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# coding=utf-8
# Copyright 2018 The Google AI Language Team Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
"""Run BERT on SQuAD 1.1 and SQuAD 2.0."""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import collections
import json
import math
import os
import random
import modeling
import optimization
import tokenization
import six
import tensorflow as tf
flags = tf.flags
FLAGS = flags.FLAGS
## Required parameters
flags.DEFINE_string(
"bert_config_file", None,
"The config json file corresponding to the pre-trained BERT model. "
"This specifies the model architecture.")
flags.DEFINE_string("vocab_file", None,
"The vocabulary file that the BERT model was trained on.")
flags.DEFINE_string(
"output_dir", None,
"The output directory where the model checkpoints will be written.")
## Other parameters
flags.DEFINE_string("train_file", None,
"SQuAD json for training. E.g., train-v1.1.json")
flags.DEFINE_string(
"predict_file", None,
"SQuAD json for predictions. E.g., dev-v1.1.json or test-v1.1.json")
flags.DEFINE_string(
"init_checkpoint", None,
"Initial checkpoint (usually from a pre-trained BERT model).")
flags.DEFINE_bool(
"do_lower_case", True,
"Whether to lower case the input text. Should be True for uncased "
"models and False for cased models.")
flags.DEFINE_integer(
"max_seq_length", 384,
"The maximum total input sequence length after WordPiece tokenization. "
"Sequences longer than this will be truncated, and sequences shorter "
"than this will be padded.")
flags.DEFINE_integer(
"doc_stride", 128,
"When splitting up a long document into chunks, how much stride to "
"take between chunks.")
flags.DEFINE_integer(
"max_query_length", 64,
"The maximum number of tokens for the question. Questions longer than "
"this will be truncated to this length.")
flags.DEFINE_bool("do_train", False, "Whether to run training.")
flags.DEFINE_bool("do_predict", False, "Whether to run eval on the dev set.")
flags.DEFINE_integer("train_batch_size", 32, "Total batch size for training.")
flags.DEFINE_integer("predict_batch_size", 8,
"Total batch size for predictions.")
flags.DEFINE_float("learning_rate", 5e-5, "The initial learning rate for Adam.")
flags.DEFINE_float("num_train_epochs", 3.0,
"Total number of training epochs to perform.")
flags.DEFINE_float(
"warmup_proportion", 0.1,
"Proportion of training to perform linear learning rate warmup for. "
"E.g., 0.1 = 10% of training.")
flags.DEFINE_integer("save_checkpoints_steps", 1000,
"How often to save the model checkpoint.")
flags.DEFINE_integer("iterations_per_loop", 1000,
"How many steps to make in each estimator call.")
flags.DEFINE_integer(
"n_best_size", 20,
"The total number of n-best predictions to generate in the "
"nbest_predictions.json output file.")
flags.DEFINE_integer(
"max_answer_length", 30,
"The maximum length of an answer that can be generated. This is needed "
"because the start and end predictions are not conditioned on one another.")
flags.DEFINE_bool("use_tpu", False, "Whether to use TPU or GPU/CPU.")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string(
"tpu_name", None,
"The Cloud TPU to use for training. This should be either the name "
"used when creating the Cloud TPU, or a grpc://ip.address.of.tpu:8470 "
"url.")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string(
"tpu_zone", None,
"[Optional] GCE zone where the Cloud TPU is located in. If not "
"specified, we will attempt to automatically detect the GCE project from "
"metadata.")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string(
"gcp_project", None,
"[Optional] Project name for the Cloud TPU-enabled project. If not "
"specified, we will attempt to automatically detect the GCE project from "
"metadata.")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string("master", None, "[Optional] TensorFlow master URL.")
flags.DEFINE_integer(
"num_tpu_cores", 8,
"Only used if `use_tpu` is True. Total number of TPU cores to use.")
flags.DEFINE_bool(
"verbose_logging", False,
"If true, all of the warnings related to data processing will be printed. "
"A number of warnings are expected for a normal SQuAD evaluation.")
flags.DEFINE_bool(
"version_2_with_negative", False,
"If true, the SQuAD examples contain some that do not have an answer.")
flags.DEFINE_float(
"null_score_diff_threshold", 0.0,
"If null_score - best_non_null is greater than the threshold predict null.")
class SquadExample(object):
"""A single training/test example for simple sequence classification.
For examples without an answer, the start and end position are -1.
"""
def __init__(self,
qas_id,
question_text,
doc_tokens,
orig_answer_text=None,
start_position=None,
end_position=None,
is_impossible=False):
self.qas_id = qas_id
self.question_text = question_text
self.doc_tokens = doc_tokens
self.orig_answer_text = orig_answer_text
self.start_position = start_position
self.end_position = end_position
self.is_impossible = is_impossible
def __str__(self):
return self.__repr__()
def __repr__(self):
s = ""
s += "qas_id: %s" % (tokenization.printable_text(self.qas_id))
s += ", question_text: %s" % (
tokenization.printable_text(self.question_text))
s += ", doc_tokens: [%s]" % (" ".join(self.doc_tokens))
if self.start_position:
s += ", start_position: %d" % (self.start_position)
if self.start_position:
s += ", end_position: %d" % (self.end_position)
if self.start_position:
s += ", is_impossible: %r" % (self.is_impossible)
return s
class InputFeatures(object):
"""A single set of features of data."""
def __init__(self,
unique_id,
example_index,
doc_span_index,
tokens,
token_to_orig_map,
token_is_max_context,
input_ids,
input_mask,
segment_ids,
start_position=None,
end_position=None,
is_impossible=None):
self.unique_id = unique_id
self.example_index = example_index
self.doc_span_index = doc_span_index
self.tokens = tokens
self.token_to_orig_map = token_to_orig_map
self.token_is_max_context = token_is_max_context
self.input_ids = input_ids
self.input_mask = input_mask
self.segment_ids = segment_ids
self.start_position = start_position
self.end_position = end_position
self.is_impossible = is_impossible
def read_squad_examples(input_file, is_training):
"""Read a SQuAD json file into a list of SquadExample."""
with tf.gfile.Open(input_file, "r") as reader:
input_data = json.load(reader)["data"]
def is_whitespace(c):
if c == " " or c == "\t" or c == "\r" or c == "\n" or ord(c) == 0x202F:
return True
return False
examples = []
for entry in input_data:
for paragraph in entry["paragraphs"]:
paragraph_text = paragraph["context"]
doc_tokens = []
char_to_word_offset = []
prev_is_whitespace = True
for c in paragraph_text:
if is_whitespace(c):
prev_is_whitespace = True
else:
if prev_is_whitespace:
doc_tokens.append(c)
else:
doc_tokens[-1] += c
prev_is_whitespace = False
char_to_word_offset.append(len(doc_tokens) - 1)
for qa in paragraph["qas"]:
qas_id = qa["id"]
question_text = qa["question"]
start_position = None
end_position = None
orig_answer_text = None
is_impossible = False
if is_training:
if FLAGS.version_2_with_negative:
is_impossible = qa["is_impossible"]
if (len(qa["answers"]) != 1) and (not is_impossible):
raise ValueError(
"For training, each question should have exactly 1 answer.")
if not is_impossible:
answer = qa["answers"][0]
orig_answer_text = answer["text"]
answer_offset = answer["answer_start"]
answer_length = len(orig_answer_text)
start_position = char_to_word_offset[answer_offset]
end_position = char_to_word_offset[answer_offset + answer_length -
1]
# Only add answers where the text can be exactly recovered from the
# document. If this CAN'T happen it's likely due to weird Unicode
# stuff so we will just skip the example.
#
# Note that this means for training mode, every example is NOT
# guaranteed to be preserved.
actual_text = " ".join(
doc_tokens[start_position:(end_position + 1)])
cleaned_answer_text = " ".join(
tokenization.whitespace_tokenize(orig_answer_text))
if actual_text.find(cleaned_answer_text) == -1:
tf.logging.warning("Could not find answer: '%s' vs. '%s'",
actual_text, cleaned_answer_text)
continue
else:
start_position = -1
end_position = -1
orig_answer_text = ""
example = SquadExample(
qas_id=qas_id,
question_text=question_text,
doc_tokens=doc_tokens,
orig_answer_text=orig_answer_text,
start_position=start_position,
end_position=end_position,
is_impossible=is_impossible)
examples.append(example)
return examples
def convert_examples_to_features(examples, tokenizer, max_seq_length,
doc_stride, max_query_length, is_training,
output_fn):
"""Loads a data file into a list of `InputBatch`s."""
unique_id = 1000000000
for (example_index, example) in enumerate(examples):
query_tokens = tokenizer.tokenize(example.question_text)
if len(query_tokens) > max_query_length:
query_tokens = query_tokens[0:max_query_length]
tok_to_orig_index = []
orig_to_tok_index = []
all_doc_tokens = []
for (i, token) in enumerate(example.doc_tokens):
orig_to_tok_index.append(len(all_doc_tokens))
sub_tokens = tokenizer.tokenize(token)
for sub_token in sub_tokens:
tok_to_orig_index.append(i)
all_doc_tokens.append(sub_token)
tok_start_position = None
tok_end_position = None
if is_training and example.is_impossible:
tok_start_position = -1
tok_end_position = -1
if is_training and not example.is_impossible:
tok_start_position = orig_to_tok_index[example.start_position]
if example.end_position < len(example.doc_tokens) - 1:
tok_end_position = orig_to_tok_index[example.end_position + 1] - 1
else:
tok_end_position = len(all_doc_tokens) - 1
(tok_start_position, tok_end_position) = _improve_answer_span(
all_doc_tokens, tok_start_position, tok_end_position, tokenizer,
example.orig_answer_text)
# The -3 accounts for [CLS], [SEP] and [SEP]
max_tokens_for_doc = max_seq_length - len(query_tokens) - 3
# We can have documents that are longer than the maximum sequence length.
# To deal with this we do a sliding window approach, where we take chunks
# of the up to our max length with a stride of `doc_stride`.
_DocSpan = collections.namedtuple( # pylint: disable=invalid-name
"DocSpan", ["start", "length"])
doc_spans = []
start_offset = 0
while start_offset < len(all_doc_tokens):
length = len(all_doc_tokens) - start_offset
if length > max_tokens_for_doc:
length = max_tokens_for_doc
doc_spans.append(_DocSpan(start=start_offset, length=length))
if start_offset + length == len(all_doc_tokens):
break
start_offset += min(length, doc_stride)
for (doc_span_index, doc_span) in enumerate(doc_spans):
tokens = []
token_to_orig_map = {}
token_is_max_context = {}
segment_ids = []
tokens.append("[CLS]")
segment_ids.append(0)
for token in query_tokens:
tokens.append(token)
segment_ids.append(0)
tokens.append("[SEP]")
segment_ids.append(0)
for i in range(doc_span.length):
split_token_index = doc_span.start + i
token_to_orig_map[len(tokens)] = tok_to_orig_index[split_token_index]
is_max_context = _check_is_max_context(doc_spans, doc_span_index,
split_token_index)
token_is_max_context[len(tokens)] = is_max_context
tokens.append(all_doc_tokens[split_token_index])
segment_ids.append(1)
tokens.append("[SEP]")
segment_ids.append(1)
input_ids = tokenizer.convert_tokens_to_ids(tokens)
# The mask has 1 for real tokens and 0 for padding tokens. Only real
# tokens are attended to.
input_mask = [1] * len(input_ids)
# Zero-pad up to the sequence length.
while len(input_ids) < max_seq_length:
input_ids.append(0)
input_mask.append(0)
segment_ids.append(0)
assert len(input_ids) == max_seq_length
assert len(input_mask) == max_seq_length
assert len(segment_ids) == max_seq_length
start_position = None
end_position = None
if is_training and not example.is_impossible:
# For training, if our document chunk does not contain an annotation
# we throw it out, since there is nothing to predict.
doc_start = doc_span.start
doc_end = doc_span.start + doc_span.length - 1
out_of_span = False
if not (tok_start_position >= doc_start and
tok_end_position <= doc_end):
out_of_span = True
if out_of_span:
start_position = 0
end_position = 0
else:
doc_offset = len(query_tokens) + 2
start_position = tok_start_position - doc_start + doc_offset
end_position = tok_end_position - doc_start + doc_offset
if is_training and example.is_impossible:
start_position = 0
end_position = 0
if example_index < 20:
tf.logging.info("*** Example ***")
tf.logging.info("unique_id: %s" % (unique_id))
tf.logging.info("example_index: %s" % (example_index))
tf.logging.info("doc_span_index: %s" % (doc_span_index))
tf.logging.info("tokens: %s" % " ".join(
[tokenization.printable_text(x) for x in tokens]))
tf.logging.info("token_to_orig_map: %s" % " ".join(
["%d:%d" % (x, y) for (x, y) in six.iteritems(token_to_orig_map)]))
tf.logging.info("token_is_max_context: %s" % " ".join([
"%d:%s" % (x, y) for (x, y) in six.iteritems(token_is_max_context)
]))
tf.logging.info("input_ids: %s" % " ".join([str(x) for x in input_ids]))
tf.logging.info(
"input_mask: %s" % " ".join([str(x) for x in input_mask]))
tf.logging.info(
"segment_ids: %s" % " ".join([str(x) for x in segment_ids]))
if is_training and example.is_impossible:
tf.logging.info("impossible example")
if is_training and not example.is_impossible:
answer_text = " ".join(tokens[start_position:(end_position + 1)])
tf.logging.info("start_position: %d" % (start_position))
tf.logging.info("end_position: %d" % (end_position))
tf.logging.info(
"answer: %s" % (tokenization.printable_text(answer_text)))
feature = InputFeatures(
unique_id=unique_id,
example_index=example_index,
doc_span_index=doc_span_index,
tokens=tokens,
token_to_orig_map=token_to_orig_map,
token_is_max_context=token_is_max_context,
input_ids=input_ids,
input_mask=input_mask,
segment_ids=segment_ids,
start_position=start_position,
end_position=end_position,
is_impossible=example.is_impossible)
# Run callback
output_fn(feature)
unique_id += 1
def _improve_answer_span(doc_tokens, input_start, input_end, tokenizer,
orig_answer_text):
"""Returns tokenized answer spans that better match the annotated answer."""
# The SQuAD annotations are character based. We first project them to
# whitespace-tokenized words. But then after WordPiece tokenization, we can
# often find a "better match". For example:
#
# Question: What year was John Smith born?
# Context: The leader was John Smith (1895-1943).
# Answer: 1895
#
# The original whitespace-tokenized answer will be "(1895-1943).". However
# after tokenization, our tokens will be "( 1895 - 1943 ) .". So we can match
# the exact answer, 1895.
#
# However, this is not always possible. Consider the following:
#
# Question: What country is the top exporter of electornics?
# Context: The Japanese electronics industry is the lagest in the world.
# Answer: Japan
#
# In this case, the annotator chose "Japan" as a character sub-span of
# the word "Japanese". Since our WordPiece tokenizer does not split
# "Japanese", we just use "Japanese" as the annotation. This is fairly rare
# in SQuAD, but does happen.
tok_answer_text = " ".join(tokenizer.tokenize(orig_answer_text))
for new_start in range(input_start, input_end + 1):
for new_end in range(input_end, new_start - 1, -1):
text_span = " ".join(doc_tokens[new_start:(new_end + 1)])
if text_span == tok_answer_text:
return (new_start, new_end)
return (input_start, input_end)
def _check_is_max_context(doc_spans, cur_span_index, position):
"""Check if this is the 'max context' doc span for the token."""
# Because of the sliding window approach taken to scoring documents, a single
# token can appear in multiple documents. E.g.
# Doc: the man went to the store and bought a gallon of milk
# Span A: the man went to the
# Span B: to the store and bought
# Span C: and bought a gallon of
# ...
#
# Now the word 'bought' will have two scores from spans B and C. We only
# want to consider the score with "maximum context", which we define as
# the *minimum* of its left and right context (the *sum* of left and
# right context will always be the same, of course).
#
# In the example the maximum context for 'bought' would be span C since
# it has 1 left context and 3 right context, while span B has 4 left context
# and 0 right context.
best_score = None
best_span_index = None
for (span_index, doc_span) in enumerate(doc_spans):
end = doc_span.start + doc_span.length - 1
if position < doc_span.start:
continue
if position > end:
continue
num_left_context = position - doc_span.start
num_right_context = end - position
score = min(num_left_context, num_right_context) + 0.01 * doc_span.length
if best_score is None or score > best_score:
best_score = score
best_span_index = span_index
return cur_span_index == best_span_index
def create_model(bert_config, is_training, input_ids, input_mask, segment_ids,
use_one_hot_embeddings):
"""Creates a classification model."""
model = modeling.BertModel(
config=bert_config,
is_training=is_training,
input_ids=input_ids,
input_mask=input_mask,
token_type_ids=segment_ids,
use_one_hot_embeddings=use_one_hot_embeddings)
final_hidden = model.get_sequence_output()
final_hidden_shape = modeling.get_shape_list(final_hidden, expected_rank=3)
batch_size = final_hidden_shape[0]
seq_length = final_hidden_shape[1]
hidden_size = final_hidden_shape[2]
output_weights = tf.get_variable(
"cls/squad/output_weights", [2, hidden_size],
initializer=tf.truncated_normal_initializer(stddev=0.02))
output_bias = tf.get_variable(
"cls/squad/output_bias", [2], initializer=tf.zeros_initializer())
final_hidden_matrix = tf.reshape(final_hidden,
[batch_size * seq_length, hidden_size])
logits = tf.matmul(final_hidden_matrix, output_weights, transpose_b=True)
logits = tf.nn.bias_add(logits, output_bias)
logits = tf.reshape(logits, [batch_size, seq_length, 2])
logits = tf.transpose(logits, [2, 0, 1])
unstacked_logits = tf.unstack(logits, axis=0)
(start_logits, end_logits) = (unstacked_logits[0], unstacked_logits[1])
return (start_logits, end_logits)
def model_fn_builder(bert_config, init_checkpoint, learning_rate,
num_train_steps, num_warmup_steps, use_tpu,
use_one_hot_embeddings):
"""Returns `model_fn` closure for TPUEstimator."""
def model_fn(features, labels, mode, params): # pylint: disable=unused-argument
"""The `model_fn` for TPUEstimator."""
tf.logging.info("*** Features ***")
for name in sorted(features.keys()):
tf.logging.info(" name = %s, shape = %s" % (name, features[name].shape))
unique_ids = features["unique_ids"]
input_ids = features["input_ids"]
input_mask = features["input_mask"]
segment_ids = features["segment_ids"]
is_training = (mode == tf.estimator.ModeKeys.TRAIN)
(start_logits, end_logits) = create_model(
bert_config=bert_config,
is_training=is_training,
input_ids=input_ids,
input_mask=input_mask,
segment_ids=segment_ids,
use_one_hot_embeddings=use_one_hot_embeddings)
tvars = tf.trainable_variables()
initialized_variable_names = {}
scaffold_fn = None
if init_checkpoint:
(assignment_map, initialized_variable_names
) = modeling.get_assignment_map_from_checkpoint(tvars, init_checkpoint)
if use_tpu:
def tpu_scaffold():
tf.train.init_from_checkpoint(init_checkpoint, assignment_map)
return tf.train.Scaffold()
scaffold_fn = tpu_scaffold
else:
tf.train.init_from_checkpoint(init_checkpoint, assignment_map)
tf.logging.info("**** Trainable Variables ****")
for var in tvars:
init_string = ""
if var.name in initialized_variable_names:
init_string = ", *INIT_FROM_CKPT*"
tf.logging.info(" name = %s, shape = %s%s", var.name, var.shape,
init_string)
output_spec = None
if mode == tf.estimator.ModeKeys.TRAIN:
seq_length = modeling.get_shape_list(input_ids)[1]
def compute_loss(logits, positions):
one_hot_positions = tf.one_hot(
positions, depth=seq_length, dtype=tf.float32)
log_probs = tf.nn.log_softmax(logits, axis=-1)
loss = -tf.reduce_mean(
tf.reduce_sum(one_hot_positions * log_probs, axis=-1))
return loss
start_positions = features["start_positions"]
end_positions = features["end_positions"]
start_loss = compute_loss(start_logits, start_positions)
end_loss = compute_loss(end_logits, end_positions)
total_loss = (start_loss + end_loss) / 2.0
train_op = optimization.create_optimizer(
total_loss, learning_rate, num_train_steps, num_warmup_steps, use_tpu)
output_spec = tf.contrib.tpu.TPUEstimatorSpec(
mode=mode,
loss=total_loss,
train_op=train_op,
scaffold_fn=scaffold_fn)
elif mode == tf.estimator.ModeKeys.PREDICT:
predictions = {
"unique_ids": unique_ids,
"start_logits": start_logits,
"end_logits": end_logits,
}
output_spec = tf.contrib.tpu.TPUEstimatorSpec(
mode=mode, predictions=predictions, scaffold_fn=scaffold_fn)
else:
raise ValueError(
"Only TRAIN and PREDICT modes are supported: %s" % (mode))
return output_spec
return model_fn
def input_fn_builder(input_file, seq_length, is_training, drop_remainder):
"""Creates an `input_fn` closure to be passed to TPUEstimator."""
name_to_features = {
"unique_ids": tf.FixedLenFeature([], tf.int64),
"input_ids": tf.FixedLenFeature([seq_length], tf.int64),
"input_mask": tf.FixedLenFeature([seq_length], tf.int64),
"segment_ids": tf.FixedLenFeature([seq_length], tf.int64),
}
if is_training:
name_to_features["start_positions"] = tf.FixedLenFeature([], tf.int64)
name_to_features["end_positions"] = tf.FixedLenFeature([], tf.int64)
def _decode_record(record, name_to_features):
"""Decodes a record to a TensorFlow example."""
example = tf.parse_single_example(record, name_to_features)
# tf.Example only supports tf.int64, but the TPU only supports tf.int32.
# So cast all int64 to int32.
for name in list(example.keys()):
t = example[name]
if t.dtype == tf.int64:
t = tf.to_int32(t)
example[name] = t
return example
def input_fn(params):
"""The actual input function."""
batch_size = params["batch_size"]
# For training, we want a lot of parallel reading and shuffling.
# For eval, we want no shuffling and parallel reading doesn't matter.
d = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(input_file)
if is_training:
d = d.repeat()
d = d.shuffle(buffer_size=100)
d = d.apply(
tf.contrib.data.map_and_batch(
lambda record: _decode_record(record, name_to_features),
batch_size=batch_size,
drop_remainder=drop_remainder))
return d
return input_fn
RawResult = collections.namedtuple("RawResult",
["unique_id", "start_logits", "end_logits"])
def write_predictions(all_examples, all_features, all_results, n_best_size,
max_answer_length, do_lower_case, output_prediction_file,
output_nbest_file, output_null_log_odds_file):
"""Write final predictions to the json file and log-odds of null if needed."""
tf.logging.info("Writing predictions to: %s" % (output_prediction_file))
tf.logging.info("Writing nbest to: %s" % (output_nbest_file))
example_index_to_features = collections.defaultdict(list)
for feature in all_features:
example_index_to_features[feature.example_index].append(feature)
unique_id_to_result = {}
for result in all_results:
unique_id_to_result[result.unique_id] = result
_PrelimPrediction = collections.namedtuple( # pylint: disable=invalid-name
"PrelimPrediction",
["feature_index", "start_index", "end_index", "start_logit", "end_logit"])
all_predictions = collections.OrderedDict()
all_nbest_json = collections.OrderedDict()
scores_diff_json = collections.OrderedDict()
for (example_index, example) in enumerate(all_examples):
features = example_index_to_features[example_index]
prelim_predictions = []
# keep track of the minimum score of null start+end of position 0
score_null = 1000000 # large and positive
min_null_feature_index = 0 # the paragraph slice with min mull score
null_start_logit = 0 # the start logit at the slice with min null score
null_end_logit = 0 # the end logit at the slice with min null score
for (feature_index, feature) in enumerate(features):
result = unique_id_to_result[feature.unique_id]
start_indexes = _get_best_indexes(result.start_logits, n_best_size)
end_indexes = _get_best_indexes(result.end_logits, n_best_size)
# if we could have irrelevant answers, get the min score of irrelevant
if FLAGS.version_2_with_negative:
feature_null_score = result.start_logits[0] + result.end_logits[0]
if feature_null_score < score_null:
score_null = feature_null_score
min_null_feature_index = feature_index
null_start_logit = result.start_logits[0]
null_end_logit = result.end_logits[0]
for start_index in start_indexes:
for end_index in end_indexes:
# We could hypothetically create invalid predictions, e.g., predict
# that the start of the span is in the question. We throw out all
# invalid predictions.
if start_index >= len(feature.tokens):
continue
if end_index >= len(feature.tokens):
continue
if start_index not in feature.token_to_orig_map:
continue
if end_index not in feature.token_to_orig_map:
continue
if not feature.token_is_max_context.get(start_index, False):
continue
if end_index < start_index:
continue
length = end_index - start_index + 1
if length > max_answer_length:
continue
prelim_predictions.append(
_PrelimPrediction(
feature_index=feature_index,
start_index=start_index,
end_index=end_index,
start_logit=result.start_logits[start_index],
end_logit=result.end_logits[end_index]))
if FLAGS.version_2_with_negative:
prelim_predictions.append(
_PrelimPrediction(
feature_index=min_null_feature_index,
start_index=0,
end_index=0,
start_logit=null_start_logit,
end_logit=null_end_logit))
prelim_predictions = sorted(
prelim_predictions,
key=lambda x: (x.start_logit + x.end_logit),
reverse=True)
_NbestPrediction = collections.namedtuple( # pylint: disable=invalid-name
"NbestPrediction", ["text", "start_logit", "end_logit"])
seen_predictions = {}
nbest = []
for pred in prelim_predictions:
if len(nbest) >= n_best_size:
break
feature = features[pred.feature_index]
if pred.start_index > 0: # this is a non-null prediction
tok_tokens = feature.tokens[pred.start_index:(pred.end_index + 1)]
orig_doc_start = feature.token_to_orig_map[pred.start_index]
orig_doc_end = feature.token_to_orig_map[pred.end_index]
orig_tokens = example.doc_tokens[orig_doc_start:(orig_doc_end + 1)]
tok_text = " ".join(tok_tokens)
# De-tokenize WordPieces that have been split off.
tok_text = tok_text.replace(" ##", "")
tok_text = tok_text.replace("##", "")
# Clean whitespace
tok_text = tok_text.strip()
tok_text = " ".join(tok_text.split())
orig_text = " ".join(orig_tokens)
final_text = get_final_text(tok_text, orig_text, do_lower_case)
if final_text in seen_predictions:
continue
seen_predictions[final_text] = True
else:
final_text = ""
seen_predictions[final_text] = True
nbest.append(
_NbestPrediction(
text=final_text,
start_logit=pred.start_logit,
end_logit=pred.end_logit))
# if we didn't inlude the empty option in the n-best, inlcude it
if FLAGS.version_2_with_negative:
if "" not in seen_predictions:
nbest.append(
_NbestPrediction(
text="", start_logit=null_start_logit,
end_logit=null_end_logit))
# In very rare edge cases we could have no valid predictions. So we
# just create a nonce prediction in this case to avoid failure.
if not nbest:
nbest.append(
_NbestPrediction(text="empty", start_logit=0.0, end_logit=0.0))
assert len(nbest) >= 1
total_scores = []
best_non_null_entry = None
for entry in nbest:
total_scores.append(entry.start_logit + entry.end_logit)
if not best_non_null_entry:
if entry.text:
best_non_null_entry = entry
probs = _compute_softmax(total_scores)
nbest_json = []
for (i, entry) in enumerate(nbest):
output = collections.OrderedDict()
output["text"] = entry.text
output["probability"] = probs[i]
output["start_logit"] = entry.start_logit
output["end_logit"] = entry.end_logit
nbest_json.append(output)
assert len(nbest_json) >= 1
if not FLAGS.version_2_with_negative:
all_predictions[example.qas_id] = nbest_json[0]["text"]
else:
# predict "" iff the null score - the score of best non-null > threshold
score_diff = score_null - best_non_null_entry.start_logit - (
best_non_null_entry.end_logit)
scores_diff_json[example.qas_id] = score_diff
if score_diff > FLAGS.null_score_diff_threshold:
all_predictions[example.qas_id] = ""
else:
all_predictions[example.qas_id] = best_non_null_entry.text
all_nbest_json[example.qas_id] = nbest_json
with tf.gfile.GFile(output_prediction_file, "w") as writer:
writer.write(json.dumps(all_predictions, indent=4) + "\n")
with tf.gfile.GFile(output_nbest_file, "w") as writer:
writer.write(json.dumps(all_nbest_json, indent=4) + "\n")
if FLAGS.version_2_with_negative:
with tf.gfile.GFile(output_null_log_odds_file, "w") as writer:
writer.write(json.dumps(scores_diff_json, indent=4) + "\n")
def get_final_text(pred_text, orig_text, do_lower_case):
"""Project the tokenized prediction back to the original text."""
# When we created the data, we kept track of the alignment between original
# (whitespace tokenized) tokens and our WordPiece tokenized tokens. So
# now `orig_text` contains the span of our original text corresponding to the
# span that we predicted.
#
# However, `orig_text` may contain extra characters that we don't want in
# our prediction.
#
# For example, let's say:
# pred_text = steve smith
# orig_text = Steve Smith's
#
# We don't want to return `orig_text` because it contains the extra "'s".
#
# We don't want to return `pred_text` because it's already been normalized
# (the SQuAD eval script also does punctuation stripping/lower casing but
# our tokenizer does additional normalization like stripping accent
# characters).
#
# What we really want to return is "Steve Smith".
#
# Therefore, we have to apply a semi-complicated alignment heruistic between
# `pred_text` and `orig_text` to get a character-to-charcter alignment. This
# can fail in certain cases in which case we just return `orig_text`.
def _strip_spaces(text):
ns_chars = []
ns_to_s_map = collections.OrderedDict()
for (i, c) in enumerate(text):
if c == " ":
continue
ns_to_s_map[len(ns_chars)] = i
ns_chars.append(c)
ns_text = "".join(ns_chars)
return (ns_text, ns_to_s_map)
# We first tokenize `orig_text`, strip whitespace from the result
# and `pred_text`, and check if they are the same length. If they are
# NOT the same length, the heuristic has failed. If they are the same
# length, we assume the characters are one-to-one aligned.
tokenizer = tokenization.BasicTokenizer(do_lower_case=do_lower_case)
tok_text = " ".join(tokenizer.tokenize(orig_text))
start_position = tok_text.find(pred_text)
if start_position == -1:
if FLAGS.verbose_logging:
tf.logging.info(
"Unable to find text: '%s' in '%s'" % (pred_text, orig_text))
return orig_text
end_position = start_position + len(pred_text) - 1
(orig_ns_text, orig_ns_to_s_map) = _strip_spaces(orig_text)
(tok_ns_text, tok_ns_to_s_map) = _strip_spaces(tok_text)
if len(orig_ns_text) != len(tok_ns_text):
if FLAGS.verbose_logging:
tf.logging.info("Length not equal after stripping spaces: '%s' vs '%s'",
orig_ns_text, tok_ns_text)
return orig_text
# We then project the characters in `pred_text` back to `orig_text` using
# the character-to-character alignment.
tok_s_to_ns_map = {}
for (i, tok_index) in six.iteritems(tok_ns_to_s_map):
tok_s_to_ns_map[tok_index] = i
orig_start_position = None
if start_position in tok_s_to_ns_map:
ns_start_position = tok_s_to_ns_map[start_position]
if ns_start_position in orig_ns_to_s_map:
orig_start_position = orig_ns_to_s_map[ns_start_position]
if orig_start_position is None:
if FLAGS.verbose_logging:
tf.logging.info("Couldn't map start position")
return orig_text
orig_end_position = None
if end_position in tok_s_to_ns_map:
ns_end_position = tok_s_to_ns_map[end_position]
if ns_end_position in orig_ns_to_s_map:
orig_end_position = orig_ns_to_s_map[ns_end_position]
if orig_end_position is None:
if FLAGS.verbose_logging:
tf.logging.info("Couldn't map end position")
return orig_text
output_text = orig_text[orig_start_position:(orig_end_position + 1)]
return output_text
def _get_best_indexes(logits, n_best_size):
"""Get the n-best logits from a list."""
index_and_score = sorted(enumerate(logits), key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True)
best_indexes = []
for i in range(len(index_and_score)):
if i >= n_best_size:
break
best_indexes.append(index_and_score[i][0])
return best_indexes
def _compute_softmax(scores):
"""Compute softmax probability over raw logits."""
if not scores:
return []
max_score = None
for score in scores:
if max_score is None or score > max_score:
max_score = score
exp_scores = []
total_sum = 0.0
for score in scores:
x = math.exp(score - max_score)
exp_scores.append(x)
total_sum += x
probs = []
for score in exp_scores:
probs.append(score / total_sum)
return probs
class FeatureWriter(object):
"""Writes InputFeature to TF example file."""
def __init__(self, filename, is_training):
self.filename = filename
self.is_training = is_training
self.num_features = 0
self._writer = tf.python_io.TFRecordWriter(filename)
def process_feature(self, feature):
"""Write a InputFeature to the TFRecordWriter as a tf.train.Example."""
self.num_features += 1
def create_int_feature(values):
feature = tf.train.Feature(
int64_list=tf.train.Int64List(value=list(values)))
return feature
features = collections.OrderedDict()
features["unique_ids"] = create_int_feature([feature.unique_id])
features["input_ids"] = create_int_feature(feature.input_ids)
features["input_mask"] = create_int_feature(feature.input_mask)
features["segment_ids"] = create_int_feature(feature.segment_ids)
if self.is_training:
features["start_positions"] = create_int_feature([feature.start_position])
features["end_positions"] = create_int_feature([feature.end_position])
impossible = 0
if feature.is_impossible:
impossible = 1
features["is_impossible"] = create_int_feature([impossible])
tf_example = tf.train.Example(features=tf.train.Features(feature=features))
self._writer.write(tf_example.SerializeToString())
def close(self):
self._writer.close()
def validate_flags_or_throw(bert_config):
"""Validate the input FLAGS or throw an exception."""
tokenization.validate_case_matches_checkpoint(FLAGS.do_lower_case,
FLAGS.init_checkpoint)
if not FLAGS.do_train and not FLAGS.do_predict:
raise ValueError("At least one of `do_train` or `do_predict` must be True.")
if FLAGS.do_train:
if not FLAGS.train_file:
raise ValueError(
"If `do_train` is True, then `train_file` must be specified.")
if FLAGS.do_predict:
if not FLAGS.predict_file:
raise ValueError(
"If `do_predict` is True, then `predict_file` must be specified.")
if FLAGS.max_seq_length > bert_config.max_position_embeddings:
raise ValueError(
"Cannot use sequence length %d because the BERT model "
"was only trained up to sequence length %d" %
(FLAGS.max_seq_length, bert_config.max_position_embeddings))
if FLAGS.max_seq_length <= FLAGS.max_query_length + 3:
raise ValueError(
"The max_seq_length (%d) must be greater than max_query_length "
"(%d) + 3" % (FLAGS.max_seq_length, FLAGS.max_query_length))
def main(_):
tf.logging.set_verbosity(tf.logging.INFO)
bert_config = modeling.BertConfig.from_json_file(FLAGS.bert_config_file)
validate_flags_or_throw(bert_config)
tf.gfile.MakeDirs(FLAGS.output_dir)
tokenizer = tokenization.FullTokenizer(
vocab_file=FLAGS.vocab_file, do_lower_case=FLAGS.do_lower_case)
tpu_cluster_resolver = None
if FLAGS.use_tpu and FLAGS.tpu_name:
tpu_cluster_resolver = tf.contrib.cluster_resolver.TPUClusterResolver(
FLAGS.tpu_name, zone=FLAGS.tpu_zone, project=FLAGS.gcp_project)
is_per_host = tf.contrib.tpu.InputPipelineConfig.PER_HOST_V2
run_config = tf.contrib.tpu.RunConfig(
cluster=tpu_cluster_resolver,
master=FLAGS.master,
model_dir=FLAGS.output_dir,
save_checkpoints_steps=FLAGS.save_checkpoints_steps,
tpu_config=tf.contrib.tpu.TPUConfig(
iterations_per_loop=FLAGS.iterations_per_loop,
num_shards=FLAGS.num_tpu_cores,
per_host_input_for_training=is_per_host))
train_examples = None
num_train_steps = None
num_warmup_steps = None
if FLAGS.do_train:
train_examples = read_squad_examples(
input_file=FLAGS.train_file, is_training=True)
num_train_steps = int(
len(train_examples) / FLAGS.train_batch_size * FLAGS.num_train_epochs)
num_warmup_steps = int(num_train_steps * FLAGS.warmup_proportion)
# Pre-shuffle the input to avoid having to make a very large shuffle
# buffer in in the `input_fn`.
rng = random.Random(12345)
rng.shuffle(train_examples)
model_fn = model_fn_builder(
bert_config=bert_config,
init_checkpoint=FLAGS.init_checkpoint,
learning_rate=FLAGS.learning_rate,
num_train_steps=num_train_steps,
num_warmup_steps=num_warmup_steps,
use_tpu=FLAGS.use_tpu,
use_one_hot_embeddings=FLAGS.use_tpu)
# If TPU is not available, this will fall back to normal Estimator on CPU
# or GPU.
estimator = tf.contrib.tpu.TPUEstimator(
use_tpu=FLAGS.use_tpu,
model_fn=model_fn,
config=run_config,
train_batch_size=FLAGS.train_batch_size,
predict_batch_size=FLAGS.predict_batch_size)
if FLAGS.do_train:
# We write to a temporary file to avoid storing very large constant tensors
# in memory.
train_writer = FeatureWriter(
filename=os.path.join(FLAGS.output_dir, "train.tf_record"),
is_training=True)
convert_examples_to_features(
examples=train_examples,
tokenizer=tokenizer,
max_seq_length=FLAGS.max_seq_length,
doc_stride=FLAGS.doc_stride,
max_query_length=FLAGS.max_query_length,
is_training=True,
output_fn=train_writer.process_feature)
train_writer.close()
tf.logging.info("***** Running training *****")
tf.logging.info(" Num orig examples = %d", len(train_examples))
tf.logging.info(" Num split examples = %d", train_writer.num_features)
tf.logging.info(" Batch size = %d", FLAGS.train_batch_size)
tf.logging.info(" Num steps = %d", num_train_steps)
del train_examples
train_input_fn = input_fn_builder(
input_file=train_writer.filename,
seq_length=FLAGS.max_seq_length,
is_training=True,
drop_remainder=True)
estimator.train(input_fn=train_input_fn, max_steps=num_train_steps)
if FLAGS.do_predict:
eval_examples = read_squad_examples(
input_file=FLAGS.predict_file, is_training=False)
eval_writer = FeatureWriter(
filename=os.path.join(FLAGS.output_dir, "eval.tf_record"),
is_training=False)
eval_features = []
def append_feature(feature):
eval_features.append(feature)
eval_writer.process_feature(feature)
convert_examples_to_features(
examples=eval_examples,
tokenizer=tokenizer,
max_seq_length=FLAGS.max_seq_length,
doc_stride=FLAGS.doc_stride,
max_query_length=FLAGS.max_query_length,
is_training=False,
output_fn=append_feature)
eval_writer.close()
tf.logging.info("***** Running predictions *****")
tf.logging.info(" Num orig examples = %d", len(eval_examples))
tf.logging.info(" Num split examples = %d", len(eval_features))
tf.logging.info(" Batch size = %d", FLAGS.predict_batch_size)
all_results = []
predict_input_fn = input_fn_builder(
input_file=eval_writer.filename,
seq_length=FLAGS.max_seq_length,
is_training=False,
drop_remainder=False)
# If running eval on the TPU, you will need to specify the number of
# steps.
all_results = []
for result in estimator.predict(
predict_input_fn, yield_single_examples=True):
if len(all_results) % 1000 == 0:
tf.logging.info("Processing example: %d" % (len(all_results)))
unique_id = int(result["unique_ids"])
start_logits = [float(x) for x in result["start_logits"].flat]
end_logits = [float(x) for x in result["end_logits"].flat]
all_results.append(
RawResult(
unique_id=unique_id,
start_logits=start_logits,
end_logits=end_logits))
output_prediction_file = os.path.join(FLAGS.output_dir, "predictions.json")
output_nbest_file = os.path.join(FLAGS.output_dir, "nbest_predictions.json")
output_null_log_odds_file = os.path.join(FLAGS.output_dir, "null_odds.json")
write_predictions(eval_examples, eval_features, all_results,
FLAGS.n_best_size, FLAGS.max_answer_length,
FLAGS.do_lower_case, output_prediction_file,
output_nbest_file, output_null_log_odds_file)
if __name__ == "__main__":
flags.mark_flag_as_required("vocab_file")
flags.mark_flag_as_required("bert_config_file")
flags.mark_flag_as_required("output_dir")
tf.app.run()
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