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TypeScript

TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that can compile to plain Apps Script. Using TypeScript with your clasp project can allow you to use TypeScript features such as:

  • Arrow functions
  • Optional structural typing
  • Classes
  • Type inference
  • Interfaces
  • And more...

Clasp 1.5.0 allows new and existing Apps Script projects to use TypeScript.

Note: Once you use TypeScript, you cannot develop on script.google.com (the transpiled code).

Warning: Apps Script's runtime/execution is different than Node or web browers. In particular, you cannot use the terms export or require in the same way you would with Node. You cannot use window like in web browsers.

Quickstart

This quickstart guide describes how to create a TypeScript project from scratch.

Prerequisites

  1. Ensure you have upgrade to clasp >= 1.5.0
    • clasp -v
  2. Install TypeScript definitions for Apps Script in your project's folder.
    • npm i -S @types/google-apps-script
    • (At your own risk) npm i -S @types/node
  3. Create a file called jsconfig.json to prevent non AS features:
{
  "compilerOptions": {
    "lib": ["esnext"],
    "experimentalDecorators": true
  }
}

(See 1 2 esnext)

Create the TypeScript Project

Create a clasp project in an empty directory (or use an existing project):

clasp create --type standalone

Create a TypeScript file called hello.ts with the following contents:

const greeter = (person: string) => {
  return `Hello, ${person}!`;
}

function testGreeter() {
  const user = 'Grant';
  Logger.log(greeter(user));
}

Note: This is a valid TypeScript file (but an invalid Apps Script file). That's OK.

Push the project to the Apps Script server

Push the TypeScript file to the Apps Script server:

clasp push

Note: clasp automatically transpiles .ts files to valid Apps Script files upon clasp push.

Verify the project works on script.google.com

Open the Apps Script project on script.google.com:

clasp open

Notice how a transpiled version of your project was pushed to the Apps Script server.

Run testGreeter() and press View > Logs to view the logs to see the result.

TypeScript Examples

This section lists TypeScript examples derived from this guide:

These features allow you to write Apps Script concisely with intelligent IDE errors and autocompletions.

// Optional Types
let isDone: boolean = false;
let height: number = 6;
let bob: string = "bob";
let list1: number[] = [1, 2, 3];
let list2: Array<number> = [1, 2, 3];
enum Color {Red, Green, Blue};
let c: Color = Color.Green;
let notSure: any = 4;
notSure = "maybe a string instead";
notSure = false; // okay, definitely a boolean
function showMessage(data: string): void { // Void
 console.log(data);
}
showMessage('hello');

// Classes
class Hamburger {
  constructor() {
    // This is the constructor.
  }
  listToppings() {
    // This is a method.
  }
}

// Template strings
var name = 'Sam';
var age = 42;
console.log(`hello my name is ${name}, and I am ${age} years old`);

// Rest arguments
const buildName = (first: string, ...rest) => first + ' ' + rest.join(' ');
buildName('First', 'Second', 'Third');

// Spread operator (array)
let cde = ['c', 'd', 'e'];
let scale = ['a', 'b', ...cde, 'f', 'g'];  // ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g']

// Spread operator (map)
let mapABC  = { a: 5, b: 6, c: 3};
let mapABCD = { ...mapABC, d: 7};  // { a: 5, b: 6, c: 3, d: 7 }

// Destructure map
let jane = { firstName: 'Jane', lastName: 'Doe'};
let john = { firstName: 'John', lastName: 'Doe', middleName: 'Smith' }
function sayName({firstName, lastName, middleName = 'N/A'}) {
  console.log(`Hello ${firstName} ${middleName} ${lastName}`)  
}
sayName(jane) // -> Hello Jane N/A Doe
sayName(john) // -> Helo John Smith Doe

// Export (The export keyword is ignored)
export const pi = 3.141592;

// Google Apps Script Services
var doc = DocumentApp.create('Hello, world!');
doc.getBody().appendParagraph('This document was created by Google Apps Script.');

// Decorators
function Override(label: string) {
  return function (target: any, key: string) {
    Object.defineProperty(target, key, { 
      configurable: false,
      get: () => label
    });
  }
}
class Test {
  @Override('test') // invokes Override, which returns the decorator
  name: string = 'pat';
}
let t = new Test();
console.log(t.name); // 'test'

After installing @types/google-apps-script, editors like Visual Studio Code autocomplete types:

var doc = DocumentApp.create('Hello, world!');
doc.getBody().appendParagraph('This document was created by Google Apps Script.');
Logger.log(doc.getUrl());

In this case, we could write the fully qualified type:

const doc: GoogleAppsScript.Document.Document = DocumentApp.create('Hello, world!');

Or inferred type:

const doc = DocumentApp.create('Hello, world!');

In most cases, the inferred type is sufficient for Apps Script autocompletion.

How it works

clasp push transpiles ES6+ into ES3 (using ts2gas) before pushing files to the Apps Script server.

Gotchas

Advanced Services

Enableing advanced services modifies the appsscript.json file on script.google.com. After enabling an advanced service in the UI, copy the appsscript.json file from script.google.com into your editor to use the advanced services in your project.

Advanced Service currently do not have TypeScript autocompletion.

TypeScript Support

Currently, clasp supports typescript@2.9.2. If there is a feature in a newer TypeScript version that you'd like to support, or some experimental flag you'd like enabled, please file a bug.

Apps Script Libraries and TypeScript

If your project contains libraries referenced in appsscript.json, TypeScript will throw errors for the library names or types it cannot resolve, e.g. [ts] Cannot find name 'OAuth2'. [2304]. Libraries have their own types and are not part of @types/google-apps-script. These libraries are only resolved once the script is deployed upstream with clasp push.

One workaround for this error is to ignore the line causing the TypeScript error by adding a line comment // @ts-ignore above the line. This can be done as so:

function getOAuthService() {
    // Ignore OAuth2 library resolution when working locally with clasp and TypeScript
    // @ts-ignore
    return OAuth2.createService('Auth0');
}

Outdated Types

TypeScript types for Apps Script are currently generated manually.

If you see outdated TypeScript types, you can help update them by contributing to @types/google-apps-script.

How to Generate Types

  1. Fork DefinitelyTyped/DefinitelyTyped
  2. Run the types generator by following the instructions at motemen/dts-google-apps-script
  3. Copy the type files to your fork of DefinitelyTyped/DefinitelyTyped.
  4. View the diff (git diff), and make sure that the types look OK.
  5. Make a PR and ask @grant for review.

(Eventually I'll configure a system to auto-update these types.)

Further Reading

  • Consider using a linter like tslint to increase the quality of your TypeScript projects.
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