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Kubergrunt is a standalone go binary with a collection of commands to fill in the gaps between Terraform, Helm, and Kubectl. https://www.gruntwork.io
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README.md

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kubergrunt

kubergrunt is a standalone go binary with a collection of commands that attempts to fill in the gaps between Terraform, Helm, and Kubectl for managing a Kubernetes Cluster.

Some of the features of kubergrunt include:

  • Configuring kubectl to authenticate with a given EKS cluster. Learn more about authenticating kubectl to EKS in the eks-cluster module README.
  • Managing Helm and associated TLS certificates on any Kubernetes cluster.
  • Setting up Helm client with TLS certificates on any Kubernetes cluster.
  • Generating TLS certificate key pairs and storing them as Kubernets Secrets on any Kubernetes cluster.

Installation

The binaries are all built as part of the CI pipeline on each release of the package, and is appended to the corresponding release in the Releases Page. You can download the corresponding binary for your platform from the releases page.

Alternatively, you can install kubergrunt using the Gruntwork Installer. For example, to install version v0.3.6:

gruntwork-install --binary-name "kubergrunt" --repo "https://github.com/gruntwork-io/kubergrunt" --tag "v0.3.6"

Building from source

The main package is in cmd. To build the binary, you can run:

go build -o kubergrunt ./cmd

Commands

The following commands are available as part of kubergrunt:

  1. eks
  2. helm
  3. k8s
  4. tls

eks

The eks subcommand of kubergrunt is used to setup the operator machine to interact with a Kubernetes cluster running on EKS.

verify

This subcommand verifies that the specified EKS cluster is up and ready. An EKS cluster is considered ready when:

  • The cluster status reaches ACTIVE state.
  • The cluster Kubernetes API server endpoint responds to http requests.

When passing --wait to the command, this command will wait until the EKS cluster reaches the ready state, or it times out. The timeout parameters are configurable with the --max-retries and --sleep-between-retries options, where --max-retries specifies the number of times the command will try to verify a specific condition before giving up, and --sleep-between-retries specifies the duration of time (e.g 10m = 10 minutes) to wait between each trial. So for example, if you ran the command:

kubergrunt eks verify --eks-cluster-arn $EKS_CLUSTER_ARN --wait --max-retries 10 --sleep-between-retries 15s

and the cluster was not active yet, this command will query the AWS API up to 10 times, waiting 15 seconds inbetween each try for a total of 150 seconds (2.5 minutes) before timing out.

Run kubergrunt eks verify --help to see all the available options.

configure

This subcommand will setup the installed kubectl with config contexts that will allow it to authenticate to a specified EKS cluster. This binary is designed to be used as part of one of the modules in the package, although this binary supports running as a standalone binary. For example, this binary might be used to setup a new operator machine to be able to talk to an existing EKS cluster.

For example to setup a kubectl install on an operator machine to authenticate with EKS:

kubergrunt eks configure --eks-cluster-arn $EKS_CLUSTER_ARN

Run kubergrunt eks configure --help to see all the available options.

token

This subcommand is used by kubectl to retrieve an authentication token using the AWS API authenticated with IAM credentials. This token is then used to authenticate to the Kubernetes cluster. This command embeds the aws-iam-authenticator tool into kubergrunt so that operators don't have to install a separate tool to manage authentication into Kubernetes.

The configure subcommand of kubergrunt eks assumes you will be using this method to authenticate with the Kubernetes cluster provided by EKS. If you wish to use aws-iam-authenticator instead, replace the auth info clause of the kubectl config context.

This subcommand also supports outputting the token in a format that is consumable by terraform as an external data source when you pass in the --as-tf-data CLI arg. You can then pass the token directly into the kubernetes provider configuration. For example:

# NOTE: Terraform does not allow you to interpolate resources in a provider config. We work around this by using the
# template_file data source as a means to compute the resource interpolations.
provider "kubernetes" {
  load_config_file       = false
  host                   = "${data.template_file.kubernetes_cluster_endpoint.rendered}"
  cluster_ca_certificate = "${base64decode(data.template_file.kubernetes_cluster_ca.rendered)}"
  token                  = "${lookup(data.external.kubernetes_token.result, "token_data")}"
}

data "template_file" "kubernetes_cluster_endpoint" {
  template = "${module.eks_cluster.eks_cluster_endpoint}"
}

data "template_file" "kubernetes_cluster_ca" {
  template = "${module.eks_cluster.eks_cluster_certificate_authority}"
}

data "external" "kubernetes_token" {
  program = ["kubergrunt", "--loglevel", "error", "eks", "token", "--as-tf-data", "--cluster-id", "${module.eks_cluster.eks_cluster_name}"]
}

This will configure the kubernetes provider in Terraform without setting up kubeconfig, allowing you to do everything in Terraform without side effects to your local machine.

deploy

This subcommand will initiate a rolling deployment of the current AMI config to the EC2 instances in your EKS cluster. This command will not deploy or update an application deployed on your Kubernetes cluster (e.g Deployment resource, Pod resource, etc). We provide helm charts that you can use to deploy your applications on to a Kubernetes cluster. See our helm-kubernetes-services repo for more info. Instead, this command is for managing and deploying an update to the EC2 instances underlying your EKS cluster.

Terraform and AWS do not provide a way to automatically roll out a change to the Instances in an EKS Cluster. Due to Terraform limitations (see here for a discussion), there is currently no way to implement this purely in Terraform code. Therefore, we've created this subcommand that can do a zero-downtime roll out for you.

To deploy a change (such as rolling out a new AMI) to all EKS workers using this command:

  1. Make sure the cluster_max_size is at least twice the size of cluster_min_size. The extra capacity will be used to deploy the updated instances.
  2. Update the Terraform code with your changes (e.g. update the cluster_instance_ami variable to a new AMI).
  3. Run terraform apply.
  4. Run the command:
kubergrunt eks deploy --region REGION --asg-name ASG_NAME

When you call the command, it will:

  1. Double the desired capacity of the Auto Scaling Group that powers the EKS Cluster. This will launch new EKS workers with the new launch configuration.
  2. Wait for the new nodes to be ready for Pod scheduling in Kubernetes. This includes waiting for the new nodes to be registered to any external load balancers managed by Kubernetes.
  3. Drain the pods scheduled on the old EKS workers (using the equivalent of kubectl drain), so that they will be rescheduled on the new EKS workers.
  4. Wait for all the pods to migrate off of the old EKS workers.
  5. Set the desired capacity down to the original value and remove the old EKS workers from the ASG.

Note that to minimize service disruption from this command, your services should setup a PodDisruptionBudget, a readiness probe that fails on container shutdown events, and implement graceful handling of SIGTERM in the container. You can learn more about these features in our blog post series covering them.

Currently kubergrunt does not implement any checks for these resources to be implemented. However in the future, we plan to bake in checks into the deployment command to verify that all services have a disruption budget set, and warn the user of any services that do not have a check.

helm

The helm subcommand of kubergrunt provides the ability to manage various Helm Server (Tiller) installs on your Kubernetes cluster, in addition to setting up operator machines to authenticate with the designated Helm Server for the operator, while following the security best practices from the community.

If you are not familiar with Helm, be sure to check out our guide.

Note: The helm subcommand requires the helm client to be installed on the operators' machine. Refer to the official docs for instructions on installing the client.

(helm) deploy

This subcommand will install and setup the Helm Server on the designated Kubernetes cluster. In addition to providing a basic helm server, this subcommand contains features such as:

  • Provisioning and managing TLS certs for a particular Tiller install.
  • Defaulting to use Secrets for Tiller release storage (as opposed to ConfigMaps).
  • Specifying ServiceAccounts for a particular Tiller install.
  • Tying certificate access to RBAC roles to harden access to the Tiller server.

Note: This command does not create Namespaces or ServiceAccounts, delegating that responsibility to other systems.

For example, to setup a basic install of helm in the Kubernetes namespace tiller-world that manages resources in the Kubernetes namespace dev with the service account tiller:

# Note that most of the arguments here are used to setup the Certificate Authority for TLS
kubergrunt helm deploy \
    --tiller-namespace tiller-world \
    --resource-namespace dev \
    --service-account tiller \
    --tls-common-name tiller \
    --tls-org Gruntwork \
    --tls-org-unit IT \
    --tls-city Phoenix \
    --tls-state AZ \
    --tls-country US \
    --rbac-group admin \
    --client-tls-common-name admin \
    --client-tls-org Gruntwork

This will:

  • Generate a new Certificate Authority keypair.
  • Generate a new TLS certificate signed by the generated Certificate Authority keypair.
  • Store the Certificate Authority private key in a new Secret in the kube-system namespace.
  • Launch Tiller using the generated TLS certificate in the specified Namespace with the specified ServiceAccount.

This command will also grant access to an RBAC entity and configure the local helm client to use that using one of --rbac-user, --rbac-group, --rbac-service-account options.

This command should be run by a cluster administrator to deploy a new Tiller instance that can be used by their users to deploy resources using helm.

wait-for-tiller

This subcommand will wait until the Tiller Pod is up and able to accept traffic. This command will exit with an error if:

  • Tiller is not deployed in the Namespace.
  • The client does not have permission to access the deployed Tiller instance.
  • The command times out waiting for the Tiller endpoint to be available (default is 5 minutes).

You can configure the timeout settings using the --timeout and --sleep-between-retries CLI args. This will check until the specified --timeout, sleeping for --sleep-between-retries inbetween tries.

For example, if you ran the command:

kubergrunt helm wait-for-tiller \
    --tiller-namespace tiller-world \
    --timeout 5m \
    --sleep-between-retries 0.5s

This command will query the Kubernetes API to wait until the Pods for the Deployment are provisioned with the expected image up to 5 minutes, waiting for 500 milliseconds inbetween each try.

Run kubergrunt helm wait-for-tiller --help to see all the available options.

undeploy

This subcommand will uninstall the Helm Server from the designated Kubernetes cluster and delete all Secrets related to the installed Helm Server. This subcommand relies on the helm reset command, which requires a helm client that can access the Helm Server pod being uninstalled. See the configure subcommand for more details on setting up your helm client.

Note: By default, this will not uninstall the Helm server if there are any deployed releases. You can force removal of the server using the --force option, but this will not delete any releases. Given the destructive nature of such an operation, we intentionally added a second option for removing the releases (--undeploy-releases).

For example, if you had a deployed a Helm server into the namespace dev using the deploy command and wanted to uninstall it:

# The helm-home option should point to a helm home directory that has been configured for the Helm server being
# undeployed.
kubergrunt helm undeploy --helm-home $HOME/.helm

This command should be run by a cluster administrator to undeploy a deployed Tiller instance, along with all the Secrets containing the TLS certificate key pairs.

(helm) configure

This subcommand will setup the installed helm client to be able to access the specified Helm server. Specifically, this will:

  • Download the client TLS certificate key pair generated with the grant command.
  • Install the TLS certificate key pair in the helm home directory.
  • Install an environment file that sets up environment variables to target the specific helm server. This environment file needs to be loaded before issuing any commands, at it sets the necessary environment variables to signal to the helm client which helm server to use. The environment variables it sets are:
    • HELM_HOME: The helm client home directory where the TLS certs are located.
    • TILLER_NAMESPACE: The namespace where the helm server is installed.
    • HELM_TLS_VERIFY: This will be set to true to enable TLS verification.
    • HELM_TLS_ENABLE: This will be set to true to enable TLS authentication.

You can also optionally set the current kubectl context to set the default namespace to be compatible with this Tiller install.

Afterwards, you can source the environment file to setup your shell to access the proper helm client.

For example, if you want to setup helm to target a Tiller installed in the namespace dev-tiller to manage resources in the namespace dev with the default helm home directory:

# This is for linux
# Setup helm
kubergrunt helm configure --tiller-namespace dev-tiller --resource-namespace dev --rbac-user me
# Source the environment file
source $HOME/.helm/env
# Verify connection. This should display info about both the client and server.
helm version

See the command help for all the available options: kubergrunt helm configure --help.

This command should be run by a helm user to setup their local helm client to access a deployed Tiller instance. Note that the user needs to have already been granted access via the kubergrunt helm grant command.

If you set --helm-home to be __TMP__, a temp folder will be generated for use as the helm home.

If you pass in the option --as-tf-data, this will output the configured helm home directory in the json:

{
  "helm_home": "CONFIGURED_HELM_HOME"
}

This allows you to use the configure command as a data source that is passed into terraform to setup the helm provider. For example:

provider "helm" {
  home           = "${lookup(data.external.configured_helm_home.result, "helm_home")}"
  install_tiller = false
  enable_tls     = true
}

data "external" "configured_helm_home" {
  program = [
    "kubergrunt", "helm", "configure",
    "--as-tf-data",
    "--helm-home", "__TMP__",
    "--tiller-namespace", "dev-tiller",
    "--resource-namespace", "dev",
    "--rbac-user", "me",
   ]
}

This will use kubergrunt to create a temporary directory to use as the helm home, configure it to access the Tiller instance deployed in the namespace dev-tiller, and pass the generated helm home directory to the helm provider.

grant

This subcommand will grant access to an installed helm server to a given RBAC entity (User, Group, or ServiceAccount). This will:

  • Download the corresponding CA keypair for the Tiller deployment from Kubernetes.
  • Issue a new TLS certificate keypair using the CA keypair.
  • Upload the new TLS certificate keypair to a new Secret in a new Namespace that only the granted RBAC entity has access to. This access is readonly.
  • Remove the local copies of the downloaded and generated certificates.

This command assumes that the authenticated entitiy running the command has enough permissions to access the generated CA Secret.

For example, to grant access to a Tiller server deployed in the namespace tiller-world to the RBAC group developers:

kubergrunt helm grant \
    --tls-common-name developers \
    --tls-org YourCo \
    --tiller-namespace tiller-world \
    --rbac-group developers

See the command help for all the available options: kubergrunt helm grant --help.

This command should be run by a cluster administrator to grant a user, group, or pod access to the deployed Tiller instance. The user or group should be an RBAC entity (RBAC user or RBAC group). The pod should gain access via the mounted ServiceAccount.

k8s

The k8s subcommand of kubergrunt includes commands that directly interact with the Kubernetes resources.

wait-for-ingress

This subcommand waits for the Ingress endpoint to be provisioned. This will monitor the Ingress resource, continuously checking until the endpoint is allocated to the Ingress resource or times out. By default, this will try for 5 minutes (max retries 60 and time betweeen sleep of 5 seconds).

You can configure the timeout settings using the --max-retries and --sleep-between-retries CLI args. This will check for --max-retries times, sleeping for --sleep-between-retries inbetween tries.

For example, if you ran the command:

kubergrunt k8s wait-for-ingress \
    --ingress-name $INGRESS_NAME \
    --namespace $NAMESPACE \
    --max-retries 10 \
    --sleep-between-retries 15s

this command will query the Kubernetes API to check the Ingress resource up to 10 times, waiting for 15 seconds inbetween each try for a total of 150 seconds (2.5 minutes) before timing out.

Run kubergrunt k8s wait-for-ingress --help to see all the available options.

tls

The tls subcommand of kubergrunt is used to manage TLS certificate key pairs as Kubernetes Secrets.

gen

This subcommand will generate new TLS certificate key pairs based on the provided configuration arguments. Once the certificates are generated, they will be stored on your targeted Kubernetes cluster as Secrets. This supports features such as:

  • Generating a new CA key pair and storing the generated key pair in your Kubernetes cluster.
  • Issuing a new signed TLS certificate key pair using an existing CA stored in your Kubernetes cluster.
  • Replacing the stored certificate key pair in your Kubernetes cluster with a newly generated one.
  • Controlling which Namespace the Secrets are stored in.

For example, to generate a new CA key pair, issue a TLS certificate key pair, storing each of those as the Secrets ca-keypair and tls-keypair respectively:

# Generate the CA key pair
kubergrunt tls gen \
    --namespace kube-system \
    --secret-name ca-keypair \
    --ca \
    --tls-common-name kiam-ca \
    --tls-org Gruntwork \
    --tls-org-unit IT \
    --tls-city Phoenix \
    --tls-state AZ \
    --tls-country US \
    --secret-annotation "gruntwork.io/version=v1"
# Generate a signed TLS key pair using the previously created CA
kubergrunt tls gen \
    --namespace kube-system \
    --secret-name tls-keypair \
    --ca-secret-name ca-keypair \
    --tls-common-name kiam-server \
    --tls-org Gruntwork \
    --tls-org-unit IT \
    --tls-city Phoenix \
    --tls-state AZ \
    --tls-country US \
    --secret-annotation "gruntwork.io/version=v1"

The first command will generate a CA key pair and store it as the Secret ca-keypair. The --ca argument signals to kubergrunt that the TLS certificate is for a CA.

The second command uses the generated CA key pair to issue a new TLS key pair. The --ca-secret-name signals kubergrunt to use the CA key pair stored in the Kubernetes Secret ca-keypair.

This command should be run by a cluster administrator to ensure access to the Secrets are tightly controlled.

See the command help for all the available options: kubergrunt tls gen --help.

Who maintains this project?

kubergrunt is maintained by Gruntwork. If you are looking for help or commercial support, send an email to support@gruntwork.io.

Gruntwork can help with:

  • Setup, customization, and support for this project.
  • Modules and submodules for other types of infrastructure in major cloud providers, such as VPCs, Docker clusters, databases, and continuous integration.
  • Modules and Submodules that meet compliance requirements, such as HIPAA.
  • Consulting & Training on AWS, GCP, Terraform, and DevOps.

How do I contribute?

Contributions are very welcome! Check out the Contribution Guidelines for instructions.

How is this project versioned?

This project follows the principles of Semantic Versioning. You can find each new release, along with the changelog, in the Releases Page.

During initial development, the major version will be 0 (e.g., 0.x.y), which indicates the code does not yet have a stable API. Once we hit 1.0.0, we will make every effort to maintain a backwards compatible API and use the MAJOR, MINOR, and PATCH versions on each release to indicate any incompatibilities.

License

Please see LICENSE and NOTICE for how the code in this repo is licensed.

Copyright © 2019 Gruntwork, Inc.

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