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feat(spanner): allow untyped nil values in parameterized queries (#4482)
* feat(spanner): Allow untyped nil values in params

Removes the restriction that nil valued parameters must be typed. The current
restriction prevents the usage of DML statements with one or more untyped nil
parameter values to be used to insert/update a value to NULL. Cloud Spanner
does not require all parameters to be typed, only when it would otherwise be
ambigous what type should be used (e.g. non-NULL STRING/BYTES values).

This restriction also prevents the usage of the go/sql driver with gorm, as
gorm will generate statements with untyped nil parameter values.

Fixes #4481

* fix: skip DML test on emulator

Skip testing DML with untyped parameters on the emulator as it does
not support untyped parameters.

See GoogleCloudPlatform/cloud-spanner-emulator#31

* fix: add missing !
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olavloite committed Jul 22, 2021
1 parent 8006ee2 commit c1ba18b1b1fc45de6e959cc22a5c222cc80433ee
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Showing 3 changed files with 64 additions and 31 deletions.
@@ -1715,9 +1715,63 @@ func TestIntegration_BasicTypes(t *testing.T) {
{col: "NumericArray", val: []NullNumeric(nil)},
{col: "NumericArray", val: []NullNumeric{}},
{col: "NumericArray", val: []NullNumeric{{n1, true}, {n2, true}, {}}},
{col: "String", val: nil, want: NullString{}},
{col: "StringArray", val: nil, want: []NullString(nil)},
{col: "Bytes", val: nil, want: []byte(nil)},
{col: "BytesArray", val: nil, want: [][]byte(nil)},
{col: "Int64a", val: nil, want: NullInt64{}},
{col: "Int64Array", val: nil, want: []NullInt64(nil)},
{col: "Bool", val: nil, want: NullBool{}},
{col: "BoolArray", val: nil, want: []NullBool(nil)},
{col: "Float64", val: nil, want: NullFloat64{}},
{col: "Float64Array", val: nil, want: []NullFloat64(nil)},
{col: "Date", val: nil, want: NullDate{}},
{col: "DateArray", val: nil, want: []NullDate(nil)},
{col: "Timestamp", val: nil, want: NullTime{}},
{col: "TimestampArray", val: nil, want: []NullTime(nil)},
{col: "Numeric", val: nil, want: NullNumeric{}},
{col: "NumericArray", val: nil, want: []NullNumeric(nil)},

// Write rows into table first using DML. Only do this on real Spanner
// as the emulator does not support untyped parameters.
// TODO: Remove when the emulator supports untyped parameters.
if !isEmulatorEnvSet() {
statements := make([]Statement, 0)
for i, test := range tests {
stmt := NewStatement(fmt.Sprintf("INSERT INTO Types (RowId, `%s`) VALUES (@id, @value)", test.col))
// Note: We are not setting the parameter type here to ensure that it
// can be automatically recognized when it is actually needed.
stmt.Params["id"] = i
stmt.Params["value"] = test.val
statements = append(statements, stmt)
_, err := client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, tx *ReadWriteTransaction) error {
rowCounts, err := tx.BatchUpdate(ctx, statements)
if err != nil {
return err
if len(rowCounts) != len(tests) {
return fmt.Errorf("rowCounts length mismatch\nGot: %v\nWant: %v", len(rowCounts), len(tests))
for i, c := range rowCounts {
if c != 1 {
return fmt.Errorf("row count mismatch for row %v:\nGot: %v\nWant: %v", i, c, 1)
return nil
if err != nil {
t.Fatalf("failed to insert values using DML: %v", err)
// Delete all the rows so we can insert them using mutations as well.
_, err = client.Apply(ctx, []*Mutation{Delete("Types", AllKeys())})
if err != nil {
t.Fatalf("failed to delete all rows: %v", err)

// Write rows into table first.
// Verify that we can insert the rows using mutations.
var muts []*Mutation
for i, test := range tests {
muts = append(muts, InsertOrUpdate("Types", []string{"RowID", test.col}, []interface{}{i, test.val}))
@@ -17,7 +17,6 @@ limitations under the License.
package spanner

import (

proto3 ""
@@ -48,11 +47,6 @@ func NewStatement(sql string) Statement {
return Statement{SQL: sql, Params: map[string]interface{}{}}

var (
errNilParam = errors.New("use T(nil), not nil")
errNoType = errors.New("no type information")

// convertParams converts a statement's parameters into proto Param and
// ParamTypes.
func (s *Statement) convertParams() (*structpb.Struct, map[string]*sppb.Type, error) {
@@ -61,18 +55,14 @@ func (s *Statement) convertParams() (*structpb.Struct, map[string]*sppb.Type, er
paramTypes := map[string]*sppb.Type{}
for k, v := range s.Params {
if v == nil {
return nil, nil, errBindParam(k, v, errNilParam)
val, t, err := encodeValue(v)
if err != nil {
return nil, nil, errBindParam(k, v, err)
if t == nil { // should not happen, because of nil check above
return nil, nil, errBindParam(k, v, errNoType)
params.Fields[k] = val
paramTypes[k] = t
if t != nil {
paramTypes[k] = t

return params, paramTypes, nil
@@ -159,6 +159,12 @@ func TestConvertParams(t *testing.T) {
listProto(listProto(intProto(10)), listProto(intProto(20))),
listType(structType(mkField("field", intType()))),
// Untyped null
} {
st.Params["var"] = test.val
gotParams, gotParamTypes, gotErr := st.convertParams()
@@ -179,23 +185,6 @@ func TestConvertParams(t *testing.T) {
t.Errorf("%#v: got %v, want %v\n", test.val, gotParamType, test.wantField)

// Verify type error reporting.
for _, test := range []struct {
val interface{}
wantErr error
errBindParam("var", nil, errNilParam),
} {
st.Params["var"] = test.val
_, _, gotErr := st.convertParams()
if !testEqual(gotErr, test.wantErr) {
t.Errorf("value %#v:\ngot: %v\nwant: %v", test.val, gotErr, test.wantErr)

func TestNewStatement(t *testing.T) {

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