Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

Web Packager

Build Status GoDoc

Web Packager is a command-line tool to "package" websites in accordance with the specifications proposed at WICG/webpackage. It may look like gen-signedexchange, but is rather based on gen-signedexchange and focuses on automating generation of Signed HTTP Exchanges (aka. SXGs) and optimizing the page loading.

Web Packager HTTP Server is an HTTP server built on top of Web Packager. It functions like a reverse-proxy, receiving signing requests over HTTP. For more detail, see cmd/webpkgserver/ This README focuses on the command-line tool.

Web Packager retrieves HTTP responses from servers and turns them into signed exchanges. Those signed exchanges are written into files in a way to preserve the URL path structure, so can be deployed easily in some typical cases. In addition, Web Packager applies some optimizations to the signed exchanges to help the content get rendered quicker.

Web Packager is purposed primarily for a showcase of how to speed up the page loading with privacy-preserving prefetch. Web developers may port the logic from this codebase to their systems or integrate Web Packager into their systems. The Web Packager's code is designed to allow some injections of custom logic; see the GoDoc comments for details. Note, however, that Web Packager is currently at an early stage now: see Limitations below.

Web Packager is not related to webpack.


Web Packager is written in the Go language thus requires a Go system to run. See Getting Started on for how to install Go on your computer.

You will also need a certificate and private key pair to use for the signing the exchanges. Note the certificate must:

(For example, DigiCert offers the right kind of certificates.)

Then you will need to convert your certificate into the application/cert-chain+cbor format, which you can do using the instructions at:


In this early phase, we may make backward-breaking changes to the commandline or API.

Web Packager aims to automatically meet most but not all Google SXG Cache requirements. In particular, pages that do not use responsive design should specify a supported-media annotation.

Web Packager does not handle request matching correctly. It should not matter unless your web server implements content negotiation using the Variants and Variant-Key headers (not the Vary header). We plan to support the request matching in future, but there is no ETA (estimated time of availability) at this moment.

Note: The above limitation is not expected to be a big deal even if your server serves signed exchanges conditionally using content negotiation: if you already have signed exchanges, you should not need Web Packager.


go get -u


The simplest command looks like:

webpackager \
    --cert_cbor=cert.cbor \
    --private_key=priv.key \
    --cert_url= \

It will retrieve an HTTP response from, generate a signed exchange with the given pair of certificate (cert.cbor) and private key (priv.key), then write it to ./sxg/hello.html.sxg. If hello.html had subresources that could be preloaded together, webpackager would also retrieve those resources and generate their signed exchanges under ./sxg. Web Packager recognizes <link rel="preload"> and equivalent Link HTTP headers. It also adds the preload links for CSS (stylesheets) used in HTML, and may use more heuristics in future. See the defaultproc package to find how exactly the HTTP response is processed.

--cert_url specifies where the client will expect to find the CBOR-format certificate chain. --cert_cbor is optional when it can be fetched from --cert_url. Note the reverse is not true: --cert_url is always required.

The --url flag can be repeated as many times as you want. For example:

webpackager \
    --cert_cbor=cert.cbor \
    --private_key=priv.key \
    --cert_url= \
    --url= \
    --url= \

would generate the following three files:

  • ./sxg/foo/index.html.sxg for
  • ./sxg/bar/index.html.sxg for
  • ./sxg/baz/index.html.sxg for

Note: webpackager expects all target URLs to have the same origin. In particular, the output files collide if you specify more than one URL that has the same path but a different domain.

Using URL File

webpackage also accepts --url_file=FILE. FILE is a plain text file with one URL on each line. For example, you could create urls.txt with:

# This is a comment.

then run:

webpackager \
    --cert_cbor=cert.cbor \
    --private_key=priv.key \
    --cert_url= \

Changing Output Directory

You can change the output directory with the --sxg_dir flag:

webpackager \
    --cert_cbor=cert.cbor \
    --private_key=priv.key \
    --cert_url= \
    --sxg_dir=/tmp/sxg \

Setting Expiration

The signed exchanges last one hour by default. You can change the duration with the --expiry flag. For example:

webpackager \
    --cert_cbor=cert.cbor \
    --private_key=priv.key \
    --cert_url= \
    --expiry=72h \

would make the signed exchanges valid for 72 hours (3 days). The maximum is 168h (7 days), due to the specification.

Other Flags

webpackager provides more flags for advanced usage (e.g. to set request headers). Run the tool with --help to see those flags.

Appendix: Deploying SXGs

The steps below illustrate an example of deploying Signed HTTP Exchanges on an Apache server.

  1. Upload cert.cbor to your server. Make it available at --cert_url.

  2. Upload *.sxg files to your server. Put them next to the original files (e.g. hello.html.sxg should stay in the same directory as hello.html). For example, if you are using the sftp command to upload, you can:

    sftp> cd public_html
    sftp> put -r sxg/*

    assuming public_html to be the document root and sxg to be where you generated the *.sxg files.

  3. Edit or create .htaccess in public_html (or the Apache's config file) to add the following settings:

    AddType application/signed-exchange;v=b3 .sxg
    <Files "cert.cbor">
      AddType application/cert-chain+cbor .cbor
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept} application/signed-exchange
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !\.sxg$
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}\.sxg -s
    RewriteRule .+ %{REQUEST_URI}.sxg [L]
    Header set X-Content-Type-Options: "nosniff"


No description, website, or topics provided.



Code of conduct

Security policy





No releases published


No packages published