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runtime: use sparse mappings for the heap

This replaces the contiguous heap arena mapping with a potentially
sparse mapping that can support heap mappings anywhere in the address
space.

This has several advantages over the current approach:

* There is no longer any limit on the size of the Go heap. (Currently
  it's limited to 512GB.) Hence, this fixes #10460.

* It eliminates many failures modes of heap initialization and
  growing. In particular it eliminates any possibility of panicking
  with an address space conflict. This can happen for many reasons and
  even causes a low but steady rate of TSAN test failures because of
  conflicts with the TSAN runtime. See #16936 and #11993.

* It eliminates the notion of "non-reserved" heap, which was added
  because creating huge address space reservations (particularly on
  64-bit) led to huge process VSIZE. This was at best confusing and at
  worst conflicted badly with ulimit -v. However, the non-reserved
  heap logic is complicated, can race with other mappings in non-pure
  Go binaries (e.g., #18976), and requires that the entire heap be
  either reserved or non-reserved. We currently maintain the latter
  property, but it's quite difficult to convince yourself of that, and
  hence difficult to keep correct. This logic is still present, but
  will be removed in the next CL.

* It fixes problems on 32-bit where skipping over parts of the address
  space leads to mapping huge (and never-to-be-used) metadata
  structures. See #19831.

This also completely rewrites and significantly simplifies
mheap.sysAlloc, which has been a source of many bugs. E.g., #21044,
 #20259, #18651, and #13143 (and maybe #23222).

This change also makes it possible to allocate individual objects
larger than 512GB. As a result, a few tests that expected huge
allocations to fail needed to be changed to make even larger
allocations. However, at the moment attempting to allocate a humongous
object may cause the program to freeze for several minutes on Linux as
we fall back to probing every page with addrspace_free. That logic
(and this failure mode) will be removed in the next CL.

Fixes #10460.
Fixes #22204 (since it rewrites the code involved).

This slightly slows down compilebench and the x/benchmarks garbage
benchmark.

name       old time/op     new time/op     delta
Template       184ms ± 1%      185ms ± 1%    ~     (p=0.065 n=10+9)
Unicode       86.9ms ± 3%     86.3ms ± 1%    ~     (p=0.631 n=10+10)
GoTypes        599ms ± 0%      602ms ± 0%  +0.56%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
Compiler       2.87s ± 1%      2.89s ± 1%  +0.51%  (p=0.002 n=9+10)
SSA            7.29s ± 1%      7.25s ± 1%    ~     (p=0.182 n=10+9)
Flate          118ms ± 2%      118ms ± 1%    ~     (p=0.113 n=9+9)
GoParser       147ms ± 1%      148ms ± 1%  +1.07%  (p=0.003 n=9+10)
Reflect        401ms ± 1%      404ms ± 1%  +0.71%  (p=0.003 n=10+9)
Tar            175ms ± 1%      175ms ± 1%    ~     (p=0.604 n=9+10)
XML            209ms ± 1%      210ms ± 1%    ~     (p=0.052 n=10+10)

(https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20171231.4)

name                       old time/op  new time/op  delta
Garbage/benchmem-MB=64-12  2.23ms ± 1%  2.25ms ± 1%  +0.84%  (p=0.000 n=19+19)

(https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20171231.3)

Relative to the start of the sparse heap changes (starting at and
including "runtime: fix various contiguous bitmap assumptions"),
overall slowdown is roughly 1% on GC-intensive benchmarks:

name        old time/op     new time/op     delta
Template        183ms ± 1%      185ms ± 1%  +1.32%  (p=0.000 n=9+9)
Unicode        84.9ms ± 2%     86.3ms ± 1%  +1.65%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
GoTypes         595ms ± 1%      602ms ± 0%  +1.19%  (p=0.000 n=9+9)
Compiler        2.86s ± 0%      2.89s ± 1%  +0.91%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
SSA             7.19s ± 0%      7.25s ± 1%  +0.75%  (p=0.000 n=8+9)
Flate           117ms ± 1%      118ms ± 1%  +1.10%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
GoParser        146ms ± 2%      148ms ± 1%  +1.48%  (p=0.002 n=10+10)
Reflect         398ms ± 1%      404ms ± 1%  +1.51%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
Tar             173ms ± 1%      175ms ± 1%  +1.17%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
XML             208ms ± 1%      210ms ± 1%  +0.62%  (p=0.011 n=10+10)
[Geo mean]      369ms           373ms       +1.17%

(https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20180101.2)

name                       old time/op  new time/op  delta
Garbage/benchmem-MB=64-12  2.22ms ± 1%  2.25ms ± 1%  +1.51%  (p=0.000 n=20+19)

(https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20180101.3)

Change-Id: I5daf4cfec24b252e5a57001f0a6c03f22479d0f0
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/85887
Run-TryBot: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Rick Hudson <rlh@golang.org>
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aclements committed Dec 20, 2017
1 parent 45ffeab commit 2b415549b813ba36caafa34fc34d72e47ee8335c
@@ -413,3 +413,35 @@ func TracebackSystemstack(stk []uintptr, i int) int {
})
return n
}

func KeepNArenaHints(n int) {
hint := mheap_.arenaHints
for i := 1; i < n; i++ {
hint = hint.next
if hint == nil {
return
}
}
hint.next = nil
}

// MapNextArenaHint reserves a page at the next arena growth hint,
// preventing the arena from growing there, and returns the range of
// addresses that are no longer viable.
func MapNextArenaHint() (start, end uintptr) {
hint := mheap_.arenaHints
addr := hint.addr
if hint.down {
start, end = addr-heapArenaBytes, addr
addr -= physPageSize
} else {
start, end = addr, addr+heapArenaBytes
}
var reserved bool
sysReserve(unsafe.Pointer(addr), physPageSize, &reserved)
return
}

func GetNextArenaHint() uintptr {
return mheap_.arenaHints.addr
}
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