Created: 2 February 2018
Question: Why does the circle have 360°?
A Brief History of the Calendar (up to 12:42)
A Minor History Of / Time without Clocks by Joshua Foer
- 1600’s Cannon Dial
- 1633 Kircher’s sunflower clock, set by the heliotropism of a flower
- 1728 Sawai Jai Singh’s 90-foot tall sundial, accurate to 2 seconds
- 1733 Moon dial, read by the shadow of the moon
- 1751 Linnaeus’s flower clock, read from the opening of flowers
- 1929 “aktograph”, or bean leaf movement clock
It’s worth remembering that the convention that we use 12 (or 24) hour time is totally arbitrary — an artifact of ancient Egyptian astronomy. Other systems have been used and proposed. For example, until quite recently, a six-hour day was used in Thailand. During the French Revolution, when the metric system was invented, people seriously proposed decimal time.
Software Clocks (I)
Let’s start with something simple. The Colour Clock displays the current time as a hexadecimal color. Hours = red, minutes = green, seconds = blue. There you go; glad that’s over with. In case you were wondering, more than several people have thought of this idea. Low hanging fruit.
Live Mac OS9 demostration instructions:
- Download artwork from http://www.maedastudio.com/2004/rbooks2k/twelve.html
- Unstuff twelve.sit and locate in /Users/Shared/MaedaClocks/12oclocks
- Launch the SheepShaver OS9 emulator, /Users/golan/Desktop/PEDAGOGY/iacd/2015/clocks/COIV4.0.1+/Classic.app
- After OS9 launches, navigate to Unix/MaedaClocks/12oclocks in OS9; demo
- Force-quit SheepShaver to exit.
Clocks have been an idee fixe in new media. Here's the elegant video-slitscan-based Last Clock, (2002) by Jussi Angesleva & Ross Cooper:
Here's a clock I produced as a student of John Maeda in 1999.
The Clock and Human Industry
Real Time: Schiphol Clock by Maarten Baas
Sweeper Clock by Maarten Baas
Standard Time by Mark Formanek
Industrious Clock by Yugo Nakamura
Book Clock by Masaaki Hiromura
All the Minutes by Studio Moniker
A well-known ‘crowdsourced’ clock (in a different sense) is Christian Marclay’s Clock, a 24-hour film made up of about seven thousand clips, each of which either says or displays the (actual) time of day, or which makes a cogent reference to time:
Physical Machines & Clock Typography
Continue Time by Sander Mulder
3.16 Billion Cycles by Che-Wei Wang & Taylor Lev
Digital Sundial by Mojoptix
Taiwanese designer Yen-Wen Tseng has designed a clock, Hand in Hand, where the hands are linked by two pivoting arms:
Water Clocks by Bernard Gitton (jump to 2:19)
Drop Clock by Stasean
Segmentus Clock by Art Lebedev
Ferrolic by Zelf Koelman
A Million Times by Humans Since 1982
The Clock Clock by Humans Since 1982
A Study Of Time by rAndom International
Qlocktwo by Biegert & Funk selectively illuminates parts of a text image:
It's about time by insightoutsight / Laurence Willmott
Four Letter Clock by Skot Croshere (SKOT9000), 2011
New Graphics; New Concepts
Ink Calendar by Oscar Diaz uses capillary action to display the time.
Untitled (For The Sun) by Jim Campbell
CRASHCLOCK by Tha
Horloge Tactile by Eric Morzier
Center Clock by Lee Byron (2007)
QR Clock by QRPlanet
Time Machine by Daniel Duarte
L'Ora X Clock by Bruno Munari (1945)
Sonicode Clock by Saqoosha
Last Time by Ali Miharbi (2009)
Personal Timekeeper by Taeyoon Choi & E Roon
Ten Things I Can Count On by Bruce Cannon
Zero Noon by Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
- The Rhythm Of Heart - A metronomic archive of the artists’ heartbeats.
- Untitled (Perfect Lovers) - by Félix González-Torres. Two synchronized clocks embody the tension that comes from two people living side-by-side as life moves forward towards death.
In some situations, it may not be necessary for a clock to “work” mechanically in order for it to “operate” powerfully. Below are clocks which are frozen at 8:15am, the moment when the Hiroshima bomb detonated, when Kengo Nikawa’s pocketwatch stopped forever.
In another situation, a clock may simply be working so slowly that it never appears to be working in our lifetime. The Clock of the Long Now, designed to last 10,000 years, ticks once per year and chimes once per century. As such, it fosters long-term thinking and remains an important symbol of hope for the future.
The Clock of the Long Now (10,000 Year Clock)