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// Copyright 2013 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Package transform provides reader and writer wrappers that transform the
// bytes passing through as well as various transformations. Example
// transformations provided by other packages include normalization and
// conversion between character sets.
package transform // import "golang.org/x/text/transform"
import (
"bytes"
"errors"
"io"
"unicode/utf8"
)
var (
// ErrShortDst means that the destination buffer was too short to
// receive all of the transformed bytes.
ErrShortDst = errors.New("transform: short destination buffer")
// ErrShortSrc means that the source buffer has insufficient data to
// complete the transformation.
ErrShortSrc = errors.New("transform: short source buffer")
// ErrEndOfSpan means that the input and output (the transformed input)
// are not identical.
ErrEndOfSpan = errors.New("transform: input and output are not identical")
// errInconsistentByteCount means that Transform returned success (nil
// error) but also returned nSrc inconsistent with the src argument.
errInconsistentByteCount = errors.New("transform: inconsistent byte count returned")
// errShortInternal means that an internal buffer is not large enough
// to make progress and the Transform operation must be aborted.
errShortInternal = errors.New("transform: short internal buffer")
)
// Transformer transforms bytes.
type Transformer interface {
// Transform writes to dst the transformed bytes read from src, and
// returns the number of dst bytes written and src bytes read. The
// atEOF argument tells whether src represents the last bytes of the
// input.
//
// Callers should always process the nDst bytes produced and account
// for the nSrc bytes consumed before considering the error err.
//
// A nil error means that all of the transformed bytes (whether freshly
// transformed from src or left over from previous Transform calls)
// were written to dst. A nil error can be returned regardless of
// whether atEOF is true. If err is nil then nSrc must equal len(src);
// the converse is not necessarily true.
//
// ErrShortDst means that dst was too short to receive all of the
// transformed bytes. ErrShortSrc means that src had insufficient data
// to complete the transformation. If both conditions apply, then
// either error may be returned. Other than the error conditions listed
// here, implementations are free to report other errors that arise.
Transform(dst, src []byte, atEOF bool) (nDst, nSrc int, err error)
// Reset resets the state and allows a Transformer to be reused.
Reset()
}
// SpanningTransformer extends the Transformer interface with a Span method
// that determines how much of the input already conforms to the Transformer.
type SpanningTransformer interface {
Transformer
// Span returns a position in src such that transforming src[:n] results in
// identical output src[:n] for these bytes. It does not necessarily return
// the largest such n. The atEOF argument tells whether src represents the
// last bytes of the input.
//
// Callers should always account for the n bytes consumed before
// considering the error err.
//
// A nil error means that all input bytes are known to be identical to the
// output produced by the Transformer. A nil error can be returned
// regardless of whether atEOF is true. If err is nil, then n must
// equal len(src); the converse is not necessarily true.
//
// ErrEndOfSpan means that the Transformer output may differ from the
// input after n bytes. Note that n may be len(src), meaning that the output
// would contain additional bytes after otherwise identical output.
// ErrShortSrc means that src had insufficient data to determine whether the
// remaining bytes would change. Other than the error conditions listed
// here, implementations are free to report other errors that arise.
//
// Calling Span can modify the Transformer state as a side effect. In
// effect, it does the transformation just as calling Transform would, only
// without copying to a destination buffer and only up to a point it can
// determine the input and output bytes are the same. This is obviously more
// limited than calling Transform, but can be more efficient in terms of
// copying and allocating buffers. Calls to Span and Transform may be
// interleaved.
Span(src []byte, atEOF bool) (n int, err error)
}
// NopResetter can be embedded by implementations of Transformer to add a nop
// Reset method.
type NopResetter struct{}
// Reset implements the Reset method of the Transformer interface.
func (NopResetter) Reset() {}
// Reader wraps another io.Reader by transforming the bytes read.
type Reader struct {
r io.Reader
t Transformer
err error
// dst[dst0:dst1] contains bytes that have been transformed by t but
// not yet copied out via Read.
dst []byte
dst0, dst1 int
// src[src0:src1] contains bytes that have been read from r but not
// yet transformed through t.
src []byte
src0, src1 int
// transformComplete is whether the transformation is complete,
// regardless of whether or not it was successful.
transformComplete bool
}
const defaultBufSize = 4096
// NewReader returns a new Reader that wraps r by transforming the bytes read
// via t. It calls Reset on t.
func NewReader(r io.Reader, t Transformer) *Reader {
t.Reset()
return &Reader{
r: r,
t: t,
dst: make([]byte, defaultBufSize),
src: make([]byte, defaultBufSize),
}
}
// Read implements the io.Reader interface.
func (r *Reader) Read(p []byte) (int, error) {
n, err := 0, error(nil)
for {
// Copy out any transformed bytes and return the final error if we are done.
if r.dst0 != r.dst1 {
n = copy(p, r.dst[r.dst0:r.dst1])
r.dst0 += n
if r.dst0 == r.dst1 && r.transformComplete {
return n, r.err
}
return n, nil
} else if r.transformComplete {
return 0, r.err
}
// Try to transform some source bytes, or to flush the transformer if we
// are out of source bytes. We do this even if r.r.Read returned an error.
// As the io.Reader documentation says, "process the n > 0 bytes returned
// before considering the error".
if r.src0 != r.src1 || r.err != nil {
r.dst0 = 0
r.dst1, n, err = r.t.Transform(r.dst, r.src[r.src0:r.src1], r.err == io.EOF)
r.src0 += n
switch {
case err == nil:
if r.src0 != r.src1 {
r.err = errInconsistentByteCount
}
// The Transform call was successful; we are complete if we
// cannot read more bytes into src.
r.transformComplete = r.err != nil
continue
case err == ErrShortDst && (r.dst1 != 0 || n != 0):
// Make room in dst by copying out, and try again.
continue
case err == ErrShortSrc && r.src1-r.src0 != len(r.src) && r.err == nil:
// Read more bytes into src via the code below, and try again.
default:
r.transformComplete = true
// The reader error (r.err) takes precedence over the
// transformer error (err) unless r.err is nil or io.EOF.
if r.err == nil || r.err == io.EOF {
r.err = err
}
continue
}
}
// Move any untransformed source bytes to the start of the buffer
// and read more bytes.
if r.src0 != 0 {
r.src0, r.src1 = 0, copy(r.src, r.src[r.src0:r.src1])
}
n, r.err = r.r.Read(r.src[r.src1:])
r.src1 += n
}
}
// TODO: implement ReadByte (and ReadRune??).
// Writer wraps another io.Writer by transforming the bytes read.
// The user needs to call Close to flush unwritten bytes that may
// be buffered.
type Writer struct {
w io.Writer
t Transformer
dst []byte
// src[:n] contains bytes that have not yet passed through t.
src []byte
n int
}
// NewWriter returns a new Writer that wraps w by transforming the bytes written
// via t. It calls Reset on t.
func NewWriter(w io.Writer, t Transformer) *Writer {
t.Reset()
return &Writer{
w: w,
t: t,
dst: make([]byte, defaultBufSize),
src: make([]byte, defaultBufSize),
}
}
// Write implements the io.Writer interface. If there are not enough
// bytes available to complete a Transform, the bytes will be buffered
// for the next write. Call Close to convert the remaining bytes.
func (w *Writer) Write(data []byte) (n int, err error) {
src := data
if w.n > 0 {
// Append bytes from data to the last remainder.
// TODO: limit the amount copied on first try.
n = copy(w.src[w.n:], data)
w.n += n
src = w.src[:w.n]
}
for {
nDst, nSrc, err := w.t.Transform(w.dst, src, false)
if _, werr := w.w.Write(w.dst[:nDst]); werr != nil {
return n, werr
}
src = src[nSrc:]
if w.n == 0 {
n += nSrc
} else if len(src) <= n {
// Enough bytes from w.src have been consumed. We make src point
// to data instead to reduce the copying.
w.n = 0
n -= len(src)
src = data[n:]
if n < len(data) && (err == nil || err == ErrShortSrc) {
continue
}
}
switch err {
case ErrShortDst:
// This error is okay as long as we are making progress.
if nDst > 0 || nSrc > 0 {
continue
}
case ErrShortSrc:
if len(src) < len(w.src) {
m := copy(w.src, src)
// If w.n > 0, bytes from data were already copied to w.src and n
// was already set to the number of bytes consumed.
if w.n == 0 {
n += m
}
w.n = m
err = nil
} else if nDst > 0 || nSrc > 0 {
// Not enough buffer to store the remainder. Keep processing as
// long as there is progress. Without this case, transforms that
// require a lookahead larger than the buffer may result in an
// error. This is not something one may expect to be common in
// practice, but it may occur when buffers are set to small
// sizes during testing.
continue
}
case nil:
if w.n > 0 {
err = errInconsistentByteCount
}
}
return n, err
}
}
// Close implements the io.Closer interface.
func (w *Writer) Close() error {
src := w.src[:w.n]
for {
nDst, nSrc, err := w.t.Transform(w.dst, src, true)
if _, werr := w.w.Write(w.dst[:nDst]); werr != nil {
return werr
}
if err != ErrShortDst {
return err
}
src = src[nSrc:]
}
}
type nop struct{ NopResetter }
func (nop) Transform(dst, src []byte, atEOF bool) (nDst, nSrc int, err error) {
n := copy(dst, src)
if n < len(src) {
err = ErrShortDst
}
return n, n, err
}
func (nop) Span(src []byte, atEOF bool) (n int, err error) {
return len(src), nil
}
type discard struct{ NopResetter }
func (discard) Transform(dst, src []byte, atEOF bool) (nDst, nSrc int, err error) {
return 0, len(src), nil
}
var (
// Discard is a Transformer for which all Transform calls succeed
// by consuming all bytes and writing nothing.
Discard Transformer = discard{}
// Nop is a SpanningTransformer that copies src to dst.
Nop SpanningTransformer = nop{}
)
// chain is a sequence of links. A chain with N Transformers has N+1 links and
// N+1 buffers. Of those N+1 buffers, the first and last are the src and dst
// buffers given to chain.Transform and the middle N-1 buffers are intermediate
// buffers owned by the chain. The i'th link transforms bytes from the i'th
// buffer chain.link[i].b at read offset chain.link[i].p to the i+1'th buffer
// chain.link[i+1].b at write offset chain.link[i+1].n, for i in [0, N).
type chain struct {
link []link
err error
// errStart is the index at which the error occurred plus 1. Processing
// errStart at this level at the next call to Transform. As long as
// errStart > 0, chain will not consume any more source bytes.
errStart int
}
func (c *chain) fatalError(errIndex int, err error) {
if i := errIndex + 1; i > c.errStart {
c.errStart = i
c.err = err
}
}
type link struct {
t Transformer
// b[p:n] holds the bytes to be transformed by t.
b []byte
p int
n int
}
func (l *link) src() []byte {
return l.b[l.p:l.n]
}
func (l *link) dst() []byte {
return l.b[l.n:]
}
// Chain returns a Transformer that applies t in sequence.
func Chain(t ...Transformer) Transformer {
if len(t) == 0 {
return nop{}
}
c := &chain{link: make([]link, len(t)+1)}
for i, tt := range t {
c.link[i].t = tt
}
// Allocate intermediate buffers.
b := make([][defaultBufSize]byte, len(t)-1)
for i := range b {
c.link[i+1].b = b[i][:]
}
return c
}
// Reset resets the state of Chain. It calls Reset on all the Transformers.
func (c *chain) Reset() {
for i, l := range c.link {
if l.t != nil {
l.t.Reset()
}
c.link[i].p, c.link[i].n = 0, 0
}
}
// TODO: make chain use Span (is going to be fun to implement!)
// Transform applies the transformers of c in sequence.
func (c *chain) Transform(dst, src []byte, atEOF bool) (nDst, nSrc int, err error) {
// Set up src and dst in the chain.
srcL := &c.link[0]
dstL := &c.link[len(c.link)-1]
srcL.b, srcL.p, srcL.n = src, 0, len(src)
dstL.b, dstL.n = dst, 0
var lastFull, needProgress bool // for detecting progress
// i is the index of the next Transformer to apply, for i in [low, high].
// low is the lowest index for which c.link[low] may still produce bytes.
// high is the highest index for which c.link[high] has a Transformer.
// The error returned by Transform determines whether to increase or
// decrease i. We try to completely fill a buffer before converting it.
for low, i, high := c.errStart, c.errStart, len(c.link)-2; low <= i && i <= high; {
in, out := &c.link[i], &c.link[i+1]
nDst, nSrc, err0 := in.t.Transform(out.dst(), in.src(), atEOF && low == i)
out.n += nDst
in.p += nSrc
if i > 0 && in.p == in.n {
in.p, in.n = 0, 0
}
needProgress, lastFull = lastFull, false
switch err0 {
case ErrShortDst:
// Process the destination buffer next. Return if we are already
// at the high index.
if i == high {
return dstL.n, srcL.p, ErrShortDst
}
if out.n != 0 {
i++
// If the Transformer at the next index is not able to process any
// source bytes there is nothing that can be done to make progress
// and the bytes will remain unprocessed. lastFull is used to
// detect this and break out of the loop with a fatal error.
lastFull = true
continue
}
// The destination buffer was too small, but is completely empty.
// Return a fatal error as this transformation can never complete.
c.fatalError(i, errShortInternal)
case ErrShortSrc:
if i == 0 {
// Save ErrShortSrc in err. All other errors take precedence.
err = ErrShortSrc
break
}
// Source bytes were depleted before filling up the destination buffer.
// Verify we made some progress, move the remaining bytes to the errStart
// and try to get more source bytes.
if needProgress && nSrc == 0 || in.n-in.p == len(in.b) {
// There were not enough source bytes to proceed while the source
// buffer cannot hold any more bytes. Return a fatal error as this
// transformation can never complete.
c.fatalError(i, errShortInternal)
break
}
// in.b is an internal buffer and we can make progress.
in.p, in.n = 0, copy(in.b, in.src())
fallthrough
case nil:
// if i == low, we have depleted the bytes at index i or any lower levels.
// In that case we increase low and i. In all other cases we decrease i to
// fetch more bytes before proceeding to the next index.
if i > low {
i--
continue
}
default:
c.fatalError(i, err0)
}
// Exhausted level low or fatal error: increase low and continue
// to process the bytes accepted so far.
i++
low = i
}
// If c.errStart > 0, this means we found a fatal error. We will clear
// all upstream buffers. At this point, no more progress can be made
// downstream, as Transform would have bailed while handling ErrShortDst.
if c.errStart > 0 {
for i := 1; i < c.errStart; i++ {
c.link[i].p, c.link[i].n = 0, 0
}
err, c.errStart, c.err = c.err, 0, nil
}
return dstL.n, srcL.p, err
}
// Deprecated: Use runes.Remove instead.
func RemoveFunc(f func(r rune) bool) Transformer {
return removeF(f)
}
type removeF func(r rune) bool
func (removeF) Reset() {}
// Transform implements the Transformer interface.
func (t removeF) Transform(dst, src []byte, atEOF bool) (nDst, nSrc int, err error) {
for r, sz := rune(0), 0; len(src) > 0; src = src[sz:] {
if r = rune(src[0]); r < utf8.RuneSelf {
sz = 1
} else {
r, sz = utf8.DecodeRune(src)
if sz == 1 {
// Invalid rune.
if !atEOF && !utf8.FullRune(src) {
err = ErrShortSrc
break
}
// We replace illegal bytes with RuneError. Not doing so might
// otherwise turn a sequence of invalid UTF-8 into valid UTF-8.
// The resulting byte sequence may subsequently contain runes
// for which t(r) is true that were passed unnoticed.
if !t(r) {
if nDst+3 > len(dst) {
err = ErrShortDst
break
}
nDst += copy(dst[nDst:], "\uFFFD")
}
nSrc++
continue
}
}
if !t(r) {
if nDst+sz > len(dst) {
err = ErrShortDst
break
}
nDst += copy(dst[nDst:], src[:sz])
}
nSrc += sz
}
return
}
// grow returns a new []byte that is longer than b, and copies the first n bytes
// of b to the start of the new slice.
func grow(b []byte, n int) []byte {
m := len(b)
if m <= 32 {
m = 64
} else if m <= 256 {
m *= 2
} else {
m += m >> 1
}
buf := make([]byte, m)
copy(buf, b[:n])
return buf
}
const initialBufSize = 128
// String returns a string with the result of converting s[:n] using t, where
// n <= len(s). If err == nil, n will be len(s). It calls Reset on t.
func String(t Transformer, s string) (result string, n int, err error) {
t.Reset()
if s == "" {
// Fast path for the common case for empty input. Results in about a
// 86% reduction of running time for BenchmarkStringLowerEmpty.
if _, _, err := t.Transform(nil, nil, true); err == nil {
return "", 0, nil
}
}
// Allocate only once. Note that both dst and src escape when passed to
// Transform.
buf := [2 * initialBufSize]byte{}
dst := buf[:initialBufSize:initialBufSize]
src := buf[initialBufSize : 2*initialBufSize]
// The input string s is transformed in multiple chunks (starting with a
// chunk size of initialBufSize). nDst and nSrc are per-chunk (or
// per-Transform-call) indexes, pDst and pSrc are overall indexes.
nDst, nSrc := 0, 0
pDst, pSrc := 0, 0
// pPrefix is the length of a common prefix: the first pPrefix bytes of the
// result will equal the first pPrefix bytes of s. It is not guaranteed to
// be the largest such value, but if pPrefix, len(result) and len(s) are
// all equal after the final transform (i.e. calling Transform with atEOF
// being true returned nil error) then we don't need to allocate a new
// result string.
pPrefix := 0
for {
// Invariant: pDst == pPrefix && pSrc == pPrefix.
n := copy(src, s[pSrc:])
nDst, nSrc, err = t.Transform(dst, src[:n], pSrc+n == len(s))
pDst += nDst
pSrc += nSrc
// TODO: let transformers implement an optional Spanner interface, akin
// to norm's QuickSpan. This would even allow us to avoid any allocation.
if !bytes.Equal(dst[:nDst], src[:nSrc]) {
break
}
pPrefix = pSrc
if err == ErrShortDst {
// A buffer can only be short if a transformer modifies its input.
break
} else if err == ErrShortSrc {
if nSrc == 0 {
// No progress was made.
break
}
// Equal so far and !atEOF, so continue checking.
} else if err != nil || pPrefix == len(s) {
return string(s[:pPrefix]), pPrefix, err
}
}
// Post-condition: pDst == pPrefix + nDst && pSrc == pPrefix + nSrc.
// We have transformed the first pSrc bytes of the input s to become pDst
// transformed bytes. Those transformed bytes are discontiguous: the first
// pPrefix of them equal s[:pPrefix] and the last nDst of them equal
// dst[:nDst]. We copy them around, into a new dst buffer if necessary, so
// that they become one contiguous slice: dst[:pDst].
if pPrefix != 0 {
newDst := dst
if pDst > len(newDst) {
newDst = make([]byte, len(s)+nDst-nSrc)
}
copy(newDst[pPrefix:pDst], dst[:nDst])
copy(newDst[:pPrefix], s[:pPrefix])
dst = newDst
}
// Prevent duplicate Transform calls with atEOF being true at the end of
// the input. Also return if we have an unrecoverable error.
if (err == nil && pSrc == len(s)) ||
(err != nil && err != ErrShortDst && err != ErrShortSrc) {
return string(dst[:pDst]), pSrc, err
}
// Transform the remaining input, growing dst and src buffers as necessary.
for {
n := copy(src, s[pSrc:])
nDst, nSrc, err := t.Transform(dst[pDst:], src[:n], pSrc+n == len(s))
pDst += nDst
pSrc += nSrc
// If we got ErrShortDst or ErrShortSrc, do not grow as long as we can
// make progress. This may avoid excessive allocations.
if err == ErrShortDst {
if nDst == 0 {
dst = grow(dst, pDst)
}
} else if err == ErrShortSrc {
if nSrc == 0 {
src = grow(src, 0)
}
} else if err != nil || pSrc == len(s) {
return string(dst[:pDst]), pSrc, err
}
}
}
// Bytes returns a new byte slice with the result of converting b[:n] using t,
// where n <= len(b). If err == nil, n will be len(b). It calls Reset on t.
func Bytes(t Transformer, b []byte) (result []byte, n int, err error) {
return doAppend(t, 0, make([]byte, len(b)), b)
}
// Append appends the result of converting src[:n] using t to dst, where
// n <= len(src), If err == nil, n will be len(src). It calls Reset on t.
func Append(t Transformer, dst, src []byte) (result []byte, n int, err error) {
if len(dst) == cap(dst) {
n := len(src) + len(dst) // It is okay for this to be 0.
b := make([]byte, n)
dst = b[:copy(b, dst)]
}
return doAppend(t, len(dst), dst[:cap(dst)], src)
}
func doAppend(t Transformer, pDst int, dst, src []byte) (result []byte, n int, err error) {
t.Reset()
pSrc := 0
for {
nDst, nSrc, err := t.Transform(dst[pDst:], src[pSrc:], true)
pDst += nDst
pSrc += nSrc
if err != ErrShortDst {
return dst[:pDst], pSrc, err
}
// Grow the destination buffer, but do not grow as long as we can make
// progress. This may avoid excessive allocations.
if nDst == 0 {
dst = grow(dst, pDst)
}
}
}
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