptr()
if len(pp.sudogcache) == cap(pp.sudogcache) {
// Transfer half of local cache to the central cache.
var first, last *sudog
for len(pp.sudogcache) > cap(pp.sudogcache)/2 {
n := len(pp.sudogcache)
p := pp.sudogcache[n-1]
pp.sudogcache[n-1] = nil
pp.sudogcache = pp.sudogcache[:n-1]
if first == nil {
first = p
} else {
last.next = p
}
last = p
}
lock(&sched.sudoglock)
last.next = sched.sudogcache
sched.sudogcache = first
unlock(&sched.sudoglock)
}
pp.sudogcache = append(pp.sudogcache, s)
releasem(mp)
}
// funcPC returns the entry PC of the function f.
// It assumes that f is a func value. Otherwise the behavior is undefined.
// CAREFUL: In programs with plugins, funcPC can return different values
// for the same function (because there are actually multiple copies of
// the same function in the address space). To be safe, don't use the
// results of this function in any == expression. It is only safe to
// use the result as an address at which to start executing code.
//go:nosplit
func funcPC(f interface{}) uintptr {
return *(*uintptr)(efaceOf(&f).data)
}
// called from assembly
func badmcall(fn func(*g)) {
throw("runtime: mcall called on m->g0 stack")
}
func badmcall2(fn func(*g)) {
throw("runtime: mcall function returned")
}
func badreflectcall() {
panic(plainError("arg size to reflect.call more than 1GB"))
}
var badmorestackg0Msg = "fatal: morestack on g0\n"
//go:nosplit
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func badmorestackg0() {
sp := stringStructOf(&badmorestackg0Msg)
write(2, sp.str, int32(sp.len))
}
var badmorestackgsignalMsg = "fatal: morestack on gsignal\n"
//go:nosplit
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func badmorestackgsignal() {
sp := stringStructOf(&badmorestackgsignalMsg)
write(2, sp.str, int32(sp.len))
}
//go:nosplit
func badctxt() {
throw("ctxt != 0")
}
func lockedOSThread() bool {
gp := getg()
return gp.lockedm != 0 && gp.m.lockedg != 0
}
var (
allgs []*g
allglock mutex
)
func allgadd(gp *g) {
if readgstatus(gp) == _Gidle {
throw("allgadd: bad status Gidle")
}
lock(&allglock)
allgs = append(allgs, gp)
allglen = uintptr(len(allgs))
unlock(&allglock)
}
const (
// Number of goroutine ids to grab from sched.goidgen to local per-P cache at once.
// 16 seems to provide enough amortization, but other than that it's mostly arbitrary number.
_GoidCacheBatch = 16
)
// cpuinit extracts the environment variable GODEBUG from the environment on
// Unix-like operating systems and calls internal/cpu.Initialize.
func cpuinit() {
const prefix = "GODEBUG="
var env string
switch GOOS {
case "aix", "darwin", "dragonfly", "freebsd", "netbsd", "openbsd", "illumos", "solaris", "linux":
cpu.DebugOptions = true
// Similar to goenv_unix but extracts the environment value for
// GODEBUG directly.
// TODO(moehrmann): remove when general goenvs() can be called before cpuinit()
n := int32(0)
for argv_index(argv, argc+1+n) != nil {
n++
}
for i := int32(0); i < n; i++ {
p := argv_index(argv, argc+1+i)
s := *(*string)(unsafe.Pointer(&stringStruct{unsafe.Pointer(p), findnull(p)}))
if hasPrefix(s, prefix) {
env = gostring(p)[len(prefix):]
break
}
}
}
cpu.Initialize(env)
// Support cpu feature variables are used in code generated by the compiler
// to guard execution of instructions that can not be assumed to be always supported.
x86HasPOPCNT = cpu.X86.HasPOPCNT
x86HasSSE41 = cpu.X86.HasSSE41
x86HasFMA = cpu.X86.HasFMA
armHasVFPv4 = cpu.ARM.HasVFPv4
arm64HasATOMICS = cpu.ARM64.HasATOMICS
}
// The bootstrap sequence is:
//
// call osinit
// call schedinit
// make & queue new G
// call runtime·mstart
//
// The new G calls runtime·main.
func schedinit() {
// raceinit must be the first call to race detector.
// In particular, it must be done before mallocinit below calls racemapshadow.
_g_ := getg()
if raceenabled {
_g_.racectx, raceprocctx0 = raceinit()
}
sched.maxmcount = 10000
tracebackinit()
moduledataverify()
stackinit()
mallocinit()
fastrandinit() // must run before mcommoninit
mcommoninit(_g_.m)
cpuinit() // must run before alginit
alginit() // maps must not be used before this call
modulesinit() // provides activeModules
typelinksinit() // uses maps, activeModules
itabsinit() // uses activeModules
msigsave(_g_.m)
initSigmask = _g_.m.sigmask
goargs()
goenvs()
parsedebugvars()
gcinit()
sched.lastpoll = uint64(nanotime())
procs := ncpu
if n, ok := atoi32(gogetenv("GOMAXPROCS")); ok && n > 0 {
procs = n
}
if procresize(procs) != nil {
throw("unknown runnable goroutine during bootstrap")
}
// For cgocheck > 1, we turn on the write barrier at all times
// and check all pointer writes. We can't do this until after
// procresize because the write barrier needs a P.
if debug.cgocheck > 1 {
writeBarrier.cgo = true
writeBarrier.enabled = true
for _, p := range allp {
p.wbBuf.reset()
}
}
if buildVersion == "" {
// Condition should never trigger. This code just serves
// to ensure runtime·buildVersion is kept in the resulting binary.
buildVersion = "unknown"
}
if len(modinfo) == 1 {
// Condition should never trigger. This code just serves
// to ensure runtime·modinfo is kept in the resulting binary.
modinfo = ""
}
}
func dumpgstatus(gp *g) {
_g_ := getg()
print("runtime: gp: gp=", gp, ", goid=", gp.goid, ", gp->atomicstatus=", readgstatus(gp), "\n")
print("runtime: g: g=", _g_, ", goid=", _g_.goid, ", g->atomicstatus=", readgstatus(_g_), "\n")
}
func checkmcount() {
// sched lock is held
if mcount() > sched.maxmcount {
print("runtime: program exceeds ", sched.maxmcount, "-thread limit\n")
throw("thread exhaustion")
}
}
func mcommoninit(mp *m) {
_g_ := getg()
// g0 stack won't make sense for user (and is not necessary unwindable).
if _g_ != _g_.m.g0 {
callers(1, mp.createstack[:])
}
lock(&sched.lock)
if sched.mnext+1 < sched.mnext {
throw("runtime: thread ID overflow")
}
mp.id = sched.mnext
sched.mnext++
checkmcount()
mp.fastrand[0] = uint32(int64Hash(uint64(mp.id), fastrandseed))
mp.fastrand[1] = uint32(int64Hash(uint64(cputicks()), ^fastrandseed))
if mp.fastrand[0]|mp.fastrand[1] == 0 {
mp.fastrand[1] = 1
}
mpreinit(mp)
if mp.gsignal != nil {
mp.gsignal.stackguard1 = mp.gsignal.stack.lo + _StackGuard
}
// Add to allm so garbage collector doesn't free g->m
// when it is just in a register or thread-local storage.
mp.alllink = allm
// NumCgoCall() iterates over allm w/o schedlock,
// so we need to publish it safely.
atomicstorep(unsafe.Pointer(&allm), unsafe.Pointer(mp))
unlock(&sched.lock)
// Allocate memory to hold a cgo traceback if the cgo call crashes.
if iscgo || GOOS == "solaris" || GOOS == "illumos" || GOOS == "windows" {
mp.cgoCallers = new(cgoCallers)
}
}
var fastrandseed uintptr
func fastrandinit() {
s := (*[unsafe.Sizeof(fastrandseed)]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&fastrandseed))[:]
getRandomData(s)
}
// Mark gp ready to run.
func ready(gp *g, traceskip int, next bool) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoUnpark(gp, traceskip)
}
status := readgstatus(gp)
// Mark runnable.
_g_ := getg()
mp := acquirem() // disable preemption because it can be holding p in a local var
if status&^_Gscan != _Gwaiting {
dumpgstatus(gp)
throw("bad g->status in ready")
}
// status is Gwaiting or Gscanwaiting, make Grunnable and put on runq
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
runqput(_g_.m.p.ptr(), gp, next)
if atomic.Load(&sched.npidle) != 0 && atomic.Load(&sched.nmspinning) == 0 {
wakep()
}
releasem(mp)
}
// freezeStopWait is a large value that freezetheworld sets
// sched.stopwait to in order to request that all Gs permanently stop.
const freezeStopWait = 0x7fffffff
// freezing is set to non-zero if the runtime is trying to freeze the
// world.
var freezing uint32
// Similar to stopTheWorld but best-effort and can be called several times.
// There is no reverse operation, used during crashing.
// This function must not lock any mutexes.
func freezetheworld() {
atomic.Store(&freezing, 1)
// stopwait and preemption requests can be lost
// due to races with concurrently executing threads,
// so try several times
for i := 0; i < 5; i++ {
// this should tell the scheduler to not start any new goroutines
sched.stopwait = freezeStopWait
atomic.Store(&sched.gcwaiting, 1)
// this should stop running goroutines
if !preemptall() {
break // no running goroutines
}
usleep(1000)
}
// to be sure
usleep(1000)
preemptall()
usleep(1000)
}
// All reads and writes of g's status go through readgstatus, casgstatus
// castogscanstatus, casfrom_Gscanstatus.
//go:nosplit
func readgstatus(gp *g) uint32 {
return atomic.Load(&gp.atomicstatus)
}
// The Gscanstatuses are acting like locks and this releases them.
// If it proves to be a performance hit we should be able to make these
// simple atomic stores but for now we are going to throw if
// we see an inconsistent state.
func casfrom_Gscanstatus(gp *g, oldval, newval uint32) {
success := false
// Check that transition is valid.
switch oldval {
default:
print("runtime: casfrom_Gscanstatus bad oldval gp=", gp, ", oldval=", hex(oldval), ", newval=", hex(newval), "\n")
dumpgstatus(gp)
throw("casfrom_Gscanstatus:top gp->status is not in scan state")
case _Gscanrunnable,
_Gscanwaiting,
_Gscanrunning,
_Gscansyscall,
_Gscanpreempted:
if newval == oldval&^_Gscan {
success = atomic.Cas(&gp.atomicstatus, oldval, newval)
}
}
if !success {
print("runtime: casfrom_Gscanstatus failed gp=", gp, ", oldval=", hex(oldval), ", newval=", hex(newval), "\n")
dumpgstatus(gp)
throw("casfrom_Gscanstatus: gp->status is not in scan state")
}
}
// This will return false if the gp is not in the expected status and the cas fails.
// This acts like a lock acquire while the casfromgstatus acts like a lock release.
func castogscanstatus(gp *g, oldval, newval uint32) bool {
switch oldval {
case _Grunnable,
_Grunning,
_Gwaiting,
_Gsyscall:
if newval == oldval|_Gscan {
return atomic.Cas(&gp.atomicstatus, oldval, newval)
}
}
print("runtime: castogscanstatus oldval=", hex(oldval), " newval=", hex(newval), "\n")
throw("castogscanstatus")
panic("not reached")
}
// If asked to move to or from a Gscanstatus this will throw. Use the castogscanstatus
// and casfrom_Gscanstatus instead.
// casgstatus will loop if the g->atomicstatus is in a Gscan status until the routine that
// put it in the Gscan state is finished.
//go:nosplit
func casgstatus(gp *g, oldval, newval uint32) {
if (oldval&_Gscan != 0) || (newval&_Gscan != 0) || oldval == newval {
systemstack(func() {
print("runtime: casgstatus: oldval=", hex(oldval), " newval=", hex(newval), "\n")
throw("casgstatus: bad incoming values")
})
}
// See https://golang.org/cl/21503 for justification of the yield delay.
const yieldDelay = 5 * 1000
var nextYield int64
// loop if gp->atomicstatus is in a scan state giving
// GC time to finish and change the state to oldval.
for i := 0; !atomic.Cas(&gp.atomicstatus, oldval, newval); i++ {
if oldval == _Gwaiting && gp.atomicstatus == _Grunnable {
throw("casgstatus: waiting for Gwaiting but is Grunnable")
}
if i == 0 {
nextYield = nanotime() + yieldDelay
}
if nanotime() < nextYield {
for x := 0; x < 10 && gp.atomicstatus != oldval; x++ {
procyield(1)
}
} else {
osyield()
nextYield = nanotime() + yieldDelay/2
}
}
}
// casgstatus(gp, oldstatus, Gcopystack), assuming oldstatus is Gwaiting or Grunnable.
// Returns old status. Cannot call casgstatus directly, because we are racing with an
// async wakeup that might come in from netpoll. If we see Gwaiting from the readgstatus,
// it might have become Grunnable by the time we get to the cas. If we called casgstatus,
// it would loop waiting for the status to go back to Gwaiting, which it never will.
//go:nosplit
func casgcopystack(gp *g) uint32 {
for {
oldstatus := readgstatus(gp) &^ _Gscan
if oldstatus != _Gwaiting && oldstatus != _Grunnable {
throw("copystack: bad status, not Gwaiting or Grunnable")
}
if atomic.Cas(&gp.atomicstatus, oldstatus, _Gcopystack) {
return oldstatus
}
}
}
// casGToPreemptScan transitions gp from _Grunning to _Gscan|_Gpreempted.
//
// TODO(austin): This is the only status operation that both changes
// the status and locks the _Gscan bit. Rethink this.
func casGToPreemptScan(gp *g, old, new uint32) {
if old != _Grunning || new != _Gscan|_Gpreempted {
throw("bad g transition")
}
for !atomic.Cas(&gp.atomicstatus, _Grunning, _Gscan|_Gpreempted) {
}
}
// casGFromPreempted attempts to transition gp from _Gpreempted to
// _Gwaiting. If successful, the caller is responsible for
// re-scheduling gp.
func casGFromPreempted(gp *g, old, new uint32) bool {
if old != _Gpreempted || new != _Gwaiting {
throw("bad g transition")
}
return atomic.Cas(&gp.atomicstatus, _Gpreempted, _Gwaiting)
}
// stopTheWorld stops all P's from executing goroutines, interrupting
// all goroutines at GC safe points and records reason as the reason
// for the stop. On return, only the current goroutine's P is running.
// stopTheWorld must not be called from a system stack and the caller
// must not hold worldsema. The caller must call startTheWorld when
// other P's should resume execution.
//
// stopTheWorld is safe for multiple goroutines to call at the
// same time. Each will execute its own stop, and the stops will
// be serialized.
//
// This is also used by routines that do stack dumps. If the system is
// in panic or being exited, this may not reliably stop all
// goroutines.
func stopTheWorld(reason string) {
semacquire(&worldsema)
getg().m.preemptoff = reason
systemstack(stopTheWorldWithSema)
}
// startTheWorld undoes the effects of stopTheWorld.
func startTheWorld() {
systemstack(func() { startTheWorldWithSema(false) })
// worldsema must be held over startTheWorldWithSema to ensure
// gomaxprocs cannot change while worldsema is held.
semrelease(&worldsema)
getg().m.preemptoff = ""
}
// Holding worldsema grants an M the right to try to stop the world
// and prevents gomaxprocs from changing concurrently.
var worldsema uint32 = 1
// stopTheWorldWithSema is the core implementation of stopTheWorld.
// The caller is responsible for acquiring worldsema and disabling
// preemption first and then should stopTheWorldWithSema on the system
// stack:
//
// semacquire(&worldsema, 0)
// m.preemptoff = "reason"
// systemstack(stopTheWorldWithSema)
//
// When finished, the caller must either call startTheWorld or undo
// these three operations separately:
//
// m.preemptoff = ""
// systemstack(startTheWorldWithSema)
// semrelease(&worldsema)
//
// It is allowed to acquire worldsema once and then execute multiple
// startTheWorldWithSema/stopTheWorldWithSema pairs.
// Other P's are able to execute between successive calls to
// startTheWorldWithSema and stopTheWorldWithSema.
// Holding worldsema causes any other goroutines invoking
// stopTheWorld to block.
func stopTheWorldWithSema() {
_g_ := getg()
// If we hold a lock, then we won't be able to stop another M
// that is blocked trying to acquire the lock.
if _g_.m.locks > 0 {
throw("stopTheWorld: holding locks")
}
lock(&sched.lock)
sched.stopwait = gomaxprocs
atomic.Store(&sched.gcwaiting, 1)
preemptall()
// stop current P
_g_.m.p.ptr().status = _Pgcstop // Pgcstop is only diagnostic.
sched.stopwait--
// try to retake all P's in Psyscall status
for _, p := range allp {
s := p.status
if s == _Psyscall && atomic.Cas(&p.status, s, _Pgcstop) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoSysBlock(p)
traceProcStop(p)
}
p.syscalltick++
sched.stopwait--
}
}
// stop idle P's
for {
p := pidleget()
if p == nil {
break
}
p.status = _Pgcstop
sched.stopwait--
}
wait := sched.stopwait > 0
unlock(&sched.lock)
// wait for remaining P's to stop voluntarily
if wait {
for {
// wait for 100us, then try to re-preempt in case of any races
if notetsleep(&sched.stopnote, 100*1000) {
noteclear(&sched.stopnote)
break
}
preemptall()
}
}
// sanity checks
bad := ""
if sched.stopwait != 0 {
bad = "stopTheWorld: not stopped (stopwait != 0)"
} else {
for _, p := range allp {
if p.status != _Pgcstop {
bad = "stopTheWorld: not stopped (status != _Pgcstop)"
}
}
}
if atomic.Load(&freezing) != 0 {
// Some other thread is panicking. This can cause the
// sanity checks above to fail if the panic happens in
// the signal handler on a stopped thread. Either way,
// we should halt this thread.
lock(&deadlock)
lock(&deadlock)
}
if bad != "" {
throw(bad)
}
}
func startTheWorldWithSema(emitTraceEvent bool) int64 {
mp := acquirem() // disable preemption because it can be holding p in a local var
if netpollinited() {
list := netpoll(0) // non-blocking
injectglist(&list)
}
lock(&sched.lock)
procs := gomaxprocs
if newprocs != 0 {
procs = newprocs
newprocs = 0
}
p1 := procresize(procs)
sched.gcwaiting = 0
if sched.sysmonwait != 0 {
sched.sysmonwait = 0
notewakeup(&sched.sysmonnote)
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
for p1 != nil {
p := p1
p1 = p1.link.ptr()
if p.m != 0 {
mp := p.m.ptr()
p.m = 0
if mp.nextp != 0 {
throw("startTheWorld: inconsistent mp->nextp")
}
mp.nextp.set(p)
notewakeup(&mp.park)
} else {
// Start M to run P. Do not start another M below.
newm(nil, p)
}
}
// Capture start-the-world time before doing clean-up tasks.
startTime := nanotime()
if emitTraceEvent {
traceGCSTWDone()
}
// Wakeup an additional proc in case we have excessive runnable goroutines
// in local queues or in the global queue. If we don't, the proc will park itself.
// If we have lots of excessive work, resetspinning will unpark additional procs as necessary.
if atomic.Load(&sched.npidle) != 0 && atomic.Load(&sched.nmspinning) == 0 {
wakep()
}
releasem(mp)
return startTime
}
// mstart is the entry-point for new Ms.
//
// This must not split the stack because we may not even have stack
// bounds set up yet.
//
// May run during STW (because it doesn't have a P yet), so write
// barriers are not allowed.
//
//go:nosplit
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func mstart() {
_g_ := getg()
osStack := _g_.stack.lo == 0
if osStack {
// Initialize stack bounds from system stack.
// Cgo may have left stack size in stack.hi.
// minit may update the stack bounds.
size := _g_.stack.hi
if size == 0 {
size = 8192 * sys.StackGuardMultiplier
}
_g_.stack.hi = uintptr(noescape(unsafe.Pointer(&size)))
_g_.stack.lo = _g_.stack.hi - size + 1024
}
// Initialize stack guard so that we can start calling regular
// Go code.
_g_.stackguard0 = _g_.stack.lo + _StackGuard
// This is the g0, so we can also call go:systemstack
// functions, which check stackguard1.
_g_.stackguard1 = _g_.stackguard0
mstart1()
// Exit this thread.
switch GOOS {
case "windows", "solaris", "illumos", "plan9", "darwin", "aix":
// Windows, Solaris, illumos, Darwin, AIX and Plan 9 always system-allocate
// the stack, but put it in _g_.stack before mstart,
// so the logic above hasn't set osStack yet.
osStack = true
}
mexit(osStack)
}
func mstart1() {
_g_ := getg()
if _g_ != _g_.m.g0 {
throw("bad runtime·mstart")
}
// Record the caller for use as the top of stack in mcall and
// for terminating the thread.
// We're never coming back to mstart1 after we call schedule,
// so other calls can reuse the current frame.
save(getcallerpc(), getcallersp())
asminit()
minit()
// Install signal handlers; after minit so that minit can
// prepare the thread to be able to handle the signals.
if _g_.m == &m0 {
mstartm0()
}
if fn := _g_.m.mstartfn; fn != nil {
fn()
}
if _g_.m != &m0 {
acquirep(_g_.m.nextp.ptr())
_g_.m.nextp = 0
}
schedule()
}
// mstartm0 implements part of mstart1 that only runs on the m0.
//
// Write barriers are allowed here because we know the GC can't be
// running yet, so they'll be no-ops.
//
//go:yeswritebarrierrec
func mstartm0() {
// Create an extra M for callbacks on threads not created by Go.
// An extra M is also needed on Windows for callbacks created by
// syscall.NewCallback. See issue #6751 for details.
if (iscgo || GOOS == "windows") && !cgoHasExtraM {
cgoHasExtraM = true
newextram()
}
initsig(false)
}
// mexit tears down and exits the current thread.
//
// Don't call this directly to exit the thread, since it must run at
// the top of the thread stack. Instead, use gogo(&_g_.m.g0.sched) to
// unwind the stack to the point that exits the thread.
//
// It is entered with m.p != nil, so write barriers are allowed. It
// will release the P before exiting.
//
//go:yeswritebarrierrec
func mexit(osStack bool) {
g := getg()
m := g.m
if m == &m0 {
// This is the main thread. Just wedge it.
//
// On Linux, exiting the main thread puts the process
// into a non-waitable zombie state. On Plan 9,
// exiting the main thread unblocks wait even though
// other threads are still running. On Solaris we can
// neither exitThread nor return from mstart. Other
// bad things probably happen on other platforms.
//
// We could try to clean up this M more before wedging
// it, but that complicates signal handling.
handoffp(releasep())
lock(&sched.lock)
sched.nmfreed++
checkdead()
unlock(&sched.lock)
notesleep(&m.park)
throw("locked m0 woke up")
}
sigblock()
unminit()
// Free the gsignal stack.
if m.gsignal != nil {
stackfree(m.gsignal.stack)
// On some platforms, when calling into VDSO (e.g. nanotime)
// we store our g on the gsignal stack, if there is one.
// Now the stack is freed, unlink it from the m, so we
// won't write to it when calling VDSO code.
m.gsignal = nil
}
// Remove m from allm.
lock(&sched.lock)
for pprev := &allm; *pprev != nil; pprev = &(*pprev).alllink {
if *pprev == m {
*pprev = m.alllink
goto found
}
}
throw("m not found in allm")
found:
if !osStack {
// Delay reaping m until it's done with the stack.
//
// If this is using an OS stack, the OS will free it
// so there's no need for reaping.
atomic.Store(&m.freeWait, 1)
// Put m on the free list, though it will not be reaped until
// freeWait is 0. Note that the free list must not be linked
// through alllink because some functions walk allm without
// locking, so may be using alllink.
m.freelink = sched.freem
sched.freem = m
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
// Release the P.
handoffp(releasep())
// After this point we must not have write barriers.
// Invoke the deadlock detector. This must happen after
// handoffp because it may have started a new M to take our
// P's work.
lock(&sched.lock)
sched.nmfreed++
checkdead()
unlock(&sched.lock)
if osStack {
// Return from mstart and let the system thread
// library free the g0 stack and terminate the thread.
return
}
// mstart is the thread's entry point, so there's nothing to
// return to. Exit the thread directly. exitThread will clear
// m.freeWait when it's done with the stack and the m can be
// reaped.
exitThread(&m.freeWait)
}
// forEachP calls fn(p) for every P p when p reaches a GC safe point.
// If a P is currently executing code, this will bring the P to a GC
// safe point and execute fn on that P. If the P is not executing code
// (it is idle or in a syscall), this will call fn(p) directly while
// preventing the P from exiting its state. This does not ensure that
// fn will run on every CPU executing Go code, but it acts as a global
// memory barrier. GC uses this as a "ragged barrier."
//
// The caller must hold worldsema.
//
//go:systemstack
func forEachP(fn func(*p)) {
mp := acquirem()
_p_ := getg().m.p.ptr()
lock(&sched.lock)
if sched.safePointWait != 0 {
throw("forEachP: sched.safePointWait != 0")
}
sched.safePointWait = gomaxprocs - 1
sched.safePointFn = fn
// Ask all Ps to run the safe point function.
for _, p := range allp {
if p != _p_ {
atomic.Store(&p.runSafePointFn, 1)
}
}
preemptall()
// Any P entering _Pidle or _Psyscall from now on will observe
// p.runSafePointFn == 1 and will call runSafePointFn when
// changing its status to _Pidle/_Psyscall.
// Run safe point function for all idle Ps. sched.pidle will
// not change because we hold sched.lock.
for p := sched.pidle.ptr(); p != nil; p = p.link.ptr() {
if atomic.Cas(&p.runSafePointFn, 1, 0) {
fn(p)
sched.safePointWait--
}
}
wait := sched.safePointWait > 0
unlock(&sched.lock)
// Run fn for the current P.
fn(_p_)
// Force Ps currently in _Psyscall into _Pidle and hand them
// off to induce safe point function execution.
for _, p := range allp {
s := p.status
if s == _Psyscall && p.runSafePointFn == 1 && atomic.Cas(&p.status, s, _Pidle) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoSysBlock(p)
traceProcStop(p)
}
p.syscalltick++
handoffp(p)
}
}
// Wait for remaining Ps to run fn.
if wait {
for {
// Wait for 100us, then try to re-preempt in
// case of any races.
//
// Requires system stack.
if notetsleep(&sched.safePointNote, 100*1000) {
noteclear(&sched.safePointNote)
break
}
preemptall()
}
}
if sched.safePointWait != 0 {
throw("forEachP: not done")
}
for _, p := range allp {
if p.runSafePointFn != 0 {
throw("forEachP: P did not run fn")
}
}
lock(&sched.lock)
sched.safePointFn = nil
unlock(&sched.lock)
releasem(mp)
}
// runSafePointFn runs the safe point function, if any, for this P.
// This should be called like
//
// if getg().m.p.runSafePointFn != 0 {
// runSafePointFn()
// }
//
// runSafePointFn must be checked on any transition in to _Pidle or
// _Psyscall to avoid a race where forEachP sees that the P is running
// just before the P goes into _Pidle/_Psyscall and neither forEachP
// nor the P run the safe-point function.
func runSafePointFn() {
p := getg().m.p.ptr()
// Resolve the race between forEachP running the safe-point
// function on this P's behalf and this P running the
// safe-point function directly.
if !atomic.Cas(&p.runSafePointFn, 1, 0) {
return
}
sched.safePointFn(p)
lock(&sched.lock)
sched.safePointWait--
if sched.safePointWait == 0 {
notewakeup(&sched.safePointNote)
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
}
// When running with cgo, we call _cgo_thread_start
// to start threads for us so that we can play nicely with
// foreign code.
var cgoThreadStart unsafe.Pointer
type cgothreadstart struct {
g guintptr
tls *uint64
fn unsafe.Pointer
}
// Allocate a new m unassociated with any thread.
// Can use p for allocation context if needed.
// fn is recorded as the new m's m.mstartfn.
//
// This function is allowed to have write barriers even if the caller
// isn't because it borrows _p_.
//
//go:yeswritebarrierrec
func allocm(_p_ *p, fn func()) *m {
_g_ := getg()
acquirem() // disable GC because it can be called from sysmon
if _g_.m.p == 0 {
acquirep(_p_) // temporarily borrow p for mallocs in this function
}
// Release the free M list. We need to do this somewhere and
// this may free up a stack we can use.
if sched.freem != nil {
lock(&sched.lock)
var newList *m
for freem := sched.freem; freem != nil; {
if freem.freeWait != 0 {
next := freem.freelink
freem.freelink = newList
newList = freem
freem = next
continue
}
stackfree(freem.g0.stack)
freem = freem.freelink
}
sched.freem = newList
unlock(&sched.lock)
}
mp := new(m)
mp.mstartfn = fn
mcommoninit(mp)
// In case of cgo or Solaris or illumos or Darwin, pthread_create will make us a stack.
// Windows and Plan 9 will layout sched stack on OS stack.
if iscgo || GOOS == "solaris" || GOOS == "illumos" || GOOS == "windows" || GOOS == "plan9" || GOOS == "darwin" {
mp.g0 = malg(-1)
} else {
mp.g0 = malg(8192 * sys.StackGuardMultiplier)
}
mp.g0.m = mp
if _p_ == _g_.m.p.ptr() {
releasep()
}
releasem(_g_.m)
return mp
}
// needm is called when a cgo callback happens on a
// thread without an m (a thread not created by Go).
// In this case, needm is expected to find an m to use
// and return with m, g initialized correctly.
// Since m and g are not set now (likely nil, but see below)
// needm is limited in what routines it can call. In particular
// it can only call nosplit functions (textflag 7) and cannot
// do any scheduling that requires an m.
//
// In order to avoid needing heavy lifting here, we adopt
// the following strategy: there is a stack of available m's
// that can be stolen. Using compare-and-swap
// to pop from the stack has ABA races, so we simulate
// a lock by doing an exchange (via Casuintptr) to steal the stack
// head and replace the top pointer with MLOCKED (1).
// This serves as a simple spin lock that we can use even
// without an m. The thread that locks the stack in this way
// unlocks the stack by storing a valid stack head pointer.
//
// In order to make sure that there is always an m structure
// available to be stolen, we maintain the invariant that there
// is always one more than needed. At the beginning of the
// program (if cgo is in use) the list is seeded with a single m.
// If needm finds that it has taken the last m off the list, its job
// is - once it has installed its own m so that it can do things like
// allocate memory - to create a spare m and put it on the list.
//
// Each of these extra m's also has a g0 and a curg that are
// pressed into service as the scheduling stack and current
// goroutine for the duration of the cgo callback.
//
// When the callback is done with the m, it calls dropm to
// put the m back on the list.
//go:nosplit
func needm(x byte) {
if (iscgo || GOOS == "windows") && !cgoHasExtraM {
// Can happen if C/C++ code calls Go from a global ctor.
// Can also happen on Windows if a global ctor uses a
// callback created by syscall.NewCallback. See issue #6751
// for details.
//
// Can not throw, because scheduler is not initialized yet.
write(2, unsafe.Pointer(&earlycgocallback[0]), int32(len(earlycgocallback)))
exit(1)
}
// Lock extra list, take head, unlock popped list.
// nilokay=false is safe here because of the invariant above,
// that the extra list always contains or will soon contain
// at least one m.
mp := lockextra(false)
// Set needextram when we've just emptied the list,
// so that the eventual call into cgocallbackg will
// allocate a new m for the extra list. We delay the
// allocation until then so that it can be done
// after exitsyscall makes sure it is okay to be
// running at all (that is, there's no garbage collection
// running right now).
mp.needextram = mp.schedlink == 0
extraMCount--
unlockextra(mp.schedlink.ptr())
// Save and block signals before installing g.
// Once g is installed, any incoming signals will try to execute,
// but we won't have the sigaltstack settings and other data
// set up appropriately until the end of minit, which will
// unblock the signals. This is the same dance as when
// starting a new m to run Go code via newosproc.
msigsave(mp)
sigblock()
// Install g (= m->g0) and set the stack bounds
// to match the current stack. We don't actually know
// how big the stack is, like we don't know how big any
// scheduling stack is, but we assume there's at least 32 kB,
// which is more than enough for us.
setg(mp.g0)
_g_ := getg()
_g_.stack.hi = uintptr(noescape(unsafe.Pointer(&x))) + 1024
_g_.stack.lo = uintptr(noescape(unsafe.Pointer(&x))) - 32*1024
_g_.stackguard0 = _g_.stack.lo + _StackGuard
// Initialize this thread to use the m.
asminit()
minit()
// mp.curg is now a real goroutine.
casgstatus(mp.curg, _Gdead, _Gsyscall)
atomic.Xadd(&sched.ngsys, -1)
}
var earlycgocallback = []byte("fatal error: cgo callback before cgo call\n")
// newextram allocates m's and puts them on the extra list.
// It is called with a working local m, so that it can do things
// like call schedlock and allocate.
func newextram() {
c := atomic.Xchg(&extraMWaiters, 0)
if c > 0 {
for i := uint32(0); i < c; i++ {
oneNewExtraM()
}
} else {
// Make sure there is at least one extra M.
mp := lockextra(true)
unlockextra(mp)
if mp == nil {
oneNewExtraM()
}
}
}
// oneNewExtraM allocates an m and puts it on the extra list.
func oneNewExtraM() {
// Create extra goroutine locked to extra m.
// The goroutine is the context in which the cgo callback will run.
// The sched.pc will never be returned to, but setting it to
// goexit makes clear to the traceback routines where
// the goroutine stack ends.
mp := allocm(nil, nil)
gp := malg(4096)
gp.sched.pc = funcPC(goexit) + sys.PCQuantum
gp.sched.sp = gp.stack.hi
gp.sched.sp -= 4 * sys.RegSize // extra space in case of reads slightly beyond frame
gp.sched.lr = 0
gp.sched.g = guintptr(unsafe.Pointer(gp))
gp.syscallpc = gp.sched.pc
gp.syscallsp = gp.sched.sp
gp.stktopsp = gp.sched.sp
// malg returns status as _Gidle. Change to _Gdead before
// adding to allg where GC can see it. We use _Gdead to hide
// this from tracebacks and stack scans since it isn't a
// "real" goroutine until needm grabs it.
casgstatus(gp, _Gidle, _Gdead)
gp.m = mp
mp.curg = gp
mp.lockedInt++
mp.lockedg.set(gp)
gp.lockedm.set(mp)
gp.goid = int64(atomic.Xadd64(&sched.goidgen, 1))
if raceenabled {
gp.racectx = racegostart(funcPC(newextram) + sys.PCQuantum)
}
// put on allg for garbage collector
allgadd(gp)
// gp is now on the allg list, but we don't want it to be
// counted by gcount. It would be more "proper" to increment
// sched.ngfree, but that requires locking. Incrementing ngsys
// has the same effect.
atomic.Xadd(&sched.ngsys, +1)
// Add m to the extra list.
mnext := lockextra(true)
mp.schedlink.set(mnext)
extraMCount++
unlockextra(mp)
}
// dropm is called when a cgo callback has called needm but is now
// done with the callback and returning back into the non-Go thread.
// It puts the current m back onto the extra list.
//
// The main expense here is the call to signalstack to release the
// m's signal stack, and then the call to needm on the next callback
// from this thread. It is tempting to try to save the m for next time,
// which would eliminate both these costs, but there might not be
// a next time: the current thread (which Go does not control) might exit.
// If we saved the m for that thread, there would be an m leak each time
// such a thread exited. Instead, we acquire and release an m on each
// call. These should typically not be scheduling operations, just a few
// atomics, so the cost should be small.
//
// TODO(rsc): An alternative would be to allocate a dummy pthread per-thread
// variable using pthread_key_create. Unlike the pthread keys we already use
// on OS X, this dummy key would never be read by Go code. It would exist
// only so that we could register at thread-exit-time destructor.
// That destructor would put the m back onto the extra list.
// This is purely a performance optimization. The current version,
// in which dropm happens on each cgo call, is still correct too.
// We may have to keep the current version on systems with cgo
// but without pthreads, like Windows.
func dropm() {
// Clear m and g, and return m to the extra list.
// After the call to setg we can only call nosplit functions
// with no pointer manipulation.
mp := getg().m
// Return mp.curg to dead state.
casgstatus(mp.curg, _Gsyscall, _Gdead)
mp.curg.preemptStop = false
atomic.Xadd(&sched.ngsys, +1)
// Block signals before unminit.
// Unminit unregisters the signal handling stack (but needs g on some systems).
// Setg(nil) clears g, which is the signal handler's cue not to run Go handlers.
// It's important not to try to handle a signal between those two steps.
sigmask := mp.sigmask
sigblock()
unminit()
mnext := lockextra(true)
extraMCount++
mp.schedlink.set(mnext)
setg(nil)
// Commit the release of mp.
unlockextra(mp)
msigrestore(sigmask)
}
// A helper function for EnsureDropM.
func getm() uintptr {
return uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(getg().m))
}
var extram uintptr
var extraMCount uint32 // Protected by lockextra
var extraMWaiters uint32
// lockextra locks the extra list and returns the list head.
// The caller must unlock the list by storing a new list head
// to extram. If nilokay is true, then lockextra will
// return a nil list head if that's what it finds. If nilokay is false,
// lockextra will keep waiting until the list head is no longer nil.
//go:nosplit
func lockextra(nilokay bool) *m {
const locked = 1
incr := false
for {
old := atomic.Loaduintptr(&extram)
if old == locked {
yield := osyield
yield()
continue
}
if old == 0 && !nilokay {
if !incr {
// Add 1 to the number of threads
// waiting for an M.
// This is cleared by newextram.
atomic.Xadd(&extraMWaiters, 1)
incr = true
}
usleep(1)
continue
}
if atomic.Casuintptr(&extram, old, locked) {
return (*m)(unsafe.Pointer(old))
}
yield := osyield
yield()
continue
}
}
//go:nosplit
func unlockextra(mp *m) {
atomic.Storeuintptr(&extram, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(mp)))
}
// execLock serializes exec and clone to avoid bugs or unspecified behaviour
// around exec'ing while creating/destroying threads. See issue #19546.
var execLock rwmutex
// newmHandoff contains a list of m structures that need new OS threads.
// This is used by newm in situations where newm itself can't safely
// start an OS thread.
var newmHandoff struct {
lock mutex
// newm points to a list of M structures that need new OS
// threads. The list is linked through m.schedlink.
newm muintptr
// waiting indicates that wake needs to be notified when an m
// is put on the list.
waiting bool
wake note
// haveTemplateThread indicates that the templateThread has
// been started. This is not protected by lock. Use cas to set
// to 1.
haveTemplateThread uint32
}
// Create a new m. It will start off with a call to fn, or else the scheduler.
// fn needs to be static and not a heap allocated closure.
// May run with m.p==nil, so write barriers are not allowed.
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func newm(fn func(), _p_ *p) {
mp := allocm(_p_, fn)
mp.nextp.set(_p_)
mp.sigmask = initSigmask
if gp := getg(); gp != nil && gp.m != nil && (gp.m.lockedExt != 0 || gp.m.incgo) && GOOS != "plan9" {
// We're on a locked M or a thread that may have been
// started by C. The kernel state of this thread may
// be strange (the user may have locked it for that
// purpose). We don't want to clone that into another
// thread. Instead, ask a known-good thread to create
// the thread for us.
//
// This is disabled on Plan 9. See golang.org/issue/22227.
//
// TODO: This may be unnecessary on Windows, which
// doesn't model thread creation off fork.
lock(&newmHandoff.lock)
if newmHandoff.haveTemplateThread == 0 {
throw("on a locked thread with no template thread")
}
mp.schedlink = newmHandoff.newm
newmHandoff.newm.set(mp)
if newmHandoff.waiting {
newmHandoff.waiting = false
notewakeup(&newmHandoff.wake)
}
unlock(&newmHandoff.lock)
return
}
newm1(mp)
}
func newm1(mp *m) {
if iscgo {
var ts cgothreadstart
if _cgo_thread_start == nil {
throw("_cgo_thread_start missing")
}
ts.g.set(mp.g0)
ts.tls = (*uint64)(unsafe.Pointer(&mp.tls[0]))
ts.fn = unsafe.Pointer(funcPC(mstart))
if msanenabled {
msanwrite(unsafe.Pointer(&ts), unsafe.Sizeof(ts))
}
execLock.rlock() // Prevent process clone.
asmcgocall(_cgo_thread_start, unsafe.Pointer(&ts))
execLock.runlock()
return
}
execLock.rlock() // Prevent process clone.
newosproc(mp)
execLock.runlock()
}
// startTemplateThread starts the template thread if it is not already
// running.
//
// The calling thread must itself be in a known-good state.
func startTemplateThread() {
if GOARCH == "wasm" { // no threads on wasm yet
return
}
if !atomic.Cas(&newmHandoff.haveTemplateThread, 0, 1) {
return
}
newm(templateThread, nil)
}
// templateThread is a thread in a known-good state that exists solely
// to start new threads in known-good states when the calling thread
// may not be in a good state.
//
// Many programs never need this, so templateThread is started lazily
// when we first enter a state that might lead to running on a thread
// in an unknown state.
//
// templateThread runs on an M without a P, so it must not have write
// barriers.
//
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func templateThread() {
lock(&sched.lock)
sched.nmsys++
checkdead()
unlock(&sched.lock)
for {
lock(&newmHandoff.lock)
for newmHandoff.newm != 0 {
newm := newmHandoff.newm.ptr()
newmHandoff.newm = 0
unlock(&newmHandoff.lock)
for newm != nil {
next := newm.schedlink.ptr()
newm.schedlink = 0
newm1(newm)
newm = next
}
lock(&newmHandoff.lock)
}
newmHandoff.waiting = true
noteclear(&newmHandoff.wake)
unlock(&newmHandoff.lock)
notesleep(&newmHandoff.wake)
}
}
// Stops execution of the current m until new work is available.
// Returns with acquired P.
func stopm() {
_g_ := getg()
if _g_.m.locks != 0 {
throw("stopm holding locks")
}
if _g_.m.p != 0 {
throw("stopm holding p")
}
if _g_.m.spinning {
throw("stopm spinning")
}
lock(&sched.lock)
mput(_g_.m)
unlock(&sched.lock)
notesleep(&_g_.m.park)
noteclear(&_g_.m.park)
acquirep(_g_.m.nextp.ptr())
_g_.m.nextp = 0
}
func mspinning() {
// startm's caller incremented nmspinning. Set the new M's spinning.
getg().m.spinning = true
}
// Schedules some M to run the p (creates an M if necessary).
// If p==nil, tries to get an idle P, if no idle P's does nothing.
// May run with m.p==nil, so write barriers are not allowed.
// If spinning is set, the caller has incremented nmspinning and startm will
// either decrement nmspinning or set m.spinning in the newly started M.
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func startm(_p_ *p, spinning bool) {
lock(&sched.lock)
if _p_ == nil {
_p_ = pidleget()
if _p_ == nil {
unlock(&sched.lock)
if spinning {
// The caller incremented nmspinning, but there are no idle Ps,
// so it's okay to just undo the increment and give up.
if int32(atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, -1)) < 0 {
throw("startm: negative nmspinning")
}
}
return
}
}
mp := mget()
unlock(&sched.lock)
if mp == nil {
var fn func()
if spinning {
// The caller incremented nmspinning, so set m.spinning in the new M.
fn = mspinning
}
newm(fn, _p_)
return
}
if mp.spinning {
throw("startm: m is spinning")
}
if mp.nextp != 0 {
throw("startm: m has p")
}
if spinning && !runqempty(_p_) {
throw("startm: p has runnable gs")
}
// The caller incremented nmspinning, so set m.spinning in the new M.
mp.spinning = spinning
mp.nextp.set(_p_)
notewakeup(&mp.park)
}
// Hands off P from syscall or locked M.
// Always runs without a P, so write barriers are not allowed.
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func handoffp(_p_ *p) {
// handoffp must start an M in any situation where
// findrunnable would return a G to run on _p_.
// if it has local work, start it straight away
if !runqempty(_p_) || sched.runqsize != 0 {
startm(_p_, false)
return
}
// if it has GC work, start it straight away
if gcBlackenEnabled != 0 && gcMarkWorkAvailable(_p_) {
startm(_p_, false)
return
}
// no local work, check that there are no spinning/idle M's,
// otherwise our help is not required
if atomic.Load(&sched.nmspinning)+atomic.Load(&sched.npidle) == 0 && atomic.Cas(&sched.nmspinning, 0, 1) { // TODO: fast atomic
startm(_p_, true)
return
}
lock(&sched.lock)
if sched.gcwaiting != 0 {
_p_.status = _Pgcstop
sched.stopwait--
if sched.stopwait == 0 {
notewakeup(&sched.stopnote)
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
return
}
if _p_.runSafePointFn != 0 && atomic.Cas(&_p_.runSafePointFn, 1, 0) {
sched.safePointFn(_p_)
sched.safePointWait--
if sched.safePointWait == 0 {
notewakeup(&sched.safePointNote)
}
}
if sched.runqsize != 0 {
unlock(&sched.lock)
startm(_p_, false)
return
}
// If this is the last running P and nobody is polling network,
// need to wakeup another M to poll network.
if sched.npidle == uint32(gomaxprocs-1) && atomic.Load64(&sched.lastpoll) != 0 {
unlock(&sched.lock)
startm(_p_, false)
return
}
if when := nobarrierWakeTime(_p_); when != 0 {
wakeNetPoller(when)
}
pidleput(_p_)
unlock(&sched.lock)
}
// Tries to add one more P to execute G's.
// Called when a G is made runnable (newproc, ready).
func wakep() {
// be conservative about spinning threads
if !atomic.Cas(&sched.nmspinning, 0, 1) {
return
}
startm(nil, true)
}
// Stops execution of the current m that is locked to a g until the g is runnable again.
// Returns with acquired P.
func stoplockedm() {
_g_ := getg()
if _g_.m.lockedg == 0 || _g_.m.lockedg.ptr().lockedm.ptr() != _g_.m {
throw("stoplockedm: inconsistent locking")
}
if _g_.m.p != 0 {
// Schedule another M to run this p.
_p_ := releasep()
handoffp(_p_)
}
incidlelocked(1)
// Wait until another thread schedules lockedg again.
notesleep(&_g_.m.park)
noteclear(&_g_.m.park)
status := readgstatus(_g_.m.lockedg.ptr())
if status&^_Gscan != _Grunnable {
print("runtime:stoplockedm: g is not Grunnable or Gscanrunnable\n")
dumpgstatus(_g_)
throw("stoplockedm: not runnable")
}
acquirep(_g_.m.nextp.ptr())
_g_.m.nextp = 0
}
// Schedules the locked m to run the locked gp.
// May run during STW, so write barriers are not allowed.
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func startlockedm(gp *g) {
_g_ := getg()
mp := gp.lockedm.ptr()
if mp == _g_.m {
throw("startlockedm: locked to me")
}
if mp.nextp != 0 {
throw("startlockedm: m has p")
}
// directly handoff current P to the locked m
incidlelocked(-1)
_p_ := releasep()
mp.nextp.set(_p_)
notewakeup(&mp.park)
stopm()
}
// Stops the current m for stopTheWorld.
// Returns when the world is restarted.
func gcstopm() {
_g_ := getg()
if sched.gcwaiting == 0 {
throw("gcstopm: not waiting for gc")
}
if _g_.m.spinning {
_g_.m.spinning = false
// OK to just drop nmspinning here,
// startTheWorld will unpark threads as necessary.
if int32(atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, -1)) < 0 {
throw("gcstopm: negative nmspinning")
}
}
_p_ := releasep()
lock(&sched.lock)
_p_.status = _Pgcstop
sched.stopwait--
if sched.stopwait == 0 {
notewakeup(&sched.stopnote)
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
stopm()
}
// Schedules gp to run on the current M.
// If inheritTime is true, gp inherits the remaining time in the
// current time slice. Otherwise, it starts a new time slice.
// Never returns.
//
// Write barriers are allowed because this is called immediately after
// acquiring a P in several places.
//
//go:yeswritebarrierrec
func execute(gp *g, inheritTime bool) {
_g_ := getg()
// Assign gp.m before entering _Grunning so running Gs have an
// M.
_g_.m.curg = gp
gp.m = _g_.m
casgstatus(gp, _Grunnable, _Grunning)
gp.waitsince = 0
gp.preempt = false
gp.stackguard0 = gp.stack.lo + _StackGuard
if !inheritTime {
_g_.m.p.ptr().schedtick++
}
// Check whether the profiler needs to be turned on or off.
hz := sched.profilehz
if _g_.m.profilehz != hz {
setThreadCPUProfiler(hz)
}
if trace.enabled {
// GoSysExit has to happen when we have a P, but before GoStart.
// So we emit it here.
if gp.syscallsp != 0 && gp.sysblocktraced {
traceGoSysExit(gp.sysexitticks)
}
traceGoStart()
}
gogo(&gp.sched)
}
// Finds a runnable goroutine to execute.
// Tries to steal from other P's, get g from local or global queue, poll network.
func findrunnable() (gp *g, inheritTime bool) {
_g_ := getg()
// The conditions here and in handoffp must agree: if
// findrunnable would return a G to run, handoffp must start
// an M.
top:
_p_ := _g_.m.p.ptr()
if sched.gcwaiting != 0 {
gcstopm()
goto top
}
if _p_.runSafePointFn != 0 {
runSafePointFn()
}
now, pollUntil, _ := checkTimers(_p_, 0)
if fingwait && fingwake {
if gp := wakefing(); gp != nil {
ready(gp, 0, true)
}
}
if *cgo_yield != nil {
asmcgocall(*cgo_yield, nil)
}
// local runq
if gp, inheritTime := runqget(_p_); gp != nil {
return gp, inheritTime
}
// global runq
if sched.runqsize != 0 {
lock(&sched.lock)
gp := globrunqget(_p_, 0)
unlock(&sched.lock)
if gp != nil {
return gp, false
}
}
// Poll network.
// This netpoll is only an optimization before we resort to stealing.
// We can safely skip it if there are no waiters or a thread is blocked
// in netpoll already. If there is any kind of logical race with that
// blocked thread (e.g. it has already returned from netpoll, but does
// not set lastpoll yet), this thread will do blocking netpoll below
// anyway.
if netpollinited() && atomic.Load(&netpollWaiters) > 0 && atomic.Load64(&sched.lastpoll) != 0 {
if list := netpoll(0); !list.empty() { // non-blocking
gp := list.pop()
injectglist(&list)
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
if trace.enabled {
traceGoUnpark(gp, 0)
}
return gp, false
}
}
// Steal work from other P's.
procs := uint32(gomaxprocs)
ranTimer := false
// If number of spinning M's >= number of busy P's, block.
// This is necessary to prevent excessive CPU consumption
// when GOMAXPROCS>>1 but the program parallelism is low.
if !_g_.m.spinning && 2*atomic.Load(&sched.nmspinning) >= procs-atomic.Load(&sched.npidle) {
goto stop
}
if !_g_.m.spinning {
_g_.m.spinning = true
atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, 1)
}
for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
for enum := stealOrder.start(fastrand()); !enum.done(); enum.next() {
if sched.gcwaiting != 0 {
goto top
}
stealRunNextG := i > 2 // first look for ready queues with more than 1 g
p2 := allp[enum.position()]
if _p_ == p2 {
continue
}
if gp := runqsteal(_p_, p2, stealRunNextG); gp != nil {
return gp, false
}
// Consider stealing timers from p2.
// This call to checkTimers is the only place where
// we hold a lock on a different P's timers.
// Lock contention can be a problem here, so avoid
// grabbing the lock if p2 is running and not marked
// for preemption. If p2 is running and not being
// preempted we assume it will handle its own timers.
if i > 2 && shouldStealTimers(p2) {
tnow, w, ran := checkTimers(p2, now)
now = tnow
if w != 0 && (pollUntil == 0 || w < pollUntil) {
pollUntil = w
}
if ran {
// Running the timers may have
// made an arbitrary number of G's
// ready and added them to this P's
// local run queue. That invalidates
// the assumption of runqsteal
// that is always has room to add
// stolen G's. So check now if there
// is a local G to run.
if gp, inheritTime := runqget(_p_); gp != nil {
return gp, inheritTime
}
ranTimer = true
}
}
}
}
if ranTimer {
// Running a timer may have made some goroutine ready.
goto top
}
stop:
// We have nothing to do. If we're in the GC mark phase, can
// safely scan and blacken objects, and have work to do, run
// idle-time marking rather than give up the P.
if gcBlackenEnabled != 0 && _p_.gcBgMarkWorker != 0 && gcMarkWorkAvailable(_p_) {
_p_.gcMarkWorkerMode = gcMarkWorkerIdleMode
gp := _p_.gcBgMarkWorker.ptr()
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
if trace.enabled {
traceGoUnpark(gp, 0)
}
return gp, false
}
delta := int64(-1)
if pollUntil != 0 {
// checkTimers ensures that polluntil > now.
delta = pollUntil - now
}
// wasm only:
// If a callback returned and no other goroutine is awake,
// then pause execution until a callback was triggered.
if beforeIdle(delta) {
// At least one goroutine got woken.
goto top
}
// Before we drop our P, make a snapshot of the allp slice,
// which can change underfoot once we no longer block
// safe-points. We don't need to snapshot the contents because
// everything up to cap(allp) is immutable.
allpSnapshot := allp
// return P and block
lock(&sched.lock)
if sched.gcwaiting != 0 || _p_.runSafePointFn != 0 {
unlock(&sched.lock)
goto top
}
if sched.runqsize != 0 {
gp := globrunqget(_p_, 0)
unlock(&sched.lock)
return gp, false
}
if releasep() != _p_ {
throw("findrunnable: wrong p")
}
pidleput(_p_)
unlock(&sched.lock)
// Delicate dance: thread transitions from spinning to non-spinning state,
// potentially concurrently with submission of new goroutines. We must
// drop nmspinning first and then check all per-P queues again (with
// #StoreLoad memory barrier in between). If we do it the other way around,
// another thread can submit a goroutine after we've checked all run queues
// but before we drop nmspinning; as the result nobody will unpark a thread
// to run the goroutine.
// If we discover new work below, we need to restore m.spinning as a signal
// for resetspinning to unpark a new worker thread (because there can be more
// than one starving goroutine). However, if after discovering new work
// we also observe no idle Ps, it is OK to just park the current thread:
// the system is fully loaded so no spinning threads are required.
// Also see "Worker thread parking/unparking" comment at the top of the file.
wasSpinning := _g_.m.spinning
if _g_.m.spinning {
_g_.m.spinning = false
if int32(atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, -1)) < 0 {
throw("findrunnable: negative nmspinning")
}
}
// check all runqueues once again
for _, _p_ := range allpSnapshot {
if !runqempty(_p_) {
lock(&sched.lock)
_p_ = pidleget()
unlock(&sched.lock)
if _p_ != nil {
acquirep(_p_)
if wasSpinning {
_g_.m.spinning = true
atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, 1)
}
goto top
}
break
}
}
// Check for idle-priority GC work again.
if gcBlackenEnabled != 0 && gcMarkWorkAvailable(nil) {
lock(&sched.lock)
_p_ = pidleget()
if _p_ != nil && _p_.gcBgMarkWorker == 0 {
pidleput(_p_)
_p_ = nil
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
if _p_ != nil {
acquirep(_p_)
if wasSpinning {
_g_.m.spinning = true
atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, 1)
}
// Go back to idle GC check.
goto stop
}
}
// poll network
if netpollinited() && (atomic.Load(&netpollWaiters) > 0 || pollUntil != 0) && atomic.Xchg64(&sched.lastpoll, 0) != 0 {
atomic.Store64(&sched.pollUntil, uint64(pollUntil))
if _g_.m.p != 0 {
throw("findrunnable: netpoll with p")
}
if _g_.m.spinning {
throw("findrunnable: netpoll with spinning")
}
if faketime != 0 {
// When using fake time, just poll.
delta = 0
}
list := netpoll(delta) // block until new work is available
atomic.Store64(&sched.pollUntil, 0)
atomic.Store64(&sched.lastpoll, uint64(nanotime()))
if faketime != 0 && list.empty() {
// Using fake time and nothing is ready; stop M.
// When all M's stop, checkdead will call timejump.
stopm()
goto top
}
lock(&sched.lock)
_p_ = pidleget()
unlock(&sched.lock)
if _p_ == nil {
injectglist(&list)
} else {
acquirep(_p_)
if !list.empty() {
gp := list.pop()
injectglist(&list)
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
if trace.enabled {
traceGoUnpark(gp, 0)
}
return gp, false
}
if wasSpinning {
_g_.m.spinning = true
atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, 1)
}
goto top
}
} else if pollUntil != 0 && netpollinited() {
pollerPollUntil := int64(atomic.Load64(&sched.pollUntil))
if pollerPollUntil == 0 || pollerPollUntil > pollUntil {
netpollBreak()
}
}
stopm()
goto top
}
// pollWork reports whether there is non-background work this P could
// be doing. This is a fairly lightweight check to be used for
// background work loops, like idle GC. It checks a subset of the
// conditions checked by the actual scheduler.
func pollWork() bool {
if sched.runqsize != 0 {
return true
}
p := getg().m.p.ptr()
if !runqempty(p) {
return true
}
if netpollinited() && atomic.Load(&netpollWaiters) > 0 && sched.lastpoll != 0 {
if list := netpoll(0); !list.empty() {
injectglist(&list)
return true
}
}
return false
}
// wakeNetPoller wakes up the thread sleeping in the network poller,
// if there is one, and if it isn't going to wake up anyhow before
// the when argument.
func wakeNetPoller(when int64) {
if atomic.Load64(&sched.lastpoll) == 0 {
// In findrunnable we ensure that when polling the pollUntil
// field is either zero or the time to which the current
// poll is expected to run. This can have a spurious wakeup
// but should never miss a wakeup.
pollerPollUntil := int64(atomic.Load64(&sched.pollUntil))
if pollerPollUntil == 0 || pollerPollUntil > when {
netpollBreak()
}
}
}
func resetspinning() {
_g_ := getg()
if !_g_.m.spinning {
throw("resetspinning: not a spinning m")
}
_g_.m.spinning = false
nmspinning := atomic.Xadd(&sched.nmspinning, -1)
if int32(nmspinning) < 0 {
throw("findrunnable: negative nmspinning")
}
// M wakeup policy is deliberately somewhat conservative, so check if we
// need to wakeup another P here. See "Worker thread parking/unparking"
// comment at the top of the file for details.
if nmspinning == 0 && atomic.Load(&sched.npidle) > 0 {
wakep()
}
}
// Injects the list of runnable G's into the scheduler and clears glist.
// Can run concurrently with GC.
func injectglist(glist *gList) {
if glist.empty() {
return
}
if trace.enabled {
for gp := glist.head.ptr(); gp != nil; gp = gp.schedlink.ptr() {
traceGoUnpark(gp, 0)
}
}
lock(&sched.lock)
var n int
for n = 0; !glist.empty(); n++ {
gp := glist.pop()
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
globrunqput(gp)
}
unlock(&sched.lock)
for ; n != 0 && sched.npidle != 0; n-- {
startm(nil, false)
}
*glist = gList{}
}
// One round of scheduler: find a runnable goroutine and execute it.
// Never returns.
func schedule() {
_g_ := getg()
if _g_.m.locks != 0 {
throw("schedule: holding locks")
}
if _g_.m.lockedg != 0 {
stoplockedm()
execute(_g_.m.lockedg.ptr(), false) // Never returns.
}
// We should not schedule away from a g that is executing a cgo call,
// since the cgo call is using the m's g0 stack.
if _g_.m.incgo {
throw("schedule: in cgo")
}
top:
pp := _g_.m.p.ptr()
pp.preempt = false
if sched.gcwaiting != 0 {
gcstopm()
goto top
}
if pp.runSafePointFn != 0 {
runSafePointFn()
}
// Sanity check: if we are spinning, the run queue should be empty.
// Check this before calling checkTimers, as that might call
// goready to put a ready goroutine on the local run queue.
if _g_.m.spinning && (pp.runnext != 0 || pp.runqhead != pp.runqtail) {
throw("schedule: spinning with local work")
}
checkTimers(pp, 0)
var gp *g
var inheritTime bool
// Normal goroutines will check for need to wakeP in ready,
// but GCworkers and tracereaders will not, so the check must
// be done here instead.
tryWakeP := false
if trace.enabled || trace.shutdown {
gp = traceReader()
if gp != nil {
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
traceGoUnpark(gp, 0)
tryWakeP = true
}
}
if gp == nil && gcBlackenEnabled != 0 {
gp = gcController.findRunnableGCWorker(_g_.m.p.ptr())
tryWakeP = tryWakeP || gp != nil
}
if gp == nil {
// Check the global runnable queue once in a while to ensure fairness.
// Otherwise two goroutines can completely occupy the local runqueue
// by constantly respawning each other.
if _g_.m.p.ptr().schedtick%61 == 0 && sched.runqsize > 0 {
lock(&sched.lock)
gp = globrunqget(_g_.m.p.ptr(), 1)
unlock(&sched.lock)
}
}
if gp == nil {
gp, inheritTime = runqget(_g_.m.p.ptr())
// We can see gp != nil here even if the M is spinning,
// if checkTimers added a local goroutine via goready.
}
if gp == nil {
gp, inheritTime = findrunnable() // blocks until work is available
}
// This thread is going to run a goroutine and is not spinning anymore,
// so if it was marked as spinning we need to reset it now and potentially
// start a new spinning M.
if _g_.m.spinning {
resetspinning()
}
if sched.disable.user && !schedEnabled(gp) {
// Scheduling of this goroutine is disabled. Put it on
// the list of pending runnable goroutines for when we
// re-enable user scheduling and look again.
lock(&sched.lock)
if schedEnabled(gp) {
// Something re-enabled scheduling while we
// were acquiring the lock.
unlock(&sched.lock)
} else {
sched.disable.runnable.pushBack(gp)
sched.disable.n++
unlock(&sched.lock)
goto top
}
}
// If about to schedule a not-normal goroutine (a GCworker or tracereader),
// wake a P if there is one.
if tryWakeP {
if atomic.Load(&sched.npidle) != 0 && atomic.Load(&sched.nmspinning) == 0 {
wakep()
}
}
if gp.lockedm != 0 {
// Hands off own p to the locked m,
// then blocks waiting for a new p.
startlockedm(gp)
goto top
}
execute(gp, inheritTime)
}
// dropg removes the association between m and the current goroutine m->curg (gp for short).
// Typically a caller sets gp's status away from Grunning and then
// immediately calls dropg to finish the job. The caller is also responsible
// for arranging that gp will be restarted using ready at an
// appropriate time. After calling dropg and arranging for gp to be
// readied later, the caller can do other work but eventually should
// call schedule to restart the scheduling of goroutines on this m.
func dropg() {
_g_ := getg()
setMNoWB(&_g_.m.curg.m, nil)
setGNoWB(&_g_.m.curg, nil)
}
// checkTimers runs any timers for the P that are ready.
// If now is not 0 it is the current time.
// It returns the current time or 0 if it is not known,
// and the time when the next timer should run or 0 if there is no next timer,
// and reports whether it ran any timers.
// If the time when the next timer should run is not 0,
// it is always larger than the returned time.
// We pass now in and out to avoid extra calls of nanotime.
//go:yeswritebarrierrec
func checkTimers(pp *p, now int64) (rnow, pollUntil int64, ran bool) {
// If there are no timers to adjust, and the first timer on
// the heap is not yet ready to run, then there is nothing to do.
if atomic.Load(&pp.adjustTimers) == 0 {
next := int64(atomic.Load64(&pp.timer0When))
if next == 0 {
return now, 0, false
}
if now == 0 {
now = nanotime()
}
if now < next {
// Next timer is not ready to run.
// But keep going if we would clear deleted timers.
// This corresponds to the condition below where
// we decide whether to call clearDeletedTimers.
if pp != getg().m.p.ptr() || int(atomic.Load(&pp.deletedTimers)) <= int(atomic.Load(&pp.numTimers)/4) {
return now, next, false
}
}
}
lock(&pp.timersLock)
adjusttimers(pp)
rnow = now
if len(pp.timers) > 0 {
if rnow == 0 {
rnow = nanotime()
}
for len(pp.timers) > 0 {
// Note that runtimer may temporarily unlock
// pp.timersLock.
if tw := runtimer(pp, rnow); tw != 0 {
if tw > 0 {
pollUntil = tw
}
break
}
ran = true
}
}
// If this is the local P, and there are a lot of deleted timers,
// clear them out. We only do this for the local P to reduce
// lock contention on timersLock.
if pp == getg().m.p.ptr() && int(atomic.Load(&pp.deletedTimers)) > len(pp.timers)/4 {
clearDeletedTimers(pp)
}
unlock(&pp.timersLock)
return rnow, pollUntil, ran
}
// shouldStealTimers reports whether we should try stealing the timers from p2.
// We don't steal timers from a running P that is not marked for preemption,
// on the assumption that it will run its own timers. This reduces
// contention on the timers lock.
func shouldStealTimers(p2 *p) bool {
if p2.status != _Prunning {
return true
}
mp := p2.m.ptr()
if mp == nil || mp.locks > 0 {
return false
}
gp := mp.curg
if gp == nil || gp.atomicstatus != _Grunning || !gp.preempt {
return false
}
return true
}
func parkunlock_c(gp *g, lock unsafe.Pointer) bool {
unlock((*mutex)(lock))
return true
}
// park continuation on g0.
func park_m(gp *g) {
_g_ := getg()
if trace.enabled {
traceGoPark(_g_.m.waittraceev, _g_.m.waittraceskip)
}
casgstatus(gp, _Grunning, _Gwaiting)
dropg()
if fn := _g_.m.waitunlockf; fn != nil {
ok := fn(gp, _g_.m.waitlock)
_g_.m.waitunlockf = nil
_g_.m.waitlock = nil
if !ok {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoUnpark(gp, 2)
}
casgstatus(gp, _Gwaiting, _Grunnable)
execute(gp, true) // Schedule it back, never returns.
}
}
schedule()
}
func goschedImpl(gp *g) {
status := readgstatus(gp)
if status&^_Gscan != _Grunning {
dumpgstatus(gp)
throw("bad g status")
}
casgstatus(gp, _Grunning, _Grunnable)
dropg()
lock(&sched.lock)
globrunqput(gp)
unlock(&sched.lock)
schedule()
}
// Gosched continuation on g0.
func gosched_m(gp *g) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoSched()
}
goschedImpl(gp)
}
// goschedguarded is a forbidden-states-avoided version of gosched_m
func goschedguarded_m(gp *g) {
if !canPreemptM(gp.m) {
gogo(&gp.sched) // never return
}
if trace.enabled {
traceGoSched()
}
goschedImpl(gp)
}
func gopreempt_m(gp *g) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoPreempt()
}
goschedImpl(gp)
}
// preemptPark parks gp and puts it in _Gpreempted.
//
//go:systemstack
func preemptPark(gp *g) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoPark(traceEvGoBlock, 0)
}
status := readgstatus(gp)
if status&^_Gscan != _Grunning {
dumpgstatus(gp)
throw("bad g status")
}
gp.waitreason = waitReasonPreempted
// Transition from _Grunning to _Gscan|_Gpreempted. We can't
// be in _Grunning when we dropg because then we'd be running
// without an M, but the moment we're in _Gpreempted,
// something could claim this G before we've fully cleaned it
// up. Hence, we set the scan bit to lock down further
// transitions until we can dropg.
casGToPreemptScan(gp, _Grunning, _Gscan|_Gpreempted)
dropg()
casfrom_Gscanstatus(gp, _Gscan|_Gpreempted, _Gpreempted)
schedule()
}
// goyield is like Gosched, but it:
// - emits a GoPreempt trace event instead of a GoSched trace event
// - puts the current G on the runq of the current P instead of the globrunq
func goyield() {
checkTimeouts()
mcall(goyield_m)
}
func goyield_m(gp *g) {
if trace.enabled {
traceGoPreempt()
}
pp := gp.m.p.ptr()
casgstatus(gp, _Grunning, _Grunnable)
dropg()
runqput(pp, gp, false)
schedule()
}
// Finishes execution of the current goroutine.
func goexit1() {
if raceenabled {
racegoend()
}
if trace.enabled {
traceGoEnd()
}
mcall(goexit0)
}
// goexit continuation on g0.
func goexit0(gp *g) {
_g_ := getg()
casgstatus(gp, _Grunning, _Gdead)
if isSystemGoroutine(gp, false) {
atomic.Xadd(&sched.ngsys, -1)
}
gp.m = nil
locked := gp.lockedm != 0
gp.lockedm = 0
_g_.m.lockedg = 0
gp.preemptStop = false
gp.paniconfault = false
gp._defer = nil // should be true already but just in case.
gp._panic = nil // non-nil for Goexit during panic. points at stack-allocated data.
gp.writebuf = nil
gp.waitreason = 0
gp.param = nil
gp.labels = nil
gp.timer = nil
if gcBlackenEnabled != 0 && gp.gcAssistBytes > 0 {
// Flush assist credit to the global pool. This gives
// better information to pacing if the application is
// rapidly creating an exiting goroutines.
scanCredit := int64(gcController.assistWorkPerByte * float64(gp.gcAssistBytes))
atomic.Xaddint64(&gcController.bgScanCredit, scanCredit)
gp.gcAssistBytes = 0
}
dropg()
if GOARCH == "wasm" { // no threads yet on wasm
gfput(_g_.m.p.ptr(), gp)
schedule() // never returns
}
if _g_.m.lockedInt != 0 {
print("invalid m->lockedInt = ", _g_.m.lockedInt, "\n")
throw("internal lockOSThread error")
}
gfput(_g_.m.p.ptr(), gp)
if locked {
// The goroutine may have locked this thread because
// it put it in an unusual kernel state. Kill it
// rather than returning it to the thread pool.
// Return to mstart, which will release the P and exit
// the thread.
if GOOS != "plan9" { // See golang.org/issue/22227.
gogo(&_g_.m.g0.sched)
} else {
// Clear lockedExt on plan9 since we may end up re-using
// this thread.
_g_.m.lockedExt = 0
}
}
schedule()
}
// save updates getg().sched to refer to pc and sp so that a following
// gogo will restore pc and sp.
//
// save must not have write barriers because invoking a write barrier
// can clobber getg().sched.
//
//go:nosplit
//go:nowritebarrierrec
func save(pc, sp uintptr) {
_g_ := getg()
_g_.sched.pc = pc
_g_.sched.sp = sp
_g_.sched.lr = 0
_g_.sched.ret = 0
_g_.sched.g = guintptr(unsafe.Pointer(_g_))
// We need to ensure ctxt is zero, but can't have a write
// barrier here. However, it should always already be zero.
// Assert that.
if _g_.sched.ctxt != nil {
badctxt()
}
}
// The goroutine g is about to enter a system call.
// Record that it's not using the cpu anymore.
// This is called only from the go syscall library and cgocall,
// not from the low-level system calls used by the runtime.
//
// Entersyscall cannot split the stack: the gosave must
// make g->sched refer to the caller's stack segment, because
// entersyscall is going to return immediately after.
//
// Nothing entersyscall calls can split the stack either.
// We cannot safely move the stack during an active call to syscall,
// because we do not know which of the uintptr arguments are
// really pointers (back into the stack).
// In practice, this means that we make the fast path run through
// entersyscall doing no-split things, and the slow path has to use systemstack
// to run bigger things on the system stack.
//
// reentersyscall is the entry point used by cgo callbacks, where explicitly
// saved SP and PC are restored. This is needed when exitsyscall will be called
// from a function further up in the call stack than the parent, as g->syscallsp
// must always point to a valid stack frame. entersyscall below is the normal
// entry point for syscalls, which obtains the SP and PC from the caller.
//
// Syscall tracing:
// At the start of a syscall we emit traceGoSysCall to capture the stack trace.
// If the syscall does not block, that is it, we do not emit any other events.
// If the syscall blocks (that is, P is retaken), retaker emits traceGoSysBlock;
// when syscall returns we emit traceGoSysExit and when the goroutine starts running
// (potentially instantly, if exitsyscallfast returns true) we emit trace