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Android Testing Blueprint

A collection of Google's Android testing tools and frameworks, all integrated in a single application project.


  • app/ - Main application
  • app/test/ - Unit tests
  • app/androidTest/ - Instrumentation tests
  • app/androidTestFlavor2/ - Additional Instrumentation tests for Flavor2.
  • module-flavor1-androidTest-only/ - Test-only module with Instrumentation tests for Flavor1
  • module-android-library/ - An Android module (typically a library)
  • module-android-library/androidTest - Android Tests for the module-android-library
  • module-plain-java/ - A Java module for non-Android code (business logic, utils classes, etc.)
  • module-plain-java/test - Unit tests for module-plain-java

Running Tests

Running Instrumentation Tests

In Android Studio

  • In the Build Variants window, make sure the Android Instrumentation Tests option is selected.
  • Open a Instrumentation test class like or
  • Right click on the class and Run as Android Test.

From command-line via Gradle

  • To run all the Instrumentation tests in the app module execute:
./gradlew app:connectedAndroidTest

From command-line via adb

  • Install the app and the test app on the device. For example:
./gradlew app:installFlavor2Debug app:installFlavor2DebugAndroidTest
  • To run the Instrumentation tests in the app module execute:
adb shell am instrument -w

See the Modules, Flavors and custom Gradle command-line arguments sections to learn how to execute tests for specific modules or flavors and pass custom arguments to AndroidJUnitRunner.

Running Unit Tests

In Android Studio:

  • In the Build Variants window, make sure the Unit Tests option is selected.
  • Open a unit/local test unit class like
  • Right click on the class and Run as JUnit test.

From command-line via Gradle:

  • To run all the local unit tests in app execute:
./gradlew app:test
  • To run the local unit tests in a module execute:
./gradlew :{module}:test
  • To filter local unit tests to run, you can use:
./gradlew :app:testFlavor1DebugUnitTest --tests "*"

In general, in a project with no flavors:

./gradlew :{module}:testDebugUnitTest --tests {test-filter}

Note that you cannot use ./gradlew :app:test or ./gradlew test with a filter. Read the gradle documentation on test filtering for more information.

Testing frameworks and APIs


Espresso is a part of the ATSL (Android Testing Support Library) and a framework for writing concise, beautiful, and reliable Android UI tests.


The core API is small, predictable, and easy to learn API which. Espresso enables testing of state expectations, interactions, and assertions clearly without the distraction of boilerplate content, custom infrastructure, or messy implementation details getting in the way.

Espresso tests run optimally fast! Leave your waits, syncs, sleeps, and polls behind and let Espresso gracefully manipulate and assert on the application UI when it is at rest.

To get started with Espresso, refer to our EspressoBasicSample


Espresso Contrib is an extension to Espresso which contains support for the most commonly used Android widgets and support library extension, for instance, RecyclerView.


Espresso Intents is a great way to do hermetic inter app testing. It works essentially like Mockito and allows for Intent verification and stubbing. To learn more, please refer to our Espresso Intents samples: IntentsBasicSample IntentsAdvancedSample


Espresso-web allows you to seamlessly test WebViews on Android. It uses the popular WebDriver API to introspect into, and control, the behavior of a WebView. To learn more, please refer to our Espresso Web sample: Espresso Intents samples: WebBasicSample


UI Automator testing framework provides a set of APIs to build UI tests that perform interactions on user apps and system apps. The UI Automator APIs allow you to perform operations such as opening the Settings menu or the app launcher in a test device. The UI Automator testing framework is well-suited for writing black box-style automated tests, where the test code does not rely on internal implementation details of the target app.

To learn more about UIAutomator refer to the BasicSample


Android Test-Only Module

When developing your application, it is sometimes easier to split production and test code into separate modules.

The structure of such a test-only module is very similar to developing a vanilla application. Instead of putting your instrumentation tests into the androidTest source set, put all test code into the main source set (src/main/java) and add an AndroidManifest.xml (src/main).

A test only module cannot have a test APK itself so it cannot have a src/androidTest folder. Also, there are no variants for test modules so if you have different flavors in your main application, you need a different test module for each variant you want to test.

Note: Only Instrumentation-based tests are allowed in a test-only module.

Running test-only module tests

From Android Studio

Run normally (see above).

From command-line via Gradle


./gradlew module-flavor1-androidTest-only:connectedAndroidTest
From command-line via adb

You need to install the app and test app first:

./gradlew app:installFlavor1Debug module-flavor1-androidTest-only:installDebug

Execute the adb command:

adb shell am instrument -w

Plain Java module

Moving code away from the Android framework is a good practice as it guarantees testability and relaxes coupling.

The module provided in module-plain-java has a class in module-plain-java/src/main and its own unit tests in module-plain-java/src/test.

Unit tests in a separate java module are run in the same way than unit tests in the app or any other module: run from Android Studio as a JUnit test or use the following gradle command:

./gradlew module-plain-java:test


This project has two: flavor1 and flavor2. They simply have different application ID and R.string.app_name and they generate two APKs:


The module-flavor1-androidTest-only only targets flavor1 via the targetVariant in its build.gradle file.

The tests in app/androidTestFlavor2 only target flavor2.

The rest of the tests in app/androidTest will be executed once per flavor one a connected Android Test is executed.

Code coverage

Unit tests

In Android Studio, code coverage for unit tests (executed as JUnit tests) is shown in the editor, next to each line. Run your tests using the Run test with code coverage option. JaCoCo test reports can be generated changing the Coverage runner in the JUnit test configuration.

From the command-line via Gradle, unit tests for the module-plain-java are generated by executing:

./gradlew module-plain-java:test module-plain-java:jacocoTestReport

A HTML report will be available in module-plain-java/build/reports/jacoco/test/html/index.html

Note: Generating JaCoCo reports from command-line via Gradle for the app module is currently only working for instrumentation but not for unit tests: []

Android tests

Test coverage reports for Android tests can be found in app/build/reports/coverage.


By default tests are run against a non-minified version of your production APK. In most cases, especially during development, this makes a lot of sense because it speeds up your build and therefore improves your cycle times. However it is important to know about breakages as a result of a minified production APK, thus it makes sense to run your tests against a minified version of your APK.

Since Gradle Android Plugin version 1.2.0 using ProGuard has become a lot easier. A new testProguardFile property was added to the DSL which can be used to provide specific ProGuard rules for your test APK. When running ProGuard, Gradle will now use testProguardFile rules and apply it to the test code, but also apply the obfuscation mapping from the production APK run. To try it out just uncomment the minify section for the debug build type in the app modules build.gradle file.

Custom Gradle command-line arguments

Gradle allows you to pass custom arguments to AndroidJUnitRunner. This is equivalent to running adb shell am instrument -w -e <argName> <argValue> Custom arguments can be particularly useful when you just want to run a specific test class/method/qualifier.

To pass a custom argument the property needs to be used, in conjunction with argName and argValue. Multiple custom arguments require one property definition per argument.

For instance, to run all tests annotated with the @Large test size qualifier in the app module, execute:

./gradlew app:connectedAndroidTest -Pandroid.testInstrumentationRunnerArguments.size=large

To only run tests for a specific test class, i.e. EspressoTest, execute:

./gradlew app:connectedAndroidTest

To pass in an arbitrary argument which can be accessed in a test at runtime, execute:

./gradlew module-flavor1-androidTest-only:connectedAndroidTest -Pandroid.testInstrumentationRunnerArguments.argument1=make_test_fail

All arguments passed through command line can also be specified in the project's build.gradle file, which is great for specifying values which are required by the test harness itself. The argument1 from the previous example could also be permanently added using the testInstrumentationRunnerArgument property in the build.gradle file. Look at the app modules build.gradle file for usage.

See AndroidJUnitRunner documentation to learn more about custom command-line arguments.


If you've found an error in this sample, please file an issue:


Patches are encouraged, and may be submitted by forking this project and submitting a pull request through GitHub. Please see for more details.

Bugs and issues

Issues for this project should only be filed for problems with the actual samples.

For issues against the build tools use Pro-tip: fork this project with a failing test or broken build and include the URL in your bug report. This makes bug description, triaging and debugging much easier.


Copyright 2015 The Android Open Source Project, Inc.

Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. The ASF licenses this file to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.