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Adding News API

What we will add in this step

In this step, we will add more APIs to our server for fetching news articles and managing bookmarks.

Edited / added source files

migrations/0001_create_saved.js (new)

exports.up = async function(knex) {
  await knex.schema.createTable("saved", table => {
    table.unique(["userId", "articleId"]);

exports.down = async function(knex) {
  await knex.schema.dropTable("saved");


"use strict";

const express = require("express");
const gourmet = require("@gourmet/client-lib");
const serverArgs = require("@gourmet/server-args");
const bodyParser = require("body-parser");
const session = require("express-session");
const KnexSessionStore = require("connect-session-knex")(session);
const knex = require("./knex");
const account = require("./account");
const news = require("./news");

const SESSION_COOKIE_NAME = "session_id";

const args = serverArgs({workDir: __dirname + "/.."});
const app = express();

  cookie: {
    maxAge: 7 * 24 * 60 * 60 * 1000  // 7 days
  secret: "uWduZ4lSD8hwIIISBq650RZFjY8uIWds5Z6u7hjJ",
  resave: false,
  saveUninitialized: false,
  store: new KnexSessionStore({knex})

app.use(gourmet.middleware(args));"/api/signup", (req, res, next) => {
  account.createUser(req.body).then(user => {
    account.login(req, user);
});"/api/login", (req, res, next) => {
  account.verifyPassword(req.body).then(user => {
    account.login(req, user);
});"/api/logout", (req, res) => {
  req.session.destroy(() => {

app.get("/api/news", account.protectApi, (req, res, next) => {
  news.getNews(, => {

app.get("/api/saved", account.protectApi, (req, res, next) => {
  news.getSaved(, => {
});"/api/saved", account.protectApi, (req, res, next) => {, req.body.article).then(data => {

app.delete("/api/saved/:id", account.protectApi, (req, res, next) => {
  news.unsave(, => {

app.get(["/login", "/signup"], (req, res) => {

app.get(["/", "/saved"], account.loginRequired, (req, res) => {
  res.serve("main", {user: req.user});


app.listen(args.port, () => {
  console.log(`Server is listening on port ${args.port}`);

lib/news.js (new)

"use strict";

const querystring = require("querystring");
const crypto = require("crypto");
const fetch = require("node-fetch");
const knex = require("./knex");

const NEWS_API_URL = "";
const NEWS_API_KEY = process.env.NEWS_API_KEY;
const NEWS_LANGUAGE = "en";
const NEWS_SOURCES = "cnn,bbc-news,business-insider,the-new-york-times";
const NEWS_PAGE_SIZE = 10;

  throw Error("You must set your API key in environment variable NEWS_API_KEY");

function _getHash(str) {
  return crypto.createHash("md5").update(str).digest("hex");

async function getNews(userId, page=1) {
  const query = querystring.stringify({
    language: NEWS_LANGUAGE,
    sources: NEWS_SOURCES,
    pageSize: NEWS_PAGE_SIZE,
    apiKey: NEWS_API_KEY
  const res = await fetch(`${NEWS_API_URL}?${query}`);
  const data = await res.json();
  const articles = => ({
    id: _getHash(a.url),
    url: a.url,
    image: a.urlToImage,
    title: a.title,
    description: a.description,
    source: ||,
    publishedAt: a.publishedAt
  const ids = =>;
  const savedIds = await"articleId").from("saved")
                             .where("userId", userId)
                             .andWhere("articleId", "in", ids)
                             .then(rows => => rows.articleId));
  return {
    hasMore: page < NEWS_LAST_PAGE,
    articles: => ({
      saved: savedIds.indexOf( !== -1

async function getSaved(userId, page=1) {
  const q ="saved").where({userId});
  const count = (await q.clone().count("* as count"))[0].count; // query returns `[{count: n}]`
  const offset = (page - 1) * NEWS_PAGE_SIZE;
  const data = await q.clone().orderBy("id", "desc").offset(offset).limit(NEWS_PAGE_SIZE);

  return {
    hasMore: offset + data.length < count,
    articles: => ({
      id: item.articleId,
      saved: true

async function save(userId, article) {
  const {id, saved, ...a} = article;

  await knex.insert({
    articleId: id,
    article: JSON.stringify(a)

  return true;

async function unsave(userId, articleId) {
  await knex.delete().from("saved").where({

  return true;

exports.getNews = getNews;
exports.getSaved = getSaved; = save;
exports.unsave = unsave;


  "private": true,
  "scripts": {
    "build": "gourmet build",
    "start": "node lib/server.js",
    "dev": "nodemon --ignore src lib/server.js -- --watch",
    "migrate": "knex migrate:latest",
    "migrate:rollback": "knex migrate:rollback"
  "dependencies": {
    "express": "^4.16.4",
    "@gourmet/server-args": "^1.2.4",
    "@gourmet/client-lib": "^1.2.4",
    "body-parser": "^1.18.3",
    "@gourmet/error": "^0.3.4",
    "knex": "^0.16.3",
    "pg": "^7.9.0",
    "sqlite3": "^4.0.6",
    "express-session": "^1.15.6",
    "connect-session-knex": "^1.4.0",
    "bcrypt": "^3.0.5",
    "node-fetch": "^2.3.0"
  "devDependencies": {
    "@gourmet/gourmet-cli": "^1.1.4",
    "@gourmet/preset-react": "^1.5.0",
    "@gourmet/group-react-i80": "^1.3.0",
    "core-js": "^3.0.0",
    "react": "^16.8.5",
    "react-dom": "^16.8.5",
    "nodemon": "^1.18.10"

Using News API

To implement our news fetching API, we need a news provider. We depend on News API for that. News API is an easy-to-use API service that crawls and indexes news articles from over 30,000 news sources and blogs around the world.

To use News API, first you need to get an API key. You'll need your own API key to run examples in this step.

To get a sense of how news articles fetched from News API look, see the example below.

  "status": "ok",
  "totalResults": 19995,
  "articles": [
      "source": {
        "id": "cnn",
        "name": "CNN"
      "author": "Analysis by Chris Cillizza, CNN Editor-at-large",
      "title": "What if the Mueller report changes nothing?",
      "description": "Thanks to CNN reporting, we now know that Attorney General Bill Barr is...",
      "url": "",
      "urlToImage": "",
      "publishedAt": "2019-02-21T00:33:49Z",
      "content": "THE POINT -- NOW ON YOUTUBE! \r\nIn each episode of his weekly YouTube show, ..."

New database table: saved

We added a migration file to create a new database table for saving bookmarks.

Each row in saved table has the following columns:

  • userId: the owner of the saved article (integer row ID of the account)
  • articleId: the article ID (hex string)
  • article: the stringified JSON object of the article

Adding server APIs

We added four more API routes (GET /api/news, GET /api/saved, POST /api/saved, DELETE /api/saved/{id}) to our server. They are implemented using helpers from news.js.

The news.js module provides helper functions for fetching news and managing bookmarks. Inside, getNews() is a function that fetches the latest news articles from News API, and converts them to the internal format. We use node-fetch module to make AJAX requests from our server to News API.

While converting, we generate a unique ID for each article, which is an MD5 hex digest of the article's URL.

getSaved() is a function that fetches the saved articles (bookmarks) from the database. save() and unsave() are functions for saving and deleting the saved articles.

Running and testing

In this step, we added the following new package as a dependency:

  • node-fetch: A light-weight module that brings window.fetch to Node.js

As we added a new dependency and a migration file, you need to run the following once.

npm install
npm run migrate

You must provide an API key for News API in NEWS_API_KEY environment variable to run your server as below. (Be sure to replace the example hex string with your own API key.)

NEWS_API_KEY=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef npm run dev

For Windows, run the following instead.

set NEWS_API_KEY=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
npm run dev

Open your browser, and log in to the app. Enter http://localhost:3000/api/news into the URL box. If you see the news articles encoded as a JSON object as below, you have successfully completed this step.

JSON encoded news articles

It is important to test the API in your browser after successful login, because our news related APIs are protected by account.projectApi, which requires an authenticated session cookie.

You can’t perform that action at this time.