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runtime: make sweep time proportional to in-use spans

Currently sweeping walks the list of all spans, which means the work
in sweeping is proportional to the maximum number of spans ever used.
If the heap was once large but is now small, this causes an
amortization failure: on a small heap, GCs happen frequently, but a
full sweep still has to happen in each GC cycle, which means we spent
a lot of time in sweeping.

Fix this by creating a separate list consisting of just the in-use
spans to be swept, so sweeping is proportional to the number of in-use
spans (which is proportional to the live heap). Specifically, we
create two lists: a list of unswept in-use spans and a list of swept
in-use spans. At the start of the sweep cycle, the swept list becomes
the unswept list and the new swept list is empty. Allocating a new
in-use span adds it to the swept list. Sweeping moves spans from the
unswept list to the swept list.

This fixes the amortization problem because a shrinking heap moves
spans off the unswept list without adding them to the swept list,
reducing the time required by the next sweep cycle.

Updates #9265. This fix eliminates almost all of the time spent in
sweepone; however, markrootSpans has essentially the same bug, so now
the test program from this issue spends all of its time in
markrootSpans.

No significant effect on other benchmarks.

Change-Id: Ib382e82790aad907da1c127e62b3ab45d7a4ac1e
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/30535
Run-TryBot: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Rick Hudson <rlh@golang.org>
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aclements committed Oct 5, 2016
1 parent 45baff6 commit f9497a6747abe8738728eeb08f80849c88404d18
Showing with 173 additions and 8 deletions.
  1. +6 −1 src/runtime/mgc.go
  2. +22 −7 src/runtime/mgcsweep.go
  3. +133 −0 src/runtime/mgcsweepbuf.go
  4. +12 −0 src/runtime/mheap.go
View
@@ -1684,7 +1684,12 @@ func gcSweep(mode gcMode) {
lock(&mheap_.lock)
mheap_.sweepgen += 2
mheap_.sweepdone = 0
- sweep.spanidx = 0
+ if mheap_.sweepSpans[mheap_.sweepgen/2%2].index != 0 {
+ // We should have drained this list during the last
+ // sweep phase. We certainly need to start this phase
+ // with an empty swept list.
+ throw("non-empty swept list")
+ }
unlock(&mheap_.lock)
if !_ConcurrentSweep || mode == gcForceBlockMode {
View
@@ -20,10 +20,12 @@ type sweepdata struct {
parked bool
started bool
- spanidx uint32 // background sweeper position
-
nbgsweep uint32
npausesweep uint32
+
+ // pacertracegen is the sweepgen at which the last pacer trace
+ // "sweep finished" message was printed.
+ pacertracegen uint32
}
//go:nowritebarrier
@@ -91,25 +93,33 @@ func sweepone() uintptr {
_g_.m.locks++
sg := mheap_.sweepgen
for {
- idx := atomic.Xadd(&sweep.spanidx, 1) - 1
- if idx >= uint32(len(work.spans)) {
+ s := mheap_.sweepSpans[1-sg/2%2].pop()
+ if s == nil {
mheap_.sweepdone = 1
_g_.m.locks--
- if debug.gcpacertrace > 0 && idx == uint32(len(work.spans)) {
+ if debug.gcpacertrace > 0 && atomic.Cas(&sweep.pacertracegen, sg-2, sg) {
print("pacer: sweep done at heap size ", memstats.heap_live>>20, "MB; allocated ", mheap_.spanBytesAlloc>>20, "MB of spans; swept ", mheap_.pagesSwept, " pages at ", mheap_.sweepPagesPerByte, " pages/byte\n")
}
return ^uintptr(0)
}
- s := work.spans[idx]
if s.state != mSpanInUse {
- s.sweepgen = sg
+ // This can happen if direct sweeping already
+ // swept this span, but in that case the sweep
+ // generation should always be up-to-date.
+ if s.sweepgen != sg {
+ print("runtime: bad span s.state=", s.state, " s.sweepgen=", s.sweepgen, " sweepgen=", sg, "\n")
+ throw("non in-use span in unswept list")
+ }
continue
}
if s.sweepgen != sg-2 || !atomic.Cas(&s.sweepgen, sg-2, sg-1) {
continue
}
npages := s.npages
if !s.sweep(false) {
+ // Span is still in-use, so this returned no
+ // pages to the heap and the span needs to
+ // move to the swept in-use list.
npages = 0
}
_g_.m.locks--
@@ -348,6 +358,11 @@ func (s *mspan) sweep(preserve bool) bool {
c.local_largefree += size
res = true
}
+ if !res {
+ // The span has been swept and is still in-use, so put
+ // it on the swept in-use list.
+ mheap_.sweepSpans[sweepgen/2%2].push(s)
+ }
if trace.enabled {
traceGCSweepDone()
}
View
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+// Copyright 2016 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
+// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
+// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
+
+package runtime
+
+import (
+ "runtime/internal/atomic"
+ "runtime/internal/sys"
+ "unsafe"
+)
+
+// A gcSweepBuf is a set of *mspans.
+//
+// gcSweepBuf is safe for concurrent push operations *or* concurrent
+// pop operations, but not both simultaneously.
+type gcSweepBuf struct {
+ // A gcSweepBuf is a two-level data structure consisting of a
+ // growable spine that points to fixed-sized blocks. The spine
+ // can be accessed without locks, but adding a block or
+ // growing it requires taking the spine lock.
+ //
+ // Because each mspan covers at least 8K of heap and takes at
+ // most 8 bytes in the gcSweepBuf, the growth of the spine is
+ // quite limited.
+ //
+ // The spine and all blocks are allocated off-heap, which
+ // allows this to be used in the memory manager and avoids the
+ // need for write barriers on all of these. We never release
+ // this memory because there could be concurrent lock-free
+ // access and we're likely to reuse it anyway. (In principle,
+ // we could do this during STW.)
+
+ spineLock mutex
+ spine unsafe.Pointer // *[N]*gcSweepBlock, accessed atomically
+ spineLen uintptr // Spine array length, accessed atomically
+ spineCap uintptr // Spine array cap, accessed under lock
+
+ // index is the first unused slot in the logical concatenation
+ // of all blocks. It is accessed atomically.
+ index uint32
+}
+
+const (
+ gcSweepBlockEntries = 512 // 4KB on 64-bit
+ gcSweepBufInitSpineCap = 256 // Enough for 1GB heap on 64-bit
+)
+
+type gcSweepBlock struct {
+ spans [gcSweepBlockEntries]*mspan
+}
+
+// push adds span s to buffer b. push is safe to call concurrently
+// with other push operations, but NOT to call concurrently with pop.
+func (b *gcSweepBuf) push(s *mspan) {
+ // Obtain our slot.
+ cursor := uintptr(atomic.Xadd(&b.index, +1) - 1)
+ top, bottom := cursor/gcSweepBlockEntries, cursor%gcSweepBlockEntries
+
+ // Do we need to add a block?
+ spineLen := atomic.Loaduintptr(&b.spineLen)
+ var block *gcSweepBlock
+retry:
+ if top < spineLen {
+ spine := atomic.Loadp(unsafe.Pointer(&b.spine))
+ blockp := add(spine, sys.PtrSize*top)
+ block = (*gcSweepBlock)(atomic.Loadp(blockp))
+ } else {
+ // Add a new block to the spine, potentially growing
+ // the spine.
+ lock(&b.spineLock)
+ // spineLen cannot change until we release the lock,
+ // but may have changed while we were waiting.
+ spineLen = atomic.Loaduintptr(&b.spineLen)
+ if top < spineLen {
+ unlock(&b.spineLock)
+ goto retry
+ }
+
+ if spineLen == b.spineCap {
+ // Grow the spine.
+ newCap := b.spineCap * 2
+ if newCap == 0 {
+ newCap = gcSweepBufInitSpineCap
+ }
+ newSpine := persistentalloc(newCap*sys.PtrSize, sys.CacheLineSize, &memstats.gc_sys)
+ if b.spineCap != 0 {
+ // Blocks are allocated off-heap, so
+ // no write barriers.
+ memmove(newSpine, b.spine, b.spineCap*sys.PtrSize)
+ }
+ // Spine is allocated off-heap, so no write barrier.
+ atomic.StorepNoWB(unsafe.Pointer(&b.spine), newSpine)
+ b.spineCap = newCap
+ // We can't immediately free the old spine
+ // since a concurrent push with a lower index
+ // could still be reading from it. We let it
+ // leak because even a 1TB heap would waste
+ // less than 2MB of memory on old spines. If
+ // this is a problem, we could free old spines
+ // during STW.
+ }
+
+ // Allocate a new block and add it to the spine.
+ block = (*gcSweepBlock)(persistentalloc(unsafe.Sizeof(gcSweepBlock{}), sys.CacheLineSize, &memstats.gc_sys))
+ blockp := add(b.spine, sys.PtrSize*top)
+ // Blocks are allocated off-heap, so no write barrier.
+ atomic.StorepNoWB(blockp, unsafe.Pointer(block))
+ atomic.Storeuintptr(&b.spineLen, spineLen+1)
+ unlock(&b.spineLock)
+ }
+
+ // We have a block. Insert the span.
+ block.spans[bottom] = s
+}
+
+// pop removes and returns a span from buffer b, or nil if b is empty.
+// pop is safe to call concurrently with other pop operations, but NOT
+// to call concurrently with push.
+func (b *gcSweepBuf) pop() *mspan {
+ cursor := atomic.Xadd(&b.index, -1)
+ if int32(cursor) < 0 {
+ atomic.Xadd(&b.index, +1)
+ return nil
+ }
+
+ // There are no concurrent spine or block modifications during
+ // pop, so we can omit the atomics.
+ top, bottom := cursor/gcSweepBlockEntries, cursor%gcSweepBlockEntries
+ blockp := (**gcSweepBlock)(add(b.spine, sys.PtrSize*uintptr(top)))
+ block := *blockp
+ return block.spans[bottom]
+}
View
@@ -60,6 +60,17 @@ type mheap struct {
// mapped. cap(spans) indicates the total reserved memory.
spans []*mspan
+ // sweepSpans contains two mspan stacks: one of swept in-use
+ // spans, and one of unswept in-use spans. These two trade
+ // roles on each GC cycle. Since the sweepgen increases by 2
+ // on each cycle, this means the swept spans are in
+ // sweepSpans[sweepgen/2%2] and the unswept spans are in
+ // sweepSpans[1-sweepgen/2%2]. Sweeping pops spans from the
+ // unswept stack and pushes spans that are still in-use on the
+ // swept stack. Likewise, allocating an in-use span pushes it
+ // on the swept stack.
+ sweepSpans [2]gcSweepBuf
+
_ uint32 // align uint64 fields on 32-bit for atomics
// Proportional sweep
@@ -546,6 +557,7 @@ func (h *mheap) alloc_m(npage uintptr, sizeclass int32, large bool) *mspan {
// Record span info, because gc needs to be
// able to map interior pointer to containing span.
atomic.Store(&s.sweepgen, h.sweepgen)
+ h.sweepSpans[h.sweepgen/2%2].push(s) // Add to swept in-use list.
s.state = _MSpanInUse
s.allocCount = 0
s.sizeclass = uint8(sizeclass)

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