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http2: limit number of control frames in server send queue

An attacker could cause servers to queue an unlimited number of PING
ACKs or RST_STREAM frames by soliciting them and not reading them, until
the program runs out of memory.

Limit control frames in the queue to a few thousands (matching the limit
imposed by other vendors) by counting as they enter and exit the scheduler,
so the protection will work with any WriteScheduler.

Once the limit is exceeded, close the connection, as we have no way to
communicate with the peer.

This addresses CVE-2019-9512 and CVE-2019-9514.

Fixes golang/go#33606

Change-Id: I842968fc6ed3eac654b497ade8cea86f7267886b
Reviewed-on: https://team-review.git.corp.google.com/c/golang/go-private/+/525552
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@google.com>
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FiloSottile committed Aug 11, 2019
1 parent ca1201d commit 74dc4d7220e7acc4e100824340f3e66577424772
Showing with 71 additions and 9 deletions.
  1. +38 −8 http2/server.go
  2. +26 −0 http2/server_test.go
  3. +7 −1 http2/writesched.go
@@ -52,10 +52,11 @@ import (
)

const (
prefaceTimeout = 10 * time.Second
firstSettingsTimeout = 2 * time.Second // should be in-flight with preface anyway
handlerChunkWriteSize = 4 << 10
defaultMaxStreams = 250 // TODO: make this 100 as the GFE seems to?
prefaceTimeout = 10 * time.Second
firstSettingsTimeout = 2 * time.Second // should be in-flight with preface anyway
handlerChunkWriteSize = 4 << 10
defaultMaxStreams = 250 // TODO: make this 100 as the GFE seems to?
maxQueuedControlFrames = 10000
)

var (
@@ -163,6 +164,15 @@ func (s *Server) maxConcurrentStreams() uint32 {
return defaultMaxStreams
}

// maxQueuedControlFrames is the maximum number of control frames like
// SETTINGS, PING and RST_STREAM that will be queued for writing before
// the connection is closed to prevent memory exhaustion attacks.
func (s *Server) maxQueuedControlFrames() int {
// TODO: if anybody asks, add a Server field, and remember to define the
// behavior of negative values.
return maxQueuedControlFrames
}

type serverInternalState struct {
mu sync.Mutex
activeConns map[*serverConn]struct{}
@@ -506,6 +516,7 @@ type serverConn struct {
sawFirstSettings bool // got the initial SETTINGS frame after the preface
needToSendSettingsAck bool
unackedSettings int // how many SETTINGS have we sent without ACKs?
queuedControlFrames int // control frames in the writeSched queue
clientMaxStreams uint32 // SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS from client (our PUSH_PROMISE limit)
advMaxStreams uint32 // our SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS advertised the client
curClientStreams uint32 // number of open streams initiated by the client
@@ -894,6 +905,14 @@ func (sc *serverConn) serve() {
}
}

// If the peer is causing us to generate a lot of control frames,
// but not reading them from us, assume they are trying to make us
// run out of memory.
if sc.queuedControlFrames > sc.srv.maxQueuedControlFrames() {
sc.vlogf("http2: too many control frames in send queue, closing connection")
return
}

// Start the shutdown timer after sending a GOAWAY. When sending GOAWAY
// with no error code (graceful shutdown), don't start the timer until
// all open streams have been completed.
@@ -1093,6 +1112,14 @@ func (sc *serverConn) writeFrame(wr FrameWriteRequest) {
}

if !ignoreWrite {
if wr.isControl() {
sc.queuedControlFrames++
// For extra safety, detect wraparounds, which should not happen,
// and pull the plug.
if sc.queuedControlFrames < 0 {
sc.conn.Close()
}
}
sc.writeSched.Push(wr)
}
sc.scheduleFrameWrite()
@@ -1210,10 +1237,8 @@ func (sc *serverConn) wroteFrame(res frameWriteResult) {
// If a frame is already being written, nothing happens. This will be called again
// when the frame is done being written.
//
// If a frame isn't being written we need to send one, the best frame
// to send is selected, preferring first things that aren't
// stream-specific (e.g. ACKing settings), and then finding the
// highest priority stream.
// If a frame isn't being written and we need to send one, the best frame
// to send is selected by writeSched.
//
// If a frame isn't being written and there's nothing else to send, we
// flush the write buffer.
@@ -1241,6 +1266,9 @@ func (sc *serverConn) scheduleFrameWrite() {
}
if !sc.inGoAway || sc.goAwayCode == ErrCodeNo {
if wr, ok := sc.writeSched.Pop(); ok {
if wr.isControl() {
sc.queuedControlFrames--
}
sc.startFrameWrite(wr)
continue
}
@@ -1533,6 +1561,8 @@ func (sc *serverConn) processSettings(f *SettingsFrame) error {
if err := f.ForeachSetting(sc.processSetting); err != nil {
return err
}
// TODO: judging by RFC 7540, Section 6.5.3 each SETTINGS frame should be
// acknowledged individually, even if multiple are received before the ACK.
sc.needToSendSettingsAck = true
sc.scheduleFrameWrite()
return nil
@@ -1160,6 +1160,32 @@ func TestServer_Ping(t *testing.T) {
}
}

func TestServer_MaxQueuedControlFrames(t *testing.T) {
if testing.Short() {
t.Skip("skipping in short mode")
}

st := newServerTester(t, nil)
defer st.Close()
st.greet()

const extraPings = 500000 // enough to fill the TCP buffers

for i := 0; i < maxQueuedControlFrames+extraPings; i++ {
pingData := [8]byte{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
if err := st.fr.WritePing(false, pingData); err != nil {
if i == 0 {
t.Fatal(err)
}
// We expect the connection to get closed by the server when the TCP
// buffer fills up and the write queue reaches MaxQueuedControlFrames.
t.Logf("sent %d PING frames", i)
return
}
}
t.Errorf("unexpected success sending all PING frames")
}

func TestServer_RejectsLargeFrames(t *testing.T) {
if runtime.GOOS == "windows" {
t.Skip("see golang.org/issue/13434")
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ type WriteScheduler interface {

// Pop dequeues the next frame to write. Returns false if no frames can
// be written. Frames with a given wr.StreamID() are Pop'd in the same
// order they are Push'd.
// order they are Push'd. No frames should be discarded except by CloseStream.
Pop() (wr FrameWriteRequest, ok bool)
}

@@ -76,6 +76,12 @@ func (wr FrameWriteRequest) StreamID() uint32 {
return wr.stream.id
}

// isControl reports whether wr is a control frame for MaxQueuedControlFrames
// purposes. That includes non-stream frames and RST_STREAM frames.
func (wr FrameWriteRequest) isControl() bool {
return wr.stream == nil
}

// DataSize returns the number of flow control bytes that must be consumed
// to write this entire frame. This is 0 for non-DATA frames.
func (wr FrameWriteRequest) DataSize() int {

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