Draft written date: 2018. 09 .05. Grabity Whitepaper Ver 1.0
Last modified date: 2018. 10 .19. Grabity Whitepaper Ver 1.1
Abstract: From the birth of Internet in the 1960s, it took more than 30 years to be commercialized. The Blockchain technology has developed from the start of Bitcoin in 2009, but Blockchain technical-performance still need improvement and be standardized in order to be commercialized. Just as the Dot-Com Bubble of the early 2000s, many IT companies attempted to fuse with many transitional Blockchain technology to create Blockchain businesses. Likewise, Internet businesses cannot grow without the Internet technology, and Blockchain-based business market will be difficult to establish until the development of Blockchain technology.
Grabity is committed to becoming the standard protocol with the priority of developing public Blockchain. Grabity will build a truly decentralized network optimized for P2P communication for commercializing simultaneous transaction processing and distributed storage technology through Genesis Hoisting and Defrag Function technology.
Precautions: The cryptocurrency token (GBT) mentioned to in this paper refers to the tokens available on the Orbits Network main net, not the ERC-20 tokens based on Ethereum Blockchain.
Copyright ownership © 2018 Grabity Pte. Ltd.
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Legal Disclaims: Grabity.io The whitepaper draft is provided for informational purposes only. Grabity Pte. Ltd. does not guarantee the accuracy of or the conclusions reached in this white paper, and this white paper is provided “as is”. Grabity Pte. Ltd does not make and expressly disclaims all representations and warranties, express, implied, statutory or otherwise, whatsoever, including, but not limited to: (i) warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, suitability, usage, title or noninfringement; (ii) that the contents of this white paper are free from error; and (iii) that such contents will not infringe third-party rights. Grabity Pte. Ltd. and its affiliates shall have no liability for damages of any kind arising out of the use, reference to, or reliance on this whitepaper or any of the content contained herein, even if advised of the possibility of such damages. In no event will Grabity Pte. Ltd. or its affiliates be liable to any person or entity for any damages, losses, liabilities, costs or expenses of any kind, whether direct or indirect, consequential, compensatory, incidental, actual, exemplary, punitive or special for the use of, reference to, or reliance on this white paper or any of the content contained herein, including, without limitation, any loss of business, revenues, profits, data, use, goodwill or other intangible losses.
- 6.Token Sale
New Paradigm of Internet
“We strive to shift Internet Paradigm from Centralized to Distributed Network.”
Anyone can share computer resources through already-possessed idle devices such as smartphones, tablets or PCS, and will be able to contribute in building public Blockchain and transform the Internet paradigm from a centralized system to a distributed network.
Grabity is a public Blockchain project, for the transformation of the Internet paradigm from centralized network to a distributed network. Current hardware performance has improved dramatically, even enough for smartphones to have better performance than previous servers. However, it does not use 100% of storage space or computing power. Anyone can share computer resources through already-possessed idle devices such as smartphones, tablets, and PCs, and users can receive rewards as much as they provide resources, and DApp developers can use the shared computer resources to operate services at a lower cost. When the Grabity project reaches the commercialization stage, anyone will be able to make the use of distributed nodes to switch the Internet paradigm.
2.1. The Paradigm of Internet
“The current Internet technology of global network built on the TCP/IP protocol, was developed in the 1960s and widely commercialized in the 1990s.”
The 1960s history of Internet began with the structure of packet-switching network. The first paper on the current computer-mediated communication method of packet-switching theory was published in 1961 by Leonard Kleinrock from MIT. In 1969, a protocol for internetworking was developed where several distanced networks could join together on a single network.
With the appearance of PCs and 1200bps modems in the mid 1970s, a decentralized model of CMC (computer-mediated communication) network emerged. Meanwhile, the development of Ethernet made a big contribution to the expansion of Internet users. This is a kind of Local Area Network (LAN) expansion, and it is the most standardized model of the current Internet network. Until the 1970s, the scale of the network began to expand dramatically from the development of standard systems and applications.
However, since the 1980s, the management and employment of the Internet became a big problem. Accordingly, systems that respond to environmental changes were developed, e.g. DNS (domain name system). Initially, only a single host table was sufficient because of the small number of hosts, but as the number of hosts increased, it became difficult to remember the host's name and address, and the DNS (Domain Name System) was developed and introduced in 1984 when the number of hosts exceeded 1000. In 1983, the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP / IP) was standardized with two functions: IP for carrying packet, and TCP for controlling the flow and adjusting lost packets.
It has been since the 1990s that commercialization has progressed and expanded in full-scale to the public. The number of hosts exceeded 10 million in 1989 but reached over 30 million in just one year. At this time, the first Internet search engine, Archie, was developed, and for the first time a commercial Internet service provider (ISP) emerged. The decisive moment for the commercialization of the Internet was established when the World Wide Web was developed and distributed since 1991, and the reason for the development of the Web was to provide convenience to users for development of browsers.
Since the mid 1990 's, the Internet has had a great impact on culture and commerce with the increase of users’ easy accessibility of the Web, the spread of low-cost and high-performance PCs, and the expansion and development of communication infrastructure. This emerged the World Wide Web of blogs, social media, online shopping malls but as well as E-mail, instant messaging and video calls.
2.2. Blockchain Technology
“Blockchain is a distributed data-storage technology that verify records of transactions that are transparently recorded on the ledger and replicate and store it into multiple nodes so that anyone can access, in order to prevent from hacking.”
Blockchain is a distributed data-storage technology that verify records of transactions that are transparently recorded on the ledger and replicate and store it into multiple nodes so that anyone can access, in order to prevent from hacking.
The problem with the centralized financial system was revealed from the Global Financial Crisis in 2007. In 2009, Nakamoto Satoshi proposed the Blockchain technology to deviate from centralized financial capital power of dollar as a mean of fulfilling personal financial transactions in an unreliable P2P environment.
Blockchain, also called the public transaction ledger, is a distributed data-storage technology that connect blocks into a chain format, and replicate and store into many computers at the same time. Instead of keeping a record of transactions on a centralized server, all users participating in the transaction are able to hold the same transaction record, and every participant share the same transaction record whenever a transaction is made to prevent data tampering or alteration.
This Blockchain technology is applied to Bitcoin, and transparently record transaction details on the ledger that anyone can get access, and verify the record every 10 minutes to prevent from hacking. Bitcoin is processed completely anonymously, and anyone with a computer or has access to the Internet can own an address.
With the development of Ethereum by Vitaly Buterin in 2014, the Blockchain underwent a major change. Vitaly Buterin, who forked the Bitcoin and built Ethereum, implemented the Smart Contract, which record contract terms in Blockchain and automatically trigger contracts when conditions are met. The use of Blockchain technology has been enhanced by Smart Contract that can be applied to the overall industry as well as financial transactions.
2.3. The Evolution of Trust on the Internet
"Technological trust and reliability are needed for the new paradigm conversion of Internet. Current Blockchain technology will evolve through decentralization to a distributed structure.”
Assuming that a new paradigm has been created by development of a particular technology, what elements are needed for the paradigm shift? The power to interchange from old to new is trust. The current Internet is centralized. In addition, forging the Internet is easier than counterfeiting in the real world. But most of use desire fair trade and trust the possibilities of the Internet. Such trust and reliability should not be broken down by some malicious people, and must be established with a more reliable Internet society even with some loss.
Due to the Blockchain technology, the centralized Internet is shifting to a decentralized structure. Typically. cryptocurrency is being applied, and uses the method of storing financial transaction details in a block, sending transactions records to all users participating in the transaction, and using countermeasures against data counterfeiting. In addition to electronic payment and digital authentication, it can be applied to various fields requiring reliability and trust such as cargo tracking system, P2P loan, electronic voting, vehicle sharing, and medical record management. Currently, it is accelerating through the Ethereum platform, but the limitation of increase in platform-usage cost, transaction processing speed and storage space still needs to be solved.
However, the decentralized platform now reverts to a centralized structure in terms of governance, distribution of tokens, project operation and management, and also DApps operate in a centralized server as hybrid structure. The development of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT), in which each node in a distributed network shares and keeps synchronizing database without the control of a central server or a central manager, will lead to the realization of a truly decentralized network consisting of nodes out of the server-client structure.
2.4. The Future of Distributed Ledger Technology
“Nine years have passed since Bitcoin was developed since 2009. How will Distributed Ledger technology evolve in the future? When will it be widely commercialized? This can be predicted by the development and commercialization of Internet technology. By 2020, various Distributed Ledger technology will be developed and DLT will be standardized after 2020, and DLT will be commercialized and used throughout the industry in 2025”
Arphanet that started as Internet in 1969 was standardized around the world at 1983 after 14 years of development in Internet technology with a protocol called TCP/IP. From which 8 years later in 1991, the World Wide Web (WWW) was developed, distributed and commercialized. Since then, the “dot-com bubble” has occurred between 1995 and 2000, and many have started to plunge into the Internet business. However, many IT companies have tried to converge too much into transitioning Internet technology, and many venture companies have gone bankrupt since then.
Currently, the Blockchain industry has experienced a bubble economy like “dot-com bubble”, with technological development and attempting to commercialize it. Without trust and reliability in the Blockchain technology, it is difficult for people to accept the new paradigm, which is also linked to the structure of a market (commercialization). Like the development of the Internet industry in the early days, the Distributed Ledger Technology will go in a similar direction. However, it can be predicted that the Distributed Ledger Technology will progress several times faster because it uses the existing Internet infrastructure. As Internet businesses cannot exist without the Internet technology, businesses that use Distributed Ledger technology can expand only after the development of Distributed Ledger technology in real life. The challenges faced by the commercializing the Distributed Leger technology are as follows.
First, the transaction processing speed need to be faster (Scaling Issue). The current speed limit can be seen from Bitcoin (7 TPS) and Ethereum (20 TPS). Like the 'Crypto Kitty incident', Ethereum has experienced several paralyses of the network due to low throughput speed when traffic is flooded. In order to be used as real life source of Web, it should be accompanied by a more fundamental structural change than additional development of technology such as SegWit, Lightening, Raiden, and Sharding.
Second, the cost of use (gas fee) should be improved. Ethereum is being implemented on the Blockchain, both in the recording of the Distributed Ledger and in the Smart Contract execution. Each time a request is made, you will be asked for gas. Just as, not paying every time for using the Internet, we need to improve our current payment structure in order to commercialize.
The third is data storage efficiency. Constantly generated ledger, Smart Contracts, and junk data are stored forever in the Blockchain, and all full Nodes must store all of the data accumulated from the Genesis Block which is over 1 Terabyte of current Ethereum. As the capacity of the Light Node exceeds 150 GB, the entry barriers increase and the overall network efficiency decreases. It is necessary to store them efficiently. Data integrity is guaranteed, but a more efficient data storage structure is required.
The fourth is to create a fully Distributed DApp structure. Currently, the DApp structure is formed into a hybrid application of App and DApp (decentralized application). DApp's database is stored in a Blockchain structure, and the executable codes run on the central server which the data can be protected through the Blockchain, but if the central server is disabled, the whole system will crash. Not only the database, but DApp’s source files need to be processed in distributed structure.
The fifth is to create a universal Blockchain development environment. It is difficult for Ethereum to introduce more DApp because of the increased barriers to enter from less-dissolvable language (Solidity) in a limited environment. If you provide a development environment in a more common language, many developers will easily participate and develop a lot of killing App.
Finally, it is multiple integrity verification. The current Blockchain network structure has become somewhat centralized. Projects adopting Proof-of-Work are controlled by the foundation and mining pool operators. The Proof-of-Stake has a capital-based encroachment structure and the Delegated-Proof-of-Stake is not governed properly and is eventually controlled by a handful. In other words, integrity verification and consensus must take place by the majority, so that the Blockchain with the true meaning becomes valid and centralized, and become degraded to the structure that takes over the system. To maintain a true decentralized system, multiple Nodes must evolve into a structure that can participate more to the system.
3.1. Orbits Network
The truly distributed system optimized for wireless communications
< Concept >
The Orbits Network is Grabity's decentralized main net that draw a truly distributed P2P network by utilizing all wired/wirelessly connected idle computer resources. Transactions from Orbits Network are managed efficiently through using Genesis Hoisting technology, which can process transactions simultaneously and quickly. In addition, Smart Contract and resource files can be stored in separate portions into each by using the distributed storage technology and Defrag Function technology that can recall each part and execute in a streaming format.
< Architecture >
- Network layer: P2P-based overlay network. Verify and then propagate the transactions between nodes through the layer. The principal is to make the most use of basic network bandwidth.
- Data Layer: Blockchain data structure and physical storage space. Includes Merkle Tree, Hash Function, Data Block, digital sign and etc. that store blocks and DApp files containing the transaction history.
- Consensus Layer: Node that generates a transaction directly verifies its own transaction, and the transaction that has been verified by majority of certain nearby nodes is generated as a block. This is distributed to other nodes, and if there are any nodes that is determined to be malicious attacks, the transaction details are initialized and synchronized to the verified transaction details.
- Application Layer: Provide the application interface on top of the Blockchain. Smart Contracts, virtual machines, DApp, etc. are included and directly linked between the data users.
- Management Layer: Toolkit and SDK are provided to form the development of ecosystem and located the 3rd Party.
< Nodes >
Super node: Node that possess all transaction details and resource files. Super node guarantees data integrity, synchronizes the micro node and the macro node, and sends hash codes to the micro node and the macro node to determine whether the file is forged or falsified when accessing the Smart Contract.
Macro node: Node that participate in Orbits Network to obtain GBT. Macro node processes and verifies other node’s transactions, and stores and provides source files.
Micro node: Node that shares transaction history and simultaneously processes and verify its own transactions and others' transactions.
< Feature >
The main features of the Orbits Network consist of four things: Simultaneous Transaction, Distributed Storage, Genesis Hoisting and Defragment Function.
|Ledger||Simultaneous Transaction||Genesis Hoisting|
|DApp file||Defrag Function||Distributed Storage|
3.1.1. Simultaneous Transaction
The sequential transaction-processing structure has limitations in the processing speed that cause problems in scalability. The fundamental way to address scalability issue is to handle simultaneous transactions. The simultaneous transaction processing is to be implemented on the Orbits Network and is in a producer-structure in which a node becomes the transaction generating, processing and verifying user. This solves the problem of scalability because the number of nodes that process and verify transaction also increases as the number of transactions increases, unlike the existing methods in which the network is overloaded as the number of transactions increases. The simultaneous transaction processing structure overcomes the need to collect and process transactions, creating a single block at the same time as generating a transaction and storing it in each node, that is responsible for processing including itself when the block is validated.
3.1.2. Genesis Hoisting
As the current Blockchain structure grows over time, the size of the distributed storage accumulated in each node increases equally, thus reducing the efficiency of the entire network and reducing node scalability. However, it is essential that many nodes participate freely in order to commercialize the Blockchain. Genesis Hoisting was devised for this purpose. Genesis Hoisting is a technology that sets up the distributed ledger and transfer all blocks to the super node when the storage space of the devices of each node reaches a certain amount. The term Genesis Hoisting is used to refer to the process of overwriting file after the calculation of providing a block index number that is one higher than the existing block in the process of overwriting the file after calculation.
3.1.3. Distributed Storage
Current DApps store database in the Blockchain and the source files are stored on a central server. Due to the fundamental limitations of the Blockchain technology and communication technology, it operates in a hybrid structure. This structure can be protected through Blockchain to some extent but is still at a vulnerable state, but when the central server becomes disabled, the whole system will collapse. A truly distributed application should allow source files to operate and store in distribution. However, an efficient storage system and processing system is needed in managing the source files in the Blockchain because the capacity increases exponentially. Unlike the existing structure in which functions are stored in the entire memory and reading the contents of a particular function, the program source on the Orbits Network have their functions hashed and stored in basic units.
3.1.4. Defrag Function
Defrag Function is a technology that can recall distributed DApp source files in real-time streaming format. The distributed storage of the functions, that comprise the program source and the basic unit, prevent modulation by comparing the hash values of the functions with other nodes. Because Defrag function does not need to save all the original source files, it does not need to save functions that are not used or used infrequently, thus reducing the burden on storage space and keeping the network efficient.
3.2. Planet Wallet
Planet Wallet is the node client and official wallet of the Orbits Network. In order to secure the users, Planet Wallet will be released before the launch of the main net with the function of transferring token conveniently through mobile phone number, along with storing and transferring token in the application between exchanges. After the main net launch, node application function and DApp Store will be added.
The Grabity ecosystem consists of nodes, community, DApp, and platforms, and each institute contributes to the ecosystem based on the token economy. We present the token economy and various requirements for the ecosystem to function and develop as follows.
4.1. Token Economy
Demand for GBT
- Consumers who need computer resources should purchase GBT.
- Need to purchase GBT to participate the in the ICO on the Orbits Network-based DApp
- GBT is DApp's main currency, and if DApp's users increase, demand can increase.
- The reward for providing computer resources after the main net launch can be expected to increase the demand for GBT, determined from the additional computer resources and GBT.
Supply of GBT
The initial 10,000,000,000 GBT for the development and operation of the project are issued from the Ethereum network. The ERC20-based GBT will be replaced with the Orbits Network-based GBT after the main net launch. In addition, since the main net, GBTs are issued in addition to consideration of the inflation rate for the purpose of compensating computer resource providers. The rate of inflation can be flexible, but will be determined in a way that does not exceed 5% to protect token holders and ecosystem participants.
GBT ecosystem entry incentives
The consumers of computer resources can use the Orbits Network using GBT for less than the cost of building or maintaining existing servers, and the provider of computer resources can obtain GBT by providing Orbits Network with idle resources or extra devices of their own devices.
The value of the main net depends on the number of DApp. Most DApp users come from existing application users, so Grabity provides a familiar DApp Store for existing application users. Since the essential requirement to use DApp is the unrestricted storage space and transaction of tokens, DApp Store will be released on PC and mobile versions associated with other wallets and exchanges. The DApp Store is classified into various categories such as game, finance, social networking, media, health, education, music, etc. and the ranking system is based on an algorithm that comprehensively consider daily average number of users, satisfaction, transaction, and development.
Smart Contract Deploy
ERC20-based token issue
Network layer Development (P2P-based overlay network establishment)
Planet Wallet launching (Android, iOS)
Data layer development
Consensus layer development
Orbits Network Beta launching
Node Client development
Block Explorer development
Application layer development
Management layer development
Orbits Network launching
GBT-based DEX, DApp Store launching
6. Token Sale
- Total Token amount: 10,000,000,000 GBT
- Token Token sale amount: 7,000,000,000 GBT
- Percentage of sales Token from total Token: 70%
- Hard cap : 30,000,000 USD
- Soft cap : 10,000,000 USD
- Tokens except for the pre-sale and public sale are sold in private rounds.
- Unsold tokens are due to be incinerated.
|Pre Sale||Public Sale|
|Token Sale Rate||20%||30%|
< Token distribution >
|Token Sale Event||70%|
|Partner & Advisor||5%|
|Marketing & Promoting||10%|
< Fund usage >
- Nakamoto, S. 31 October 2008. "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System". Also known as the Bitcoin whitepaper. http://nakamotoinstitute.org/bitcoin/. http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf.
- W. Dai, "b-money," http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt
- S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, "How to time-stamp a digital document," In Journal of Cryptology
- D. Bayer, S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, "Improving the efficiency and reliability of digital time-stamping," In Sequences II: Methods in Communication, Security and Computer Science
- R.C. Merkle, "Protocols for public key cryptosystems," In Proc. 1980 Symposium on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society
- Ethereum: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper
- EOS.IO: https://github.com/EOSIO/Documentation/blob/master/TechnicalWhitePaper.md
- Smart contracts: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Contracts
- Merkle trees: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merkle_tree
- GHOST: https://eprint.iacr.org/2013/881.pdf
- Ethereum Merkle Patricia trees: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/%5BEnglish%5D-Patricia-Tree
- Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic-curve_cryptography
- IPFS: https://docs.ipfs.io/