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# coding=utf-8
# Copyright 2018 The Google AI Language Team Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
"""Functions and classes related to optimization (weight updates)."""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import re
import tensorflow as tf
def create_optimizer(loss, init_lr, num_train_steps, num_warmup_steps, use_tpu):
"""Creates an optimizer training op."""
global_step = tf.train.get_or_create_global_step()
learning_rate = tf.constant(value=init_lr, shape=[], dtype=tf.float32)
# Implements linear decay of the learning rate.
learning_rate = tf.train.polynomial_decay(
learning_rate,
global_step,
num_train_steps,
end_learning_rate=0.0,
power=1.0,
cycle=False)
# Implements linear warmup. I.e., if global_step < num_warmup_steps, the
# learning rate will be `global_step/num_warmup_steps * init_lr`.
if num_warmup_steps:
global_steps_int = tf.cast(global_step, tf.int32)
warmup_steps_int = tf.constant(num_warmup_steps, dtype=tf.int32)
global_steps_float = tf.cast(global_steps_int, tf.float32)
warmup_steps_float = tf.cast(warmup_steps_int, tf.float32)
warmup_percent_done = global_steps_float / warmup_steps_float
warmup_learning_rate = init_lr * warmup_percent_done
is_warmup = tf.cast(global_steps_int < warmup_steps_int, tf.float32)
learning_rate = (
(1.0 - is_warmup) * learning_rate + is_warmup * warmup_learning_rate)
# It is recommended that you use this optimizer for fine tuning, since this
# is how the model was trained (note that the Adam m/v variables are NOT
# loaded from init_checkpoint.)
optimizer = AdamWeightDecayOptimizer(
learning_rate=learning_rate,
weight_decay_rate=0.01,
adapter_weight_decay_rate=0.01,
beta_1=0.9,
beta_2=0.999,
epsilon=1e-6,
exclude_from_weight_decay=["LayerNorm", "layer_norm", "bias"])
if use_tpu:
optimizer = tf.contrib.tpu.CrossShardOptimizer(optimizer)
tvars = []
for collection in ["adapters", "layer_norm", "head"]:
tvars += tf.get_collection(collection)
grads = tf.gradients(loss, tvars)
# This is how the model was pre-trained.
(grads, _) = tf.clip_by_global_norm(grads, clip_norm=1.0)
train_op = optimizer.apply_gradients(
zip(grads, tvars), global_step=global_step)
# Normally the global step update is done inside of `apply_gradients`.
# However, `AdamWeightDecayOptimizer` doesn't do this. But if you use
# a different optimizer, you should probably take this line out.
new_global_step = global_step + 1
train_op = tf.group(train_op, [global_step.assign(new_global_step)])
return train_op
class AdamWeightDecayOptimizer(tf.train.Optimizer):
"""A basic Adam optimizer that includes "correct" L2 weight decay."""
def __init__(self,
learning_rate,
weight_decay_rate=0.0,
adapter_weight_decay_rate=0.0,
beta_1=0.9,
beta_2=0.999,
epsilon=1e-6,
exclude_from_weight_decay=None,
name="AdamWeightDecayOptimizer"):
"""Constructs a AdamWeightDecayOptimizer."""
super(AdamWeightDecayOptimizer, self).__init__(False, name)
self.learning_rate = learning_rate
self.weight_decay_rate = weight_decay_rate
self.adapter_weight_decay_rate = adapter_weight_decay_rate
self.beta_1 = beta_1
self.beta_2 = beta_2
self.epsilon = epsilon
self.exclude_from_weight_decay = exclude_from_weight_decay
self._adapter_variable_names = {
self._get_variable_name(v.name) for v in tf.get_collection("adapters")
}
def apply_gradients(self, grads_and_vars, global_step=None, name=None):
"""See base class."""
assignments = []
for (grad, param) in grads_and_vars:
if grad is None or param is None:
continue
param_name = self._get_variable_name(param.name)
m = tf.get_variable(
name=param_name + "/adam_m",
shape=param.shape.as_list(),
dtype=tf.float32,
trainable=False,
initializer=tf.zeros_initializer())
v = tf.get_variable(
name=param_name + "/adam_v",
shape=param.shape.as_list(),
dtype=tf.float32,
trainable=False,
initializer=tf.zeros_initializer())
# Standard Adam update.
next_m = (
tf.multiply(self.beta_1, m) + tf.multiply(1.0 - self.beta_1, grad))
next_v = (
tf.multiply(self.beta_2, v) + tf.multiply(1.0 - self.beta_2,
tf.square(grad)))
update = next_m / (tf.sqrt(next_v) + self.epsilon)
# Just adding the square of the weights to the loss function is *not*
# the correct way of using L2 regularization/weight decay with Adam,
# since that will interact with the m and v parameters in strange ways.
#
# Instead we want ot decay the weights in a manner that doesn't interact
# with the m/v parameters. This is equivalent to adding the square
# of the weights to the loss with plain (non-momentum) SGD.
if self._do_use_weight_decay(param_name):
if param_name in self._adapter_variable_names:
update += self.adapter_weight_decay_rate * param
else:
update += self.weight_decay_rate * param
update_with_lr = self.learning_rate * update
next_param = param - update_with_lr
assignments.extend(
[param.assign(next_param),
m.assign(next_m),
v.assign(next_v)])
return tf.group(*assignments, name=name)
def _do_use_weight_decay(self, param_name):
"""Whether to use L2 weight decay for `param_name`."""
if param_name in self._adapter_variable_names:
if not self.adapter_weight_decay_rate:
return False
else:
if not self.weight_decay_rate:
return False
if self.exclude_from_weight_decay:
for r in self.exclude_from_weight_decay:
if re.search(r, param_name) is not None:
return False
return True
def _get_variable_name(self, param_name):
"""Get the variable name from the tensor name."""
m = re.match("^(.*):\\d+$", param_name)
if m is not None:
param_name = m.group(1)
return param_name
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