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This dataset contains 23,659 human translated PAWS evaluation pairs and 296,406 machine translated training pairs in six typologically distinct languages: French, Spanish, German, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. All translated pairs are sourced from examples in PAWS-Wiki.

The dataset can be downloaded here:

For further details, see the accompanying paper: PAWS-X: A Cross-lingual Adversarial Dataset for Paraphrase Identification

Note: for multilingual experiments, please use dev_2k.tsv provided in the PAWS-X repo as the development sets for all languages, including English.

Data Format and Statistics

All files are in tsv format with four columns:

Column Name Data
id An ID that matches the ID of the source pair in PAWS-Wiki
sentence1 The first sentence
sentence2 The second sentence
label Label for each pair

The source text of each translation can be retrieved by looking up the ID in the corresponding file in PAWS-Wiki.

The numbers of examples for each of the six languages are shown below:

Language Train Dev Test
fr 49,401 1,992 1,985
es 49,401 1,962 1,999
de 49,401 1,932 1,967
zh 49,401 1,984 1,975
ja 49,401 1,980 1,946
ko 49,401 1,965 1,972
Total 296,406 11,815 11,844

Caveat: please note that the dev and test sets of PAWS-X are both sourced from the dev set of PAWS-Wiki. As a consequence, the same sentence 1 may appear in both the dev and test sets. Nevertheless our data split guarantees that there is no overlap on sentence pairs (sentence 1 + sentence 2) between dev and test.


If you use or discuss this dataset in your work, please cite our paper:

  title = {{PAWS-X: A Cross-lingual Adversarial Dataset for Paraphrase Identification}},
  author = {Yang, Yinfei and Zhang, Yuan and Tar, Chris and Baldridge, Jason},
  booktitle = {Proc. of EMNLP},
  year = {2019}
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