Skip to content
Permalink
We grow the backing store on append by 2x for small sizes and 1.25x
for large sizes. The threshold we use for picking the growth factor
used to depend on the old length, not the old capacity. That's kind of
unfortunate, because then doing append(s, 0, 0) and append(append(s,
0), 0) do different things. (If s has one more spot available, then
the former expression chooses its growth based on len(s) and the
latter on len(s)+1.)  If we instead use the old capacity, we get more
consistent behavior. (Both expressions use len(s)+1 == cap(s) to
decide.)

Fixes #41239

Change-Id: I40686471d256edd72ec92aef973a89b52e235d4b
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/257338
Trust: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
Trust: Josh Bleecher Snyder <josharian@gmail.com>
Run-TryBot: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Go Bot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Josh Bleecher Snyder <josharian@gmail.com>
14 contributors

Users who have contributed to this file

@rsc @randall77 @josharian @mdempsky @aclements @martisch @ianlancetaylor @stemar94 @scop @carl-mastrangelo @minux @mwhudson
280 lines (250 sloc) 8.04 KB
// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package runtime
import (
"runtime/internal/math"
"runtime/internal/sys"
"unsafe"
)
type slice struct {
array unsafe.Pointer
len int
cap int
}
// A notInHeapSlice is a slice backed by go:notinheap memory.
type notInHeapSlice struct {
array *notInHeap
len int
cap int
}
func panicmakeslicelen() {
panic(errorString("makeslice: len out of range"))
}
func panicmakeslicecap() {
panic(errorString("makeslice: cap out of range"))
}
// makeslicecopy allocates a slice of "tolen" elements of type "et",
// then copies "fromlen" elements of type "et" into that new allocation from "from".
func makeslicecopy(et *_type, tolen int, fromlen int, from unsafe.Pointer) unsafe.Pointer {
var tomem, copymem uintptr
if uintptr(tolen) > uintptr(fromlen) {
var overflow bool
tomem, overflow = math.MulUintptr(et.size, uintptr(tolen))
if overflow || tomem > maxAlloc || tolen < 0 {
panicmakeslicelen()
}
copymem = et.size * uintptr(fromlen)
} else {
// fromlen is a known good length providing and equal or greater than tolen,
// thereby making tolen a good slice length too as from and to slices have the
// same element width.
tomem = et.size * uintptr(tolen)
copymem = tomem
}
var to unsafe.Pointer
if et.ptrdata == 0 {
to = mallocgc(tomem, nil, false)
if copymem < tomem {
memclrNoHeapPointers(add(to, copymem), tomem-copymem)
}
} else {
// Note: can't use rawmem (which avoids zeroing of memory), because then GC can scan uninitialized memory.
to = mallocgc(tomem, et, true)
if copymem > 0 && writeBarrier.enabled {
// Only shade the pointers in old.array since we know the destination slice to
// only contains nil pointers because it has been cleared during alloc.
bulkBarrierPreWriteSrcOnly(uintptr(to), uintptr(from), copymem)
}
}
if raceenabled {
callerpc := getcallerpc()
pc := funcPC(makeslicecopy)
racereadrangepc(from, copymem, callerpc, pc)
}
if msanenabled {
msanread(from, copymem)
}
memmove(to, from, copymem)
return to
}
func makeslice(et *_type, len, cap int) unsafe.Pointer {
mem, overflow := math.MulUintptr(et.size, uintptr(cap))
if overflow || mem > maxAlloc || len < 0 || len > cap {
// NOTE: Produce a 'len out of range' error instead of a
// 'cap out of range' error when someone does make([]T, bignumber).
// 'cap out of range' is true too, but since the cap is only being
// supplied implicitly, saying len is clearer.
// See golang.org/issue/4085.
mem, overflow := math.MulUintptr(et.size, uintptr(len))
if overflow || mem > maxAlloc || len < 0 {
panicmakeslicelen()
}
panicmakeslicecap()
}
return mallocgc(mem, et, true)
}
func makeslice64(et *_type, len64, cap64 int64) unsafe.Pointer {
len := int(len64)
if int64(len) != len64 {
panicmakeslicelen()
}
cap := int(cap64)
if int64(cap) != cap64 {
panicmakeslicecap()
}
return makeslice(et, len, cap)
}
// growslice handles slice growth during append.
// It is passed the slice element type, the old slice, and the desired new minimum capacity,
// and it returns a new slice with at least that capacity, with the old data
// copied into it.
// The new slice's length is set to the old slice's length,
// NOT to the new requested capacity.
// This is for codegen convenience. The old slice's length is used immediately
// to calculate where to write new values during an append.
// TODO: When the old backend is gone, reconsider this decision.
// The SSA backend might prefer the new length or to return only ptr/cap and save stack space.
func growslice(et *_type, old slice, cap int) slice {
if raceenabled {
callerpc := getcallerpc()
racereadrangepc(old.array, uintptr(old.len*int(et.size)), callerpc, funcPC(growslice))
}
if msanenabled {
msanread(old.array, uintptr(old.len*int(et.size)))
}
if cap < old.cap {
panic(errorString("growslice: cap out of range"))
}
if et.size == 0 {
// append should not create a slice with nil pointer but non-zero len.
// We assume that append doesn't need to preserve old.array in this case.
return slice{unsafe.Pointer(&zerobase), old.len, cap}
}
newcap := old.cap
doublecap := newcap + newcap
if cap > doublecap {
newcap = cap
} else {
if old.cap < 1024 {
newcap = doublecap
} else {
// Check 0 < newcap to detect overflow
// and prevent an infinite loop.
for 0 < newcap && newcap < cap {
newcap += newcap / 4
}
// Set newcap to the requested cap when
// the newcap calculation overflowed.
if newcap <= 0 {
newcap = cap
}
}
}
var overflow bool
var lenmem, newlenmem, capmem uintptr
// Specialize for common values of et.size.
// For 1 we don't need any division/multiplication.
// For sys.PtrSize, compiler will optimize division/multiplication into a shift by a constant.
// For powers of 2, use a variable shift.
switch {
case et.size == 1:
lenmem = uintptr(old.len)
newlenmem = uintptr(cap)
capmem = roundupsize(uintptr(newcap))
overflow = uintptr(newcap) > maxAlloc
newcap = int(capmem)
case et.size == sys.PtrSize:
lenmem = uintptr(old.len) * sys.PtrSize
newlenmem = uintptr(cap) * sys.PtrSize
capmem = roundupsize(uintptr(newcap) * sys.PtrSize)
overflow = uintptr(newcap) > maxAlloc/sys.PtrSize
newcap = int(capmem / sys.PtrSize)
case isPowerOfTwo(et.size):
var shift uintptr
if sys.PtrSize == 8 {
// Mask shift for better code generation.
shift = uintptr(sys.Ctz64(uint64(et.size))) & 63
} else {
shift = uintptr(sys.Ctz32(uint32(et.size))) & 31
}
lenmem = uintptr(old.len) << shift
newlenmem = uintptr(cap) << shift
capmem = roundupsize(uintptr(newcap) << shift)
overflow = uintptr(newcap) > (maxAlloc >> shift)
newcap = int(capmem >> shift)
default:
lenmem = uintptr(old.len) * et.size
newlenmem = uintptr(cap) * et.size
capmem, overflow = math.MulUintptr(et.size, uintptr(newcap))
capmem = roundupsize(capmem)
newcap = int(capmem / et.size)
}
// The check of overflow in addition to capmem > maxAlloc is needed
// to prevent an overflow which can be used to trigger a segfault
// on 32bit architectures with this example program:
//
// type T [1<<27 + 1]int64
//
// var d T
// var s []T
//
// func main() {
// s = append(s, d, d, d, d)
// print(len(s), "\n")
// }
if overflow || capmem > maxAlloc {
panic(errorString("growslice: cap out of range"))
}
var p unsafe.Pointer
if et.ptrdata == 0 {
p = mallocgc(capmem, nil, false)
// The append() that calls growslice is going to overwrite from old.len to cap (which will be the new length).
// Only clear the part that will not be overwritten.
memclrNoHeapPointers(add(p, newlenmem), capmem-newlenmem)
} else {
// Note: can't use rawmem (which avoids zeroing of memory), because then GC can scan uninitialized memory.
p = mallocgc(capmem, et, true)
if lenmem > 0 && writeBarrier.enabled {
// Only shade the pointers in old.array since we know the destination slice p
// only contains nil pointers because it has been cleared during alloc.
bulkBarrierPreWriteSrcOnly(uintptr(p), uintptr(old.array), lenmem-et.size+et.ptrdata)
}
}
memmove(p, old.array, lenmem)
return slice{p, old.len, newcap}
}
func isPowerOfTwo(x uintptr) bool {
return x&(x-1) == 0
}
// slicecopy is used to copy from a string or slice of pointerless elements into a slice.
func slicecopy(toPtr unsafe.Pointer, toLen int, fromPtr unsafe.Pointer, fromLen int, width uintptr) int {
if fromLen == 0 || toLen == 0 {
return 0
}
n := fromLen
if toLen < n {
n = toLen
}
if width == 0 {
return n
}
size := uintptr(n) * width
if raceenabled {
callerpc := getcallerpc()
pc := funcPC(slicecopy)
racereadrangepc(fromPtr, size, callerpc, pc)
racewriterangepc(toPtr, size, callerpc, pc)
}
if msanenabled {
msanread(fromPtr, size)
msanwrite(toPtr, size)
}
if size == 1 { // common case worth about 2x to do here
// TODO: is this still worth it with new memmove impl?
*(*byte)(toPtr) = *(*byte)(fromPtr) // known to be a byte pointer
} else {
memmove(toPtr, fromPtr, size)
}
return n
}