Simple YAML Config Library
Ruby
Latest commit 1efa291 Dec 15, 2015
andrewgho Merge pull request #7 from ometa/ruby2
Adds support for Ruby 2

README.md

Sycl - Simple YAML Config Library

Sycl is a gem that makes using YAML for configuration files convenient and easy. Hashes and arrays made from parsing YAML via Sycl get helper methods that provide simple and natural syntax for querying and setting values. YAML output through Sycl is sorted, so configuration file versions can be compared consistently, and Sycl has hooks to add output styles, so your configuration files stay easy for humans to read and edit, even after being parsed and re-emitted.

Getting Started

Install it:

$ gem install sycl

Reference it in your Bundler Gemfile:

gem 'sycl'

Use it in Ruby code as a YAML library replacement:

require 'rubygems'
require 'sycl'

d = Sycl::load_file 'foo.yml'
d.bar = 'baz'
puts d.to_yaml

Run it from the command line to get awk style YAML processing:

$ sycl 'puts d.foo' bar.yml

Description

Loading YAML text using Sycl should be familiar looking if you've used YAML libraries in the past:

# Parse YAML text from yaml_string
data = Sycl::load yaml_string

# Open and parse YAML from a file
data = Sycl::load_file 'filename.yml'

# Emit YAML from an object
puts data.to_yaml

Accessing data from config files often involves multi-level hashes. If you know beforehand the structure of the hashes, you can use method call notation on Sycl hashes to get and set values:

value = data.foo.bar.baz  # same as: data['foo']['bar']['baz']
data.foo.bar.baz = 'qux'  # same as: data['foo']['bar']['baz'] = 'qux'

Sycl provides convenient methods to safely get and set values in multi-level hashes, when you don't know whether intermediate keys in multi-level hashes are always set:

# These die if intermediate values are missing (data['foo']['bar'] == nil)
value = data['foo']['bar']['baz']
data['foo']['bar']['baz'] = 'qux'

# This access is always safe, returns nil if data['foo']['bar'] == nil
value = data.get 'foo.bar.baz'

# Safe set auto-vivifies data['foo']['bar'] = {} if it does not exist
data.set 'foo.bar.baz', 'qux'

Combining configuration data from multiple files is a common operation, for example, to allow local settings to override base settings; so, deep hash merge is a native operation for Sycl datasets:

# config/foo.yml is shared, config/local/foo.yml different per host
base_config = Sycl::load_file 'config/foo.yml'
local_config = Sycl::load_file 'config/local/foo.yml'
merged_config = base_config.deep_merge local_config

Finally, Sycl contains hooks to make YAML output consistent and beautiful. When outputting YAML, Sycl datasets are always output with arrays and hashes sorted, so different versions of configuration files can be compared with a diff tool. Sycl also lets you mark nodes as being rendered in inline (rather than block) format. For example, imagine the following YAML defines a host in a datacenter, including a list of users that can log in to it:

hostname: dojo
ip_address: 192.168.0.100
users:
- alice
- bob
- charlie

We might want to mark it up like the following example to indicate which users have superuser privileges:

hostname: dojo
ip_address: 192.168.0.100
users:
- alice: {sudo: true}
- bob: {sudo: true}
- charlie

Normal YAML parsing and emitting will result unsorted, block formatted output, as in the following example:

ip_address: 192.168.0.100
users:
- alice:
    sudo: true
- bob:
    sudo: true
- charlie
hostname: dojo

Sycl lets you style your YAML with inline blocks:

host = Sycl::load_file 'hosts/dojo.yml'
host.users.each { |u| u.render_inline! }
puts host.to_yaml  # This is output with each user rendered inline

Calling host.to_yaml with the example code above above would result in the expected, human-readable output with sorted values, and with users rendered one per line.

Command-Line Sycl Processing

Sycl includes a command line sycl tool which is like awk, but for processing YAML files with Ruby, with Sycl syntax built in. You run it on one or more YAML files like in the following example:

$ sycl 'puts d.foo.bar.baz' foo.yml

The first required argument is Ruby code to run, which gets a few magic variables that you can reference:

  • f is the current YAML input file's filename
  • y is the literal YAML text from that file (the file's raw contents)
  • d is the Sycl object which is the data parsed from the current input file

Assuming the host file example above, here's how you might print out an /etc/hosts file for your network:

$ sycl 'puts "#{d.ip_address} #{d.hostname}"' hosts/*.yml

And here's how you might print out the hostnames of hosts that user bob can access:

$ sycl 'puts d.hostname if d.users.any? { |u| u == "bob" || (u.is_a?(Hash) && u.keys.first == "bob") }' hosts/*.yml

You can also make in-place edits to YAML files. For example, here's how you'd delete user charlie from all hosts:

$ sycl -i 'd.users.delete_if { |u| u == "charlie" || (u.is_a?(Hash) && u.keys.first == "charlie") }' hosts/*.yml

Meta

Prior Art

There are a number of existing libraries that attempt to give easy access to hash values, or merge YAML files across directories:

Sycl is unique in its emphasis on sorted, comparable output; and its ability to style YAML output by node, and in providing a awk-like tool to directly manipulate YAML from the command line using the compact Sycl syntax.