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// Copyright 2012 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package runtime_test
import (
"bytes"
"fmt"
"os"
"reflect"
"regexp"
. "runtime"
"strconv"
"strings"
"sync"
"sync/atomic"
"testing"
"time"
)
// TestStackMem measures per-thread stack segment cache behavior.
// The test consumed up to 500MB in the past.
func TestStackMem(t *testing.T) {
const (
BatchSize = 32
BatchCount = 256
ArraySize = 1024
RecursionDepth = 128
)
if testing.Short() {
return
}
defer GOMAXPROCS(GOMAXPROCS(BatchSize))
s0 := new(MemStats)
ReadMemStats(s0)
for b := 0; b < BatchCount; b++ {
c := make(chan bool, BatchSize)
for i := 0; i < BatchSize; i++ {
go func() {
var f func(k int, a [ArraySize]byte)
f = func(k int, a [ArraySize]byte) {
if k == 0 {
time.Sleep(time.Millisecond)
return
}
f(k-1, a)
}
f(RecursionDepth, [ArraySize]byte{})
c <- true
}()
}
for i := 0; i < BatchSize; i++ {
<-c
}
// The goroutines have signaled via c that they are ready to exit.
// Give them a chance to exit by sleeping. If we don't wait, we
// might not reuse them on the next batch.
time.Sleep(10 * time.Millisecond)
}
s1 := new(MemStats)
ReadMemStats(s1)
consumed := int64(s1.StackSys - s0.StackSys)
t.Logf("Consumed %vMB for stack mem", consumed>>20)
estimate := int64(8 * BatchSize * ArraySize * RecursionDepth) // 8 is to reduce flakiness.
if consumed > estimate {
t.Fatalf("Stack mem: want %v, got %v", estimate, consumed)
}
// Due to broken stack memory accounting (https://golang.org/issue/7468),
// StackInuse can decrease during function execution, so we cast the values to int64.
inuse := int64(s1.StackInuse) - int64(s0.StackInuse)
t.Logf("Inuse %vMB for stack mem", inuse>>20)
if inuse > 4<<20 {
t.Fatalf("Stack inuse: want %v, got %v", 4<<20, inuse)
}
}
// Test stack growing in different contexts.
func TestStackGrowth(t *testing.T) {
if *flagQuick {
t.Skip("-quick")
}
if GOARCH == "wasm" {
t.Skip("fails on wasm (too slow?)")
}
// Don't make this test parallel as this makes the 20 second
// timeout unreliable on slow builders. (See issue #19381.)
var wg sync.WaitGroup
// in a normal goroutine
var growDuration time.Duration // For debugging failures
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
start := time.Now()
growStack(nil)
growDuration = time.Since(start)
}()
wg.Wait()
// in locked goroutine
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
LockOSThread()
growStack(nil)
UnlockOSThread()
}()
wg.Wait()
// in finalizer
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
done := make(chan bool)
var startTime time.Time
var started, progress uint32
go func() {
s := new(string)
SetFinalizer(s, func(ss *string) {
startTime = time.Now()
atomic.StoreUint32(&started, 1)
growStack(&progress)
done <- true
})
s = nil
done <- true
}()
<-done
GC()
timeout := 20 * time.Second
if s := os.Getenv("GO_TEST_TIMEOUT_SCALE"); s != "" {
scale, err := strconv.Atoi(s)
if err == nil {
timeout *= time.Duration(scale)
}
}
select {
case <-done:
case <-time.After(timeout):
if atomic.LoadUint32(&started) == 0 {
t.Log("finalizer did not start")
} else {
t.Logf("finalizer started %s ago and finished %d iterations", time.Since(startTime), atomic.LoadUint32(&progress))
}
t.Log("first growStack took", growDuration)
t.Error("finalizer did not run")
return
}
}()
wg.Wait()
}
// ... and in init
//func init() {
// growStack()
//}
func growStack(progress *uint32) {
n := 1 << 10
if testing.Short() {
n = 1 << 8
}
for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
x := 0
growStackIter(&x, i)
if x != i+1 {
panic("stack is corrupted")
}
if progress != nil {
atomic.StoreUint32(progress, uint32(i))
}
}
GC()
}
// This function is not an anonymous func, so that the compiler can do escape
// analysis and place x on stack (and subsequently stack growth update the pointer).
func growStackIter(p *int, n int) {
if n == 0 {
*p = n + 1
GC()
return
}
*p = n + 1
x := 0
growStackIter(&x, n-1)
if x != n {
panic("stack is corrupted")
}
}
func TestStackGrowthCallback(t *testing.T) {
t.Parallel()
var wg sync.WaitGroup
// test stack growth at chan op
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
c := make(chan int, 1)
growStackWithCallback(func() {
c <- 1
<-c
})
}()
// test stack growth at map op
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
m := make(map[int]int)
growStackWithCallback(func() {
_, _ = m[1]
m[1] = 1
})
}()
// test stack growth at goroutine creation
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
growStackWithCallback(func() {
done := make(chan bool)
go func() {
done <- true
}()
<-done
})
}()
wg.Wait()
}
func growStackWithCallback(cb func()) {
var f func(n int)
f = func(n int) {
if n == 0 {
cb()
return
}
f(n - 1)
}
for i := 0; i < 1<<10; i++ {
f(i)
}
}
// TestDeferPtrs tests the adjustment of Defer's argument pointers (p aka &y)
// during a stack copy.
func set(p *int, x int) {
*p = x
}
func TestDeferPtrs(t *testing.T) {
var y int
defer func() {
if y != 42 {
t.Errorf("defer's stack references were not adjusted appropriately")
}
}()
defer set(&y, 42)
growStack(nil)
}
type bigBuf [4 * 1024]byte
// TestDeferPtrsGoexit is like TestDeferPtrs but exercises the possibility that the
// stack grows as part of starting the deferred function. It calls Goexit at various
// stack depths, forcing the deferred function (with >4kB of args) to be run at
// the bottom of the stack. The goal is to find a stack depth less than 4kB from
// the end of the stack. Each trial runs in a different goroutine so that an earlier
// stack growth does not invalidate a later attempt.
func TestDeferPtrsGoexit(t *testing.T) {
for i := 0; i < 100; i++ {
c := make(chan int, 1)
go testDeferPtrsGoexit(c, i)
if n := <-c; n != 42 {
t.Fatalf("defer's stack references were not adjusted appropriately (i=%d n=%d)", i, n)
}
}
}
func testDeferPtrsGoexit(c chan int, i int) {
var y int
defer func() {
c <- y
}()
defer setBig(&y, 42, bigBuf{})
useStackAndCall(i, Goexit)
}
func setBig(p *int, x int, b bigBuf) {
*p = x
}
// TestDeferPtrsPanic is like TestDeferPtrsGoexit, but it's using panic instead
// of Goexit to run the Defers. Those two are different execution paths
// in the runtime.
func TestDeferPtrsPanic(t *testing.T) {
for i := 0; i < 100; i++ {
c := make(chan int, 1)
go testDeferPtrsGoexit(c, i)
if n := <-c; n != 42 {
t.Fatalf("defer's stack references were not adjusted appropriately (i=%d n=%d)", i, n)
}
}
}
func testDeferPtrsPanic(c chan int, i int) {
var y int
defer func() {
if recover() == nil {
c <- -1
return
}
c <- y
}()
defer setBig(&y, 42, bigBuf{})
useStackAndCall(i, func() { panic(1) })
}
//go:noinline
func testDeferLeafSigpanic1() {
// Cause a sigpanic to be injected in this frame.
//
// This function has to be declared before
// TestDeferLeafSigpanic so the runtime will crash if we think
// this function's continuation PC is in
// TestDeferLeafSigpanic.
*(*int)(nil) = 0
}
// TestDeferLeafSigpanic tests defer matching around leaf functions
// that sigpanic. This is tricky because on LR machines the outer
// function and the inner function have the same SP, but it's critical
// that we match up the defer correctly to get the right liveness map.
// See issue #25499.
func TestDeferLeafSigpanic(t *testing.T) {
// Push a defer that will walk the stack.
defer func() {
if err := recover(); err == nil {
t.Fatal("expected panic from nil pointer")
}
GC()
}()
// Call a leaf function. We must set up the exact call stack:
//
// defering function -> leaf function -> sigpanic
//
// On LR machines, the leaf function will have the same SP as
// the SP pushed for the defer frame.
testDeferLeafSigpanic1()
}
// TestPanicUseStack checks that a chain of Panic structs on the stack are
// updated correctly if the stack grows during the deferred execution that
// happens as a result of the panic.
func TestPanicUseStack(t *testing.T) {
pc := make([]uintptr, 10000)
defer func() {
recover()
Callers(0, pc) // force stack walk
useStackAndCall(100, func() {
defer func() {
recover()
Callers(0, pc) // force stack walk
useStackAndCall(200, func() {
defer func() {
recover()
Callers(0, pc) // force stack walk
}()
panic(3)
})
}()
panic(2)
})
}()
panic(1)
}
func TestPanicFar(t *testing.T) {
var xtree *xtreeNode
pc := make([]uintptr, 10000)
defer func() {
// At this point we created a large stack and unwound
// it via recovery. Force a stack walk, which will
// check the stack's consistency.
Callers(0, pc)
}()
defer func() {
recover()
}()
useStackAndCall(100, func() {
// Kick off the GC and make it do something nontrivial.
// (This used to force stack barriers to stick around.)
xtree = makeTree(18)
// Give the GC time to start scanning stacks.
time.Sleep(time.Millisecond)
panic(1)
})
_ = xtree
}
type xtreeNode struct {
l, r *xtreeNode
}
func makeTree(d int) *xtreeNode {
if d == 0 {
return new(xtreeNode)
}
return &xtreeNode{makeTree(d - 1), makeTree(d - 1)}
}
// use about n KB of stack and call f
func useStackAndCall(n int, f func()) {
if n == 0 {
f()
return
}
var b [1024]byte // makes frame about 1KB
useStackAndCall(n-1+int(b[99]), f)
}
func useStack(n int) {
useStackAndCall(n, func() {})
}
func growing(c chan int, done chan struct{}) {
for n := range c {
useStack(n)
done <- struct{}{}
}
done <- struct{}{}
}
func TestStackCache(t *testing.T) {
// Allocate a bunch of goroutines and grow their stacks.
// Repeat a few times to test the stack cache.
const (
R = 4
G = 200
S = 5
)
for i := 0; i < R; i++ {
var reqchans [G]chan int
done := make(chan struct{})
for j := 0; j < G; j++ {
reqchans[j] = make(chan int)
go growing(reqchans[j], done)
}
for s := 0; s < S; s++ {
for j := 0; j < G; j++ {
reqchans[j] <- 1 << uint(s)
}
for j := 0; j < G; j++ {
<-done
}
}
for j := 0; j < G; j++ {
close(reqchans[j])
}
for j := 0; j < G; j++ {
<-done
}
}
}
func TestStackOutput(t *testing.T) {
b := make([]byte, 1024)
stk := string(b[:Stack(b, false)])
if !strings.HasPrefix(stk, "goroutine ") {
t.Errorf("Stack (len %d):\n%s", len(stk), stk)
t.Errorf("Stack output should begin with \"goroutine \"")
}
}
func TestStackAllOutput(t *testing.T) {
b := make([]byte, 1024)
stk := string(b[:Stack(b, true)])
if !strings.HasPrefix(stk, "goroutine ") {
t.Errorf("Stack (len %d):\n%s", len(stk), stk)
t.Errorf("Stack output should begin with \"goroutine \"")
}
}
func TestStackPanic(t *testing.T) {
// Test that stack copying copies panics correctly. This is difficult
// to test because it is very unlikely that the stack will be copied
// in the middle of gopanic. But it can happen.
// To make this test effective, edit panic.go:gopanic and uncomment
// the GC() call just before freedefer(d).
defer func() {
if x := recover(); x == nil {
t.Errorf("recover failed")
}
}()
useStack(32)
panic("test panic")
}
func BenchmarkStackCopyPtr(b *testing.B) {
c := make(chan bool)
for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
go func() {
i := 1000000
countp(&i)
c <- true
}()
<-c
}
}
func countp(n *int) {
if *n == 0 {
return
}
*n--
countp(n)
}
func BenchmarkStackCopy(b *testing.B) {
c := make(chan bool)
for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
go func() {
count(1000000)
c <- true
}()
<-c
}
}
func count(n int) int {
if n == 0 {
return 0
}
return 1 + count(n-1)
}
func BenchmarkStackCopyNoCache(b *testing.B) {
c := make(chan bool)
for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
go func() {
count1(1000000)
c <- true
}()
<-c
}
}
func count1(n int) int {
if n <= 0 {
return 0
}
return 1 + count2(n-1)
}
func count2(n int) int { return 1 + count3(n-1) }
func count3(n int) int { return 1 + count4(n-1) }
func count4(n int) int { return 1 + count5(n-1) }
func count5(n int) int { return 1 + count6(n-1) }
func count6(n int) int { return 1 + count7(n-1) }
func count7(n int) int { return 1 + count8(n-1) }
func count8(n int) int { return 1 + count9(n-1) }
func count9(n int) int { return 1 + count10(n-1) }
func count10(n int) int { return 1 + count11(n-1) }
func count11(n int) int { return 1 + count12(n-1) }
func count12(n int) int { return 1 + count13(n-1) }
func count13(n int) int { return 1 + count14(n-1) }
func count14(n int) int { return 1 + count15(n-1) }
func count15(n int) int { return 1 + count16(n-1) }
func count16(n int) int { return 1 + count17(n-1) }
func count17(n int) int { return 1 + count18(n-1) }
func count18(n int) int { return 1 + count19(n-1) }
func count19(n int) int { return 1 + count20(n-1) }
func count20(n int) int { return 1 + count21(n-1) }
func count21(n int) int { return 1 + count22(n-1) }
func count22(n int) int { return 1 + count23(n-1) }
func count23(n int) int { return 1 + count1(n-1) }
type structWithMethod struct{}
func (s structWithMethod) caller() string {
_, file, line, ok := Caller(1)
if !ok {
panic("Caller failed")
}
return fmt.Sprintf("%s:%d", file, line)
}
func (s structWithMethod) callers() []uintptr {
pc := make([]uintptr, 16)
return pc[:Callers(0, pc)]
}
func (s structWithMethod) stack() string {
buf := make([]byte, 4<<10)
return string(buf[:Stack(buf, false)])
}
func (s structWithMethod) nop() {}
func TestStackWrapperCaller(t *testing.T) {
var d structWithMethod
// Force the compiler to construct a wrapper method.
wrapper := (*structWithMethod).caller
// Check that the wrapper doesn't affect the stack trace.
if dc, ic := d.caller(), wrapper(&d); dc != ic {
t.Fatalf("direct caller %q != indirect caller %q", dc, ic)
}
}
func TestStackWrapperCallers(t *testing.T) {
var d structWithMethod
wrapper := (*structWithMethod).callers
// Check that <autogenerated> doesn't appear in the stack trace.
pcs := wrapper(&d)
frames := CallersFrames(pcs)
for {
fr, more := frames.Next()
if fr.File == "<autogenerated>" {
t.Fatalf("<autogenerated> appears in stack trace: %+v", fr)
}
if !more {
break
}
}
}
func TestStackWrapperStack(t *testing.T) {
var d structWithMethod
wrapper := (*structWithMethod).stack
// Check that <autogenerated> doesn't appear in the stack trace.
stk := wrapper(&d)
if strings.Contains(stk, "<autogenerated>") {
t.Fatalf("<autogenerated> appears in stack trace:\n%s", stk)
}
}
type I interface {
M()
}
func TestStackWrapperStackPanic(t *testing.T) {
t.Run("sigpanic", func(t *testing.T) {
// nil calls to interface methods cause a sigpanic.
testStackWrapperPanic(t, func() { I.M(nil) }, "runtime_test.I.M")
})
t.Run("panicwrap", func(t *testing.T) {
// Nil calls to value method wrappers call panicwrap.
wrapper := (*structWithMethod).nop
testStackWrapperPanic(t, func() { wrapper(nil) }, "runtime_test.(*structWithMethod).nop")
})
}
func testStackWrapperPanic(t *testing.T, cb func(), expect string) {
// Test that the stack trace from a panicking wrapper includes
// the wrapper, even though elide these when they don't panic.
t.Run("CallersFrames", func(t *testing.T) {
defer func() {
err := recover()
if err == nil {
t.Fatalf("expected panic")
}
pcs := make([]uintptr, 10)
n := Callers(0, pcs)
frames := CallersFrames(pcs[:n])
for {
frame, more := frames.Next()
t.Log(frame.Function)
if frame.Function == expect {
return
}
if !more {
break
}
}
t.Fatalf("panicking wrapper %s missing from stack trace", expect)
}()
cb()
})
t.Run("Stack", func(t *testing.T) {
defer func() {
err := recover()
if err == nil {
t.Fatalf("expected panic")
}
buf := make([]byte, 4<<10)
stk := string(buf[:Stack(buf, false)])
if !strings.Contains(stk, "\n"+expect) {
t.Fatalf("panicking wrapper %s missing from stack trace:\n%s", expect, stk)
}
}()
cb()
})
}
func TestCallersFromWrapper(t *testing.T) {
// Test that invoking CallersFrames on a stack where the first
// PC is an autogenerated wrapper keeps the wrapper in the
// trace. Normally we elide these, assuming that the wrapper
// calls the thing you actually wanted to see, but in this
// case we need to keep it.
pc := reflect.ValueOf(I.M).Pointer()
frames := CallersFrames([]uintptr{pc})
frame, more := frames.Next()
if frame.Function != "runtime_test.I.M" {
t.Fatalf("want function %s, got %s", "runtime_test.I.M", frame.Function)
}
if more {
t.Fatalf("want 1 frame, got > 1")
}
}
func TestTracebackSystemstack(t *testing.T) {
if GOARCH == "ppc64" || GOARCH == "ppc64le" {
t.Skip("systemstack tail call not implemented on ppc64x")
}
// Test that profiles correctly jump over systemstack,
// including nested systemstack calls.
pcs := make([]uintptr, 20)
pcs = pcs[:TracebackSystemstack(pcs, 5)]
// Check that runtime.TracebackSystemstack appears five times
// and that we see TestTracebackSystemstack.
countIn, countOut := 0, 0
frames := CallersFrames(pcs)
var tb bytes.Buffer
for {
frame, more := frames.Next()
fmt.Fprintf(&tb, "\n%s+0x%x %s:%d", frame.Function, frame.PC-frame.Entry, frame.File, frame.Line)
switch frame.Function {
case "runtime.TracebackSystemstack":
countIn++
case "runtime_test.TestTracebackSystemstack":
countOut++
}
if !more {
break
}
}
if countIn != 5 || countOut != 1 {
t.Fatalf("expected 5 calls to TracebackSystemstack and 1 call to TestTracebackSystemstack, got:%s", tb.String())
}
}
func TestTracebackAncestors(t *testing.T) {
goroutineRegex := regexp.MustCompile(`goroutine [0-9]+ \[`)
for _, tracebackDepth := range []int{0, 1, 5, 50} {
output := runTestProg(t, "testprog", "TracebackAncestors", fmt.Sprintf("GODEBUG=tracebackancestors=%d", tracebackDepth))
numGoroutines := 3
numFrames := 2
ancestorsExpected := numGoroutines
if numGoroutines > tracebackDepth {
ancestorsExpected = tracebackDepth
}
matches := goroutineRegex.FindAllStringSubmatch(output, -1)
if len(matches) != 2 {
t.Fatalf("want 2 goroutines, got:\n%s", output)
}
// Check functions in the traceback.
fns := []string{"main.recurseThenCallGo", "main.main", "main.printStack", "main.TracebackAncestors"}
for _, fn := range fns {
if !strings.Contains(output, "\n"+fn+"(") {
t.Fatalf("expected %q function in traceback:\n%s", fn, output)
}
}
if want, count := "originating from goroutine", ancestorsExpected; strings.Count(output, want) != count {
t.Errorf("output does not contain %d instances of %q:\n%s", count, want, output)
}
if want, count := "main.recurseThenCallGo(...)", ancestorsExpected*(numFrames+1); strings.Count(output, want) != count {
t.Errorf("output does not contain %d instances of %q:\n%s", count, want, output)
}
if want, count := "main.recurseThenCallGo(0x", 1; strings.Count(output, want) != count {
t.Errorf("output does not contain %d instances of %q:\n%s", count, want, output)
}
}
}
// Test that defer closure is correctly scanned when the stack is scanned.
func TestDeferLiveness(t *testing.T) {
output := runTestProg(t, "testprog", "DeferLiveness", "GODEBUG=clobberfree=1")
if output != "" {
t.Errorf("output:\n%s\n\nwant no output", output)
}
}
func TestDeferHeapAndStack(t *testing.T) {
P := 4 // processors
N := 10000 //iterations
D := 200 // stack depth
if testing.Short() {
P /= 2
N /= 10
D /= 10
}
c := make(chan bool)
for p := 0; p < P; p++ {
go func() {
for i := 0; i < N; i++ {
if deferHeapAndStack(D) != 2*D {
panic("bad result")
}
}
c <- true
}()
}
for p := 0; p < P; p++ {
<-c
}
}
// deferHeapAndStack(n) computes 2*n
func deferHeapAndStack(n int) (r int) {
if n == 0 {
return 0
}
if n%2 == 0 {
// heap-allocated defers
for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
defer func() {
r++
}()
}
} else {
// stack-allocated defers
defer func() {
r++
}()
defer func() {
r++
}()
}
r = deferHeapAndStack(n - 1)
escapeMe(new([1024]byte)) // force some GCs
return
}
// Pass a value to escapeMe to force it to escape.
var escapeMe = func(x interface{}) {}
You can’t perform that action at this time.