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// Copyright 2017 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Package semaphore provides a weighted semaphore implementation.
package semaphore // import ""
import (
type waiter struct {
n int64
ready chan<- struct{} // Closed when semaphore acquired.
// NewWeighted creates a new weighted semaphore with the given
// maximum combined weight for concurrent access.
func NewWeighted(n int64) *Weighted {
w := &Weighted{size: n}
return w
// Weighted provides a way to bound concurrent access to a resource.
// The callers can request access with a given weight.
type Weighted struct {
size int64
cur int64
mu sync.Mutex
waiters list.List
// Acquire acquires the semaphore with a weight of n, blocking until resources
// are available or ctx is done. On success, returns nil. On failure, returns
// ctx.Err() and leaves the semaphore unchanged.
// If ctx is already done, Acquire may still succeed without blocking.
func (s *Weighted) Acquire(ctx context.Context, n int64) error {
if s.size-s.cur >= n && s.waiters.Len() == 0 {
s.cur += n
return nil
if n > s.size {
// Don't make other Acquire calls block on one that's doomed to fail.
return ctx.Err()
ready := make(chan struct{})
w := waiter{n: n, ready: ready}
elem := s.waiters.PushBack(w)
select {
case <-ctx.Done():
err := ctx.Err()
select {
case <-ready:
// Acquired the semaphore after we were canceled. Rather than trying to
// fix up the queue, just pretend we didn't notice the cancelation.
err = nil
return err
case <-ready:
return nil
// TryAcquire acquires the semaphore with a weight of n without blocking.
// On success, returns true. On failure, returns false and leaves the semaphore unchanged.
func (s *Weighted) TryAcquire(n int64) bool {
success := s.size-s.cur >= n && s.waiters.Len() == 0
if success {
s.cur += n
return success
// Release releases the semaphore with a weight of n.
func (s *Weighted) Release(n int64) {
s.cur -= n
if s.cur < 0 {
panic("semaphore: released more than held")
for {
next := s.waiters.Front()
if next == nil {
break // No more waiters blocked.
w := next.Value.(waiter)
if s.size-s.cur < w.n {
// Not enough tokens for the next waiter. We could keep going (to try to
// find a waiter with a smaller request), but under load that could cause
// starvation for large requests; instead, we leave all remaining waiters
// blocked.
// Consider a semaphore used as a read-write lock, with N tokens, N
// readers, and one writer. Each reader can Acquire(1) to obtain a read
// lock. The writer can Acquire(N) to obtain a write lock, excluding all
// of the readers. If we allow the readers to jump ahead in the queue,
// the writer will starve — there is always one token available for every
// reader.
s.cur += w.n