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Benchmark for web frameworks

See Techempower. This repository contains homemade java benchmarks using spring-mvc, spring-webflux and netty-http/netty-tcp servers based on reactor-netty. gin and gnet are also included. wrk is used as client. gobench is also considered but it is not so good as wrk.

# benchmarking plaintext
# ./wrk -c 1000 -t 30 -d 30s http://10.xx.xx.xx:8124/text

Environment 1

  • Server: 8C16G vm
  • Client: 4C8G vm * 2
Server Server Throughput Server CPU
spring-mvc 25k ~ 30k /s ~600%
spring-webflux 90k ~ 110k /s ~780%
go-gin 110k ~ 120k /s ~600%
go-gnet 110k ~ 120k /s ~270%
netty-http 110k ~ 120k /s ~480%
netty-tcp 110k ~ 120k /s ~360%

2 VM Clients are not able to fully utilize the server capability. The initial attempts were benchmarking only first 4 cases. And the go-gnet results made me wonder, it can give much more throughput. After reading the source of it, I found go-gnet case is actually a TCP server with very very little of HTTP implementation to fulfill the benchmark, which is unfair for other cases. Therefore, I added case 5/6 in java to align with it.

Environment 2

  • Server: 24C32G physical machine
  • Client:
    • 4C8G vm * 2
    • 8C16G vm * 1
    • 24C32G physical machine * 1
Server Server Throughput Server CPU
spring-mvc ~60k /s ~980%
spring-mvc-undertow ~230k /s ~2300%
spring-webflux ~200k /s ~2380%
go-gin ~380k /s ~2350%
go-gnet 560k ~ 580k /s ~1160%
netty-http 560k ~ 580k /s ~2350%
netty-tcp 560k ~ 580k /s ~1460%

Much better throughput and scalability when using Undertow as servlet container, as compared to Tomcat. After some profiling and tuning work, I found all worker threads block and poll from the task queue (a LinkedBlockingQueue). Tomcat with Nio.1 and Nio.2 have competitive performance. The only difference is that Nio.2 uses callbacks with async IO operations.

Also still room to give more throughput in go-gnet and netty-tcp cases. Not having so many idle systems for benchmarking now. The throughput should have a linear increment when more CPU is utilized, in both cases.

As a developer, spring-mvc or go-gin can still be the first choice, as they are easier to get started.