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+Rock Springs massacre
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+Rock Springs massacre An illustration of the massacre from an 1886 issue of Harper's Weekly . Location Rock Springs, Wyoming , USA Date September 2, 1885 7:00 a.m. – late night ( UTC -6) Attack type Mass murder , massacre , riot Weapon(s) various Deaths at least 28 immigrant Chinese miners (some sources indicate as many as 40 to 50 died) Injured 15 Perpetrators White miners The Rock Springs massacre , also known as the Rock Springs Riot , occurred on September 2, 1885, in the present-day United States city of Rock Springs, Wyoming , in Sweetwater County . The riot, between Chinese immigrant miners and white immigrant miners, was the result of racial tensions and an ongoing labor dispute over the Union Pacific Coal Department 's policy of paying Chinese miners lower wages than white miners. This policy caused the Chinese to be hired over the white miners, which further angered the white miners and contributed to the riot. Racial tensions were an even bigger factor in the massacre . When the rioting ended, at least 28 Chinese miners were dead and 15 were injured. Rioters burned 75 Chinese homes resulting in approximately US$ 150,000 in property damage [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] ($3.88 million in present-day terms [ 4 ] ). Tension between whites and Chinese immigrants in the late 19th century American West was particularly high, especially in the decade preceding the violence. The massacre in Rock Springs was the violent outburst of years of anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act suspended Chinese immigration for ten years, but not before thousands of immigrants came to the American West. Most Chinese immigrants to Wyoming Territory took jobs with the railroad at first, but many ended up employed in coal mines owned by the Union Pacific Railroad . As Chinese immigration increased, so did anti-Chinese sentiment from whites. The Knights of Labor , one of the foremost voices against Chinese immigrant labor, formed a chapter in Rock Springs in 1883, and most rioters were members of that organization. However, no direct connection was ever established linking the riot to the national Knights of Labor organization. [ 1 ] In the immediate aftermath of the riot, federal troops were deployed in Rock Springs. They escorted the surviving Chinese miners, most of whom had fled to Evanston, Wyoming , back to Rock Springs a week after the riot. Reaction came swiftly from the era's publications. In Rock Springs, the local newspaper endorsed the outcome of the riot, while in other Wyoming newspapers, support for the riot was limited to sympathy for the causes of the white miners. [ 2 ] The massacre in Rock Springs touched off a wave of anti-Chinese violence, especially in the Puget Sound area of Washington Territory . Contents 1 Background 2 Causes 3 Massacre 3.1 Chronology 3.2 Names of the dead [28] 3.2.1 Bodies found mutilated 3.2.2 Bodies found burned 3.2.3 Bone fragments only or no bodies found 4 Outcome 4.1 Immediate aftermath 4.2 Arrests 4.3 Diplomatic and political issues 4.4 Reaction 5 Post-massacre violence 6 Significance and context 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Background Chinese immigrants, including these bound for California in 1876, settled throughout the American west during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chinese immigration to the United States at that time was neither uniform nor widespread. J.R. Tucker , writing for The North American Review in 1884, stated that the vast majority of the nearly 100,000 Chinese immigrants resided within the American West : California , Nevada , Oregon , and Washington Territory . [ 5 ] The U.S. Minister to China, George Seward , had asserted similar numbers in Scribner's Magazine five years earlier. [ 6 ] The first jobs Chinese laborers took in Wyoming were on the railroad, working for the Union Pacific company (UP) as maintenance-of-way workers. [ 7 ] Chinese workers soon became an asset to Union Pacific and worked along UP lines and in UP coal mines from Laramie to Evanston. Most Chinese workers in Wyoming ended up working in Sweetwater County , but a large number settled in Carbon County and Uinta counties. Most Chinese people in the area were men working in the mine. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] Racism against Chinese immigrants was widespread and largely uncontroversial at the time. J.R. Tucker, in the aforementioned 1884 article, referred to Asian immigrants as "...the Asiatic race, alien in blood, habits, and civilization" . He also noted, "Chinese are the chief element in this Asiatic population." [ 5 ] A typical 19th century Chinese-American mining camp In 1874–75, after labor unrest disrupted coal production, the Union Pacific Coal Department hired Chinese laborers to work in their coal mines throughout southern Wyoming. Even so, Chinese population rose slowly at first; however, where there were Chinese immigrants, they were generally concentrated in one area. [ 2 ] [ 9 ] At Red Desert, a remote section camp in Sweetwater County, there were 20 inhabitants, of whom 12 were Chinese. All 12 were laborers who worked under an American foreman. To the east of Red Desert was another remote section camp, Washakie. An American section foreman lived there amongst 23 others, including 13 Chinese laborers and an Irish crew foreman. [ 9 ] In the various section camps along the main line of the Union Pacific Railroad, Chinese workers far outnumbered any other nationality. [ 9 ] Though the 79 Chinese in Sweetwater County in 1870 represented only 4% of the total population, they were, again, concentrated. In Rock Springs and Green River, the largest towns along the UP line, there were no Chinese residents reported in 1870. [ 9 ] Throughout the 1870s, the Chinese population in Sweetwater County and all of Wyoming steadily increased. During the decade, Wyoming's total population rose from 9,118 to 20,789. [ 10 ] In the 1870 U.S. Census , what the government today calls "Asian and Pacific Islander" represented only 143 members of the population of Wyoming. The increase during the 1870s was the largest percentage increase in the Asian population of Wyoming of any decade since; the increase represented a 539% jump in the Asian population. [ 10 ] By 1880, most Chinese residents in Sweetwater County lived in Rock Springs. At that time, Wyoming was home to 914 "Asians"; that number fell significantly during the 1880s to 465. [ 10 ] Although most Chinese workers in 1880 were employed in the coal mines around Wyoming and Sweetwater County, the Chinese in Rock Springs worked mostly in occupations outside of mining. In addition to Chinese laborers and miners, a professional gambler, a priest, a cook, and a barber resided in the city. [ 9 ] In Green River, Wyoming , there was a Chinese doctor. Chinese servants and waiters found work in Green River and in Fort Washakie . In Atlantic City , Miner's Delight , and Red Canyon, Wyoming , Chinese gold miners were employed. However, the majority of the 193 Chinese residing in Sweetwater County by 1880 worked in the coal mines or on the railroad. [ 9 ] Causes The riot was the result of a combination of race prejudice and general resentment against Union Pacific. [ 2 ] In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act required that "…from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come." [ 11 ] In the years preceding the Rock Springs massacre, the importation of Chinese labor was seen as a "system worse than slavery". [ 12 ] The white miners at Rock Springs, being mostly Cornish , Irish , Swedish , and Welsh immigrants, believed lower-paid Chinese laborers drove down their wages. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] The Chinese at Rock Springs were aware of the animosity and rising racial tension with white miners, but had not taken any precautions, as no prior events indicated there would be any race riots. [ 3 ] Underlying the outbreak of violence were racism and resentment of the policies of the Union Pacific Coal Department. Until 1875, the mines in Rock Springs were worked by whites; in that year, a strike occurred, and the strikers were replaced with Chinese strikebreakers less than two weeks after the strike began. [ 2 ] The company resumed mining with 50 white miners and 150 Chinese miners in its employ. As more Chinese arrived in Rock Springs, bitterness from the white miners increased. [ 2 ] At the time of the massacre, there were about 150 white miners and 331 Chinese miners in Rock Springs. [ 2 ] In the two years before the massacre, a "Whitemen's Town" was established in Rock Springs. [ 19 ] By 1883, the Knights of Labor organized a chapter in Rock Springs. The Knights were one of the major groups which spearheaded opposition to Chinese labor during the 1880s; [ 1 ] [ 14 ] in 1882, the Knights had worked for the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. [ 1 ] No evidence has been uncovered to prove that the national Knights of Labor organization was behind the massacre at Rock Springs. [ 1 ] In August 1885, notices were posted from Evanston to Rock Springs, demanding the expulsion of Chinese immigrants, and on the evening of September 1, 1885, one day before the violence, white miners in Rock Springs held a meeting regarding the Chinese immigrants. It was rumored that threats were made that night against the Chinese, according to immigrants then residing there. [ 19 ] Massacre Chronology Thomas Nast 's 1885 editorial cartoon applies a detail from Goya 's The Third of May 1808 to the Rock Springs riot. The cartoon's caption quotes The Mikado . At 7:00 a.m. on September 2, 1885, ten white men, in ordinary garb and miner's uniforms, arrived at coal pit number six at the Rock Springs mine. They declared that the Chinese laborers had no right to work in a particularly desirable "room" in the mine; miners were paid by the ton, thus location was important to the miners. [ 3 ] A fight broke out, and two Chinese workers at pit number six were badly beaten. One of the Chinese workers later died due to his injuries. The white miners, most of whom were members of the Knights of Labor , walked out of the mine. [ 1 ] After the work stoppage at pit number six, more white miners assembled near the town. They marched to Rock Springs by way of the railroad, carrying firearms. [ 19 ] At about 10:00 a.m., the bell in the Knights of Labor meeting hall tolled, and the miners inside the building joined the already large group. [ 20 ] There were white miners who opted to go to saloons instead of joining the gathering mob, but by 2:00 p.m., the saloons and grocers were persuaded by a Union Pacific official to close. [ 3 ] With the saloons and grocers closed, about 150 men, armed with Winchester rifles , moved toward Chinatown in Rock Springs. [ 1 ] [ 3 ] They moved in two groups and entered Chinatown by crossing separate bridges. The larger group entered by way of the railroad bridge and was divided into squads, a few of which remained standing on the opposite side of the bridge outside Chinatown. The smaller group entered by way of the town's plank bridge. [ 19 ] Squads from the larger group broke off and moved up the hill toward coal pit number three. One squad took up a position at the pit number three coal shed; another, at the pump house . A warning party was sent ahead of the squads into Chinatown. They warned the Chinese they had one hour to pack up and leave town. After only thirty minutes, [ 9 ] the first gunshots were fired by the squad at the pump house, followed by a volley from those at the coal shed. Lor Sun Kit, a Chinese laborer, was shot and fell to the ground. [ 19 ] As the group at coal pit number three rejoined them, the crowd pressed on toward Chinatown, some men firing their weapons as they went. [ 19 ] The smaller group of white miners at the plank bridge divided itself into squads and surrounded Chinatown. One squad stayed at the plank bridge to cut off any Chinese escape. [ 19 ] As the white miners moved into Chinatown, the Chinese became aware of the riot and that Leo Dye Bah and Yip Ah Marn, residents from the west and east sides of Chinatown, had already been killed. As the news of the murders spread, the Chinese fled in fear and confusion. They ran in every direction: up the hill behind coal pit number three; others, along the base of the hill at coal pit number four; others still, from the eastern end of town, fled across Bitter Creek to the opposite hill; and more fled the western end of Chinatown across the base of the hill to the right of coal pit number five. The mob came from three directions by this time, from the east and west ends of town and from the wagon road. [ 19 ] The Chinese immigrants present at the Rock Springs massacre presented their own grisly account of the mêlée to the Chinese consul in New York : Whenever the mob met a Chinese they stopped him and, pointing a weapon at him, asked him if he had any revolver, and then approaching him they searched his person, robbing him of his watch or any gold or silver that he might have about him, before letting him go. Some of the rioters would let a Chinese go after depriving him of all his gold and silver, while another Chinese would be beaten with the butt ends of the weapons before being let go. Some of the rioters, when they could not stop a Chinese, would shoot him dead on the spot, and then search and rob him. Some would overtake a Chinese, throw him down and search and rob him before they would let him go. Some of the rioters would not fire their weapons, but would only use the butt ends to beat the Chinese with. Some would not beat a Chinese, but rob him of whatever he had and let him go, yelling to him to go quickly. Some, who took no part either in beating or robbing the Chinese, stood by, shouting loudly and laughing and clapping their hands. [ 19 ] By 3:30 p.m. the massacre was well under way. [ 19 ] A group of women in Rock Springs had gathered at the plank bridge, where they stood and cheered on the rampage. Two of the women reportedly fired shots at the Chinese. [ 19 ] As the riot wore on into the night, the Chinese miners scattered into the hills, lying in the grass to hide. Between four and nine p.m., rioters set fire to the camp houses belonging to the coal company. By nine p.m., all but one Chinese camp house was burned completely. In all, 79 Chinese homes were destroyed by fire. [ 19 ] Damage to Chinese-owned property was estimated at around $147,000. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Some Chinese died on the banks of Bitter Creek as they fled, others near the railroad bridge as they attempted to escape Chinatown. [ 19 ] The rioters threw Chinese bodies into the flames of burning buildings. [ 19 ] Other Chinese immigrants, who had hidden in their houses instead of fleeing, were murdered, and then their bodies were burned with their houses. [ 20 ] Those who could not run, including the sick, were burned alive in their camp houses. [ 3 ] [ 19 ] Many of the Chinese who were burned in their houses apparently tried "to dig a hole in the cellar to hide themselves. But the fire overtook them when about half way in the hole, burning their lower limbs to a crisp and leaving the upper trunk untouched." [ 21 ] One remaining Chinese immigrant was found dead in a laundry house in Whitemen's Town, his home demolished by rioters. [ 2 ] [ 19 ] The attacks at Rock Springs were extraordinarily violent, revealing a long-held, almost " feral ", hatred of the victims. [ 22 ] The sheer brutality of the violence "startled" the entire country. [ 23 ] Besides those who were burned alive, Chinese miners were scalped , mutilated , branded , decapitated , dismembered , and hanged from gutter spouts. [ 22 ] One of the Chinese miners' penis and testicles were cut off and toasted in a nearby saloon as a "trophy of the hunt". [ 22 ] [ 24 ] The events amounted to racial terrorism. [ 22 ] There were 28 confirmed deaths , and at least 15 miners were wounded. [ 3 ] [ 7 ] But various sources assert that 40 to 50 fatalities might be a more accurate number, as some of those who fled were never accounted for. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] The Chinese consul in New York City compiled a detailed list of the massacre's victims . Names of the dead [ 28 ] Bodies found mutilated Leo Sun Tsung, 51: found in his hut with multiple wounds, including a bullet wound to the face Leo Kow Boot, 24: found between mines three and four with a bullet wound to the neck Yii See Yen, 36: found near Bitter Creek with a bullet wound to the temple Leo Dye Bah, 56: found near the plank bridge with a bullet wound to the chest Bodies found burned Choo Bah Quot, 23: found in a hut adjoining Camp No. 34, partially burned Sia Bun Ning, 37: head, neck and shoulders found in a hut near the Chinese temple, the rest of the body had been burned off Leo Lung Hong, 45: upper torso found in hut near Camp No. 27, the rest of the body was burned off Leo Chih Ming, 49: head and chest found in his hut, rest of the body burned off Liang Tsun Bong, 42: upper torso found in his hut, rest of the body burned off Hsu Ah Cheong, 32: skull found in his hut, no other remains were available Lor Han Lung, 32: sole and heel of his left foot found in hut near Camp No. 34 Hoo Ah Nii, 43: right half of his head and backbone found in his hut Leo Tse Wing, 39: lower half bones found in hut near Camp No. 14 Bone fragments only or no bodies found Leo Jew Foo, 35 Leo Tim Kwong, 31 Hung Qwan Chuen, 42 Tom He Yew, 34 Mar Tse Choy Leo Lung Siang Yip Ah Marn Leo Lung Hon Leo Lung Hor Leo Ah Tsun Leang Ding Leo Hoy Yat Yuen Chin Sing Hsu Ah Tseng Chun Quan Sing Outcome Immediate aftermath Federal soldiers on South Front Street in Rock Springs , 1885. Troops were first deployed in Rock Springs to quell the riot on September 5. Wyoming territorial Governor Francis E. Warren appealed to U.S. president Grover Cleveland for federal troops in Rock Springs. In the days following the riot, surviving Chinese immigrants in Rock Springs fled and were picked up by Union Pacific trains. [ 20 ] By September 5, almost all survivors were in Evanston, Wyoming , 100 miles (160 km) west of Rock Springs. [ 20 ] Once there, they were subjected to threats of murder and other crimes; Evanston was another area in Wyoming where anti-Chinese sentiment was high. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Rumors of the return of the Chinese to Rock Springs circulated since immediately after the riots. On September 3, the Rock Springs Independent published an editorial which confirmed the rumors of "the return", as a few Chinese began to trickle back into town to search for valuables. [ 29 ] The Independent said of the return of Chinese laborers to Rock Springs, "It means that Rock Springs is killed, as far as white men are concerned, if such program is carried out." [ 29 ] The massacre was defended in the local newspaper, and, to an extent, in other western newspapers. [ 20 ] In general, however, Wyoming newspapers disapproved of the acts of the massacre while supporting the cause of white miners. [ 2 ] Wyoming's territorial Governor Francis E. Warren visited Rock Springs on September 3, 1885, the day after the riot, to make a personal assessment. After his trip to Rock Springs, Warren traveled to Evanston, where he sent telegrams to U.S. President Grover Cleveland appealing for federal troops. [ 2 ] Back in Rock Springs, the riot had calmed, but the situation was still unstable. [ 1 ] Two companies of the United States Army 's 7th Infantry arrived on September 5, 1885. One company, under the command of a Lieutenant Colonel Anderson, was stationed in Evanston, Wyoming; the other, under a Colonel Chipman, was stationed in Rock Springs. At Camp Murray , Utah Territory , Colonel Alexander McDowell McCook was ordered to augment the garrison sent to Wyoming with six more companies. [ 1 ] On September 9, 1885, one week after the massacre, six companies of soldiers arrived in Wyoming . Four of the six companies then escorted the Chinese back to Rock Springs. [ 1 ] Once back in Rock Springs, the Chinese laborers found scorched tracts of land where their homes once stood. The mining company had buried only a few dead; others remained lying in the open, mangled, decomposing, and partially eaten by dogs, hogs, or other animals. [ 29 ] The situation in Rock Springs was stabilized as early as September 15, when Warren first requested the removal of federal troops, but the mines at Rock Springs remained closed for a time. [ 1 ] On September 30, 1885, white miners, mostly Finnish immigrants who were members of the Knights of Labor, walked out of mines in Carbon County, Wyoming , in protest of the company's continued use of Chinese miners. In Rock Springs, the white miners were not back at work in late September, because the company still used Chinese labor. [ 30 ] Rock Springs steadily became quieter, and, on October 5, 1885, emergency troops, except for two companies, were removed. However, the temporary posts of Camp Medicine Butte, established in Evanston, and of Camp Pilot Butte, in Rock Springs, remained long after the riot. Camp Pilot Butte closed in 1899 after the onset of the Spanish-American War . [ 1 ] The labor strike was unsuccessful, and the miners went back to work within a couple of months. [ 2 ] The national Knights of Labor organization refused to support the Carbon strike and the hold out by white miners in Rock Springs following the Rock Springs Riot. The organization avoided supporting the miners along the Union Pacific Railroad , because it did not want to be seen as condoning the violence at Rock Springs. [ 30 ] When the Union Pacific Coal Department reopened the mines, it fired 45 white miners connected to the violence. [ 3 ] Arrests After the riot in Rock Springs, sixteen men were arrested, including Isaiah Washington, a member-elect to the territorial legislature. [ 2 ] The men were taken to jail in Green River , where they were held until after a Sweetwater County grand jury refused to bring indictments . [ 2 ] In explaining its decision, the grand jury declared that there was no cause for legal action, stating, in part: "We have diligently inquired into the occurrence at Rock Springs.... [T]hough we have examined a large number of witnesses, no one has been able to testify to a single criminal act committed by any known white person that day." [ 3 ] Those arrested as suspects in the riot were released a little more than a month later, on October 7, 1885. On their release, they were "...met... by several hundred men, women and children, and treated to a regular ovation ", according to The New York Times . [ 31 ] The defendants in the Rock Springs case enjoyed the same broad community consent that lynch mobs often received. [ 3 ] No person or persons were ever convicted in the violence at Rock Springs. Diplomatic and political issues U.S. Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard urged the U.S. Congress to indemnify the Chinese victims. After the riot, the U.S. government hesitated to make amends to the Chinese for the massacre. [ 32 ] In China, the governor-general of the Guangdong region suggested that Americans in China might be the target of revenge for the events in Rock Springs. [ 32 ] The American envoy to China, Charles Harvey Denby , and others in the diplomatic corps reported rising anti-American sentiment in Hong Kong and in Canton , Guangdong , following the riot. [ 27 ] American diplomats warned their government that the backlash from the massacre could ruin U.S. trade with China; they also reported that British merchants and newspapers in China were encouraging the Chinese to "stand up for their oppressed countrymen in America." [ 27 ] Denby advised that U.S. Secretary of State Thomas Bayard obtain compensation for the victims of the massacre. [ 27 ] The United States government agreed to pay compensation for the damaged property but not for the actual victims of the massacre, although Bayard was inclined to resist the requests for payments. [ 32 ] In a letter to the minister of China's Washington legation dated February 18, 1886, he expressed a personal view that the violence against Chinese immigrants was precipitated by their resistance to cultural assimilation , and that racism against Chinese was typically found among other immigrants rather than the majority of the populace: Chinese immigrants... segregate themselves from the rest of the residents and citizens of the United States and ... refuse to mingle with the mass of population ... As a consequence, race prejudice has been more excited against them, notably among aliens of other nationalities... [ 33 ] Denby's predictions caused Bayard to seek a Congressionally appropriated indemnity . At Bayard's urging, the U.S. Congress provided US$ 147,748.74 as an indemnity. [ 27 ] The compensation was made as a monetary gift and not as a legal decree of responsibility for the massacre and the outcome amounted to a minor diplomatic victory for China. [ 1 ] [ 32 ] [ 34 ] Correspondence between Wyoming's territorial Governor, Francis Warren, and Union Pacific officials during Warren's term in office indicate that he petitioned the company for years to clear the titles on land he owned. [ 25 ] He condemned the riot as "the most brutal and damnable outrage that ever occurred in any country." [ 35 ] [ 36 ] Reaction U.S. President Grover Cleveland wrote about the riot in his 1885 State of the Union Address . After the riot, rhetoric and reaction came from publications and key political figures concerning the events. The New York Times blasted the city of Rock Springs in the first of at least two editorials on the topic, stating, "the appropriate fate for a community of this kind would be that of Sodom and Gomorrah ". [ 37 ] In another Times editorial on November 10, 1885, the paper continued to assail not only the residents of Rock Springs who were involved in the violence, but those who stood by and let the mob continue its behavior. [ 38 ] Newspapers in Wyoming, such as the Cheyenne Tribune and the Laramie Boomerang , reacted with sympathy toward the white miners. The Boomerang stated it "regretted" the riot but found extenuating circumstances surrounding the violence. [ 3 ] In addition to newspapers, anti-Chinese sentiment and stereotypes came from other publications. [ 39 ] Religious publications, such as Baptist Missionary Magazine , depicted the Chinese as "heathens." [ 40 ] The Chautauquan: A Weekly Newsmagazine characterized the Chinese as weak and defenseless, stating in its coverage of the massacre: "To murder an industrious Chinaman is the same kind of fiendish work as the murder of women and children – it is equally a violation of the rights of the defenceless." [ 39 ] Terence Powderly reacted to the massacre in a letter to a magazine writer. Knights of Labor leader Terence Powderly wrote in a letter to W.W. Stone (excerpts of which he included in a report to the U.S. Congress) that, "It is not necessary for me to speak of the numerous reasons given for the opposition to this particular race – their habits, religion, customs and practices..." [ citation needed ] Powderly blamed the "problem" of Chinese immigration on the failings of the 1882 Exclusion Act. He faulted lax law enforcement, not those involved in the riots, for the attacks at Rock Springs. Powderly wrote that the U.S. Congress should stop "winking at violations of this statute" and reform the laws which barred Chinese immigration, which he believed could have prevented incidents such as "the recent assault upon the Chinese at Rock Springs". [ 14 ] In December 1885, U.S. President Grover Cleveland presented his State of the Union report to Congress, and in it, his reaction to the Rock Springs massacre. [ 41 ] Cleveland's report pointed out that the United States was interested in good relations with China. He stated, "All of the power of this government should be exhorted to maintain the amplest good faith towards China in the treatment of these men, and the inflexible sternness of the law... must be insisted upon ... race prejudice is the chief factor to originating these disturbances". [ 42 ] Post-massacre violence See also: Anti-Chinese violence in Washington and Anti-Chinese violence in Oregon The massacre at Rock Springs led to other incidents of anti-Chinese aggression, primarily in Washington Territory, though there were incidents in Oregon and other states as well. Near Newcastle, Washington a mob of whites burned down the barracks of 36 Chinese coal miners. [ 7 ] Throughout the Puget Sound area, Chinese workers were driven out of communities and subject to violence in Washington cities and towns, including Tacoma , Seattle , Newcastle , and Issaquah . Chinese workers were driven out of other Washington towns, but sources indicated, as early as 1891, that the above events were specifically connected to the wave of violence touched off at Rock Springs. [ 7 ] [ 23 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] The wave of anti-Chinese violence in the western United States following the Rock Springs Riot spread further, to the state of Oregon. [ 7 ] Mobs drove Chinese workers out of small towns throughout the state in late 1885 and mid-1886. [ 7 ] Other states reported incidents as well: As far away as Augusta, Georgia , anger was expressed against the Chinese in response to the massacre at Rock Springs. According to The New York Times , the rioting in Rock Springs fueled the desire of anti-Chinese Georgians in Augusta to air their grievances. [ 45 ] Significance and context The Rock Springs massacre was seen by observers at the time, and by historians today, as the worst, most significant instance of anti-Chinese violence in the 19th century United States. [ 23 ] [ 32 ] The riot received widespread media coverage from publications such as The National Police Gazette and The New York Times . [ 46 ] Among the events of anti-Chinese violence in the American west, the Rock Springs massacre is considered the most widely publicized. [ 13 ] Today, nearly all historians hold the view that the prime factor which contributed to the riot was race prejudice . [ 47 ] [ 48 ] However, a 1990 work on the Rock Springs massacre, written by journalist Craig Storti , marginalized the racial factor and put a stronger emphasis on the economic factors which contributed to violence. [ 49 ] [ 48 ] His book, Incident at Bitter Creek: The Rock Springs Massacre , was widely criticized in reviews, [ 49 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 50 ] though Storti stated he represented the historical record as it stood. [ 51 ] There were labor considerations that contributed to the violence in Rock Springs, though they are generally seen as less significant. [ 49 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] The use of Chinese workers by the railroad during an 1875 strike created widespread resentment among the white miners, which continued to build until the Rock Springs massacre. Storti's book described anti-Chinese racism as "pervasive" even while downplaying its significance to the riot. [ 47 ] The view that the Chinese refused to assimilate into American culture was held historically and still carries some weight in present-day interpretations of the historical record. [ 23 ] [ 47 ] Present-day Rock Springs has a population pushing 20,000. The former settlement is a full-fledged city. The area that once encompassed Camp Pilot Butte is located on the north bank of Bitter Creek, in the northwest part of the city. The camp covered 5½ acres of Union Pacific property; the parade ground was in the center of a present-day city block bounded by Soulsby Street on the west, Pilot Butte Avenue on the east, Bridger Avenue on the north and Elias Avenue on its south. [ 1 ] In 1973, the area where the army post once existed was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places as an historic district . At that time, there were only two remaining original structures. [ 1 ] The two buildings were owned by the Saints Cyril and Methodius Catholic Church in Rock Springs. [ 52 ] The buildings are no longer extant, and the property is no longer listed on the National Register. [ 53 ] The area that was once Chinatown, just north of where Camp Pilot Butte once stood, had a public elementary school built over part of it. In general, the locations in Rock Springs associated with the massacre have been surrounded and absorbed by the city's growth. [ 1 ] See also Listen to this article ( info/dl ) Note: this file is approximately 6.4 megabytes This audio file was created from a revision of the " Rock Springs massacre " article dated 2008-03-06, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ( Audio help ) More spoken articles Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Chinese massacre of 1871 Chinese Massacre Cove (1887) Cultural assimilation Lambing Flat riots (Australia) List of victims of the Rock Springs massacre Yellow Peril Notes ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Camp Pilot Butte, National Register of Historic Places. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Larson, History of Wyoming , pp 141–44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Daniels, Asian America , pp 61–63. ^ Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012 . Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 22, 2012. ^ a b Tucker, "Race Progress in the United States", The North American Review 1884, pg 163. ^ "Seward's 'Chinese Immigration'", pg 957. ^ a b c d e f g History of Washington State & the Pacific Northwest, "Lesson Fifteen". ^ The 1870 census showed that in Uinta and Sweetwater counties, which at the time ran from the Utah–Colorado border to the Montana Territory border, the 96 Chinese "laborers" living there were miners; there were no other occupations listed for the Chinese nor were there any Chinese females. ^ a b c d e f g Gardner, Wyoming and the Chinese ^ a b c Historic Wyoming Census (1870–1990) ^ Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882. ^ The New York Times, "Labor Meeting at Buffalo". ^ a b Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic , pg 310. ^ a b c Stone, "The Knights of Labor on the Chinese Labor Situation", pg 1. ^ The New York Times , "The Rock Springs Massacre", pg 1. ^ The New York Times, "The Chinese Must Leave". ^ Max, "Not the Chinese, but the Land-Thieves", pg 4. ^ Shewin, "Observations on the Chinese Laborer", pg 91. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "History Matters", To This We Dissented ^ a b c d e f Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy. ^ Thomas, David G., Chinese Riot by David G. Thomas as Told to His Daughter, Mrs. J. H. Goodnough , Sweetwater County Historical Museum Archives ^ a b c d Courtwright, Violent Land , pp 157–8. ^ a b c d Grant, History of Seattle, Washington ^ See also hunting trophy . ^ a b Chollak, Mark " The Rock Springs Massacre – September 2, 1885 " (lecture outline), History 1251: History of Wyoming, University of Wyoming , Spring 2006, Retrieved May 6, 2007. ^ Lyman, Stanford Morris. " The Rock Springs Riot: A Moment in Exclusion's Proactive History ," Roads to Dystopia: Sociological Essays on the Postmodern Condition , ( Google Books ), University of Arkansas Press, 2001, pp 132–34, ( ISBN 1557287112 ), Retrieved May 6, 2007. ^ a b c d e Pletcher, The Diplomacy of Involvement , pp 148–49. ^ All names came from the following source. "History Matters: A U.S. Survey Course on the Web," To This We Dissented: The Rock Springs Riot , George Mason University , accessed November 19, 2011 ^ a b c Rock Springs Independent , "The return!" ^ a b The New York Times, "The Rock Springs Massacre", pg 3. ^ The New York Times, "Anti Chinese Sentiment". ^ a b c d e Waley-Cohen, The Sextants of Beijing , pp 176–77. ^ Bayard, Letter from Bayard to Cheng Tsao Ju ^ Tucker, "Limitations on the treaty-making power under the Constitution of the United States", pp 271–3. ^ Fontes and Fontes, Wyoming , pg 14. ^ The U.S. National Archives holds dozens of letters to the Department of the Interior concerning Warren as governor of Wyoming that were written following the massacre. Many letters supported him, including one from UP President Charles Francis Adams, Jr. , but there were many letters from political enemies which depicted him as "so deeply involved in business that he could not properly attend to the duties of his position." In the end, letters from two Wyoming lawyers charged that Warren illegally used federal funds when he appointed business associates to political positions. They also charged that he used his position to further his business interests in Wyoming. Warren nearly resigned his office as early as March 1886 but rescinded his resignation before it reached President Cleveland, who suspended him as governor on November 5, 1886 and appointed George W. Baxter to the position. See Jackson, "The Governorship of Wyoming, 1885-1889". ^ The New York Times, "Mob law in Wyoming". ^ The New York Times , "Protection of the Chinese". ^ a b "The Massacre in Wyoming." The Chautauquan: A Weekly Newsmagazine . November 1885, pg 113. ^ "Missionary News", Baptist Missionary Magazine , May 1887, no. 67, pg 144. ^ Before 1934, the State of the Union was usually given before the New Year, and between 1801 and 1912 the message was presented as a lengthy, written report to the U.S. Congress. See Peters, "State of the Union Messages" ^ The New York Times , "The Message to Congress". ^ Long, "Tacoma expels the entire Chinese community on November 3, 1885" ^ Long, "White and Indian hop pickers attack Chinese". ^ The New York Times , "The Chinese In Augusta" ^ "The Chinese Massacre", The National Police Gazette , September 19, 1885, No. 418, pg 2. ^ a b c d e Chan, Incident at Bitter Creek . ^ a b c d Daniels, Incident at Bitter Creek , pp. 144–45. ^ a b c Armentrout Ma, Incident at Bitter Creek . ^ Hardaway, Incident at Bitter Creek ^ Roger Daniels, a scholar of Chinese immigration in his own right, criticized Storti's work; Daniels asserted that Storti believed the massacre was the "failure of the Chinese to become integrated into American culture ". (See Hane, Asian America ) Storti responded to the review in a letter, stating, in part, "Mr. Daniels' numerous inaccurate statements rival those he claims to have found in my text." (See Storti and Daniels, Communication – Letter from Storti.) ^ This church was named after the Saints Cyril and Methodius and is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cheyenne . ^ National Register Information System [ dead link ] , National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service . Retrieved May 7, 2007. References Armentrout Ma, L. Eve. Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre – Craig Storti , ( Book review via JSTOR ), The Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 50, No. 4, November 1991, pp. 922–23. Retrieved May 5, 2007. Bayard, Thomas F. , Letter from Bayard to Cheng Tsao Ju, February 18, 1886, Microfilm M99, Notes to Foreign Legations in the United States from the Department of State, 1834–1906, China, National Archives Annex, College Park, Md. Camp Pilot Butte ," National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, Diocese of Cheyenne . Retrieved April 29, 2007. Chan, Loren B. Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre – Craig Storti ," ( Book review via JSTOR ), The Journal of American History , Vol. 78, No. 4, March 1992, pp. 1463–64. Retrieved May 5, 2007. Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 , Text of Act, Mount Holyoke College . Retrieved March 12, 2007. Courtwright, David T. Violent Land: Single Men and the Social Disorder from the Frontier to the Inner City , ( Google Books ), Harvard University Press, 1998 ( ISBN 0674278712 ). Retrieved May 7, 2007. Daniels, Roger. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States Since 1850 , ( Google Books ), University of Washington Press, 1990 ( ISBN 0295970189 ). Retrieved April 30, 2007. Daniels, Roger. " Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Massacre – Craig Storti; Rock Springs Massacre ," ( Book review via JSTOR ), The Pacific Historical Review , Vol. 61, No. 1, February 1992. Retrieved May 4, 2007. Hane, Mikiso. " Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States Since 1850 – Roger Daniels ," ( Book review via JSTOR ), The Western Historical Quarterly , Vol. 21, No. 2. May, 1990, pp. 219–20. Retrieved May 8, 2007. Fontes, Justin and Fontes, Ron. Wyoming: Wyoming, the Equality State , ( Google Books ), Gareth Stevens, 2003 ( ISBN 0836853350 ). Retrieved May 8, 2007. Gardner, A. Dudley. Wyoming and the Chinese , "Wyoming History," Western Wyoming Community College. Retrieved March 12, 2007 Grant, Frederic James. History of Seattle, Washington , ( Google Books ), American Publishing and Engraving Co., 1891. Retrieved April 29, 2007. Hardaway, Roger D. Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre – Craig Storti ," ( Book review via JSTOR ), The Western Historical Quarterly , Vol. 23, No. 1, February 1992, pp. 102–3. Retrieved May 5, 2007. Healy, Patrick Joseph and Ng, Poon Chew." A Statement for Non-Exclusion ," ( Google Books ), 1905, pg. 238–39. Retrieved May 2, 2007. "History Matters: A U.S. Survey Course on the Web," To This We Dissented: The Rock Springs Riot , George Mason University . Retrieved March 12, 2007. History of Washington State & the Pacific Northwest, " Lesson Fifteen: Industrialization, Class, and Race: Chinese and the Anti-Chinese Movement in the Late 19th-Century Northwest ," Center for Study of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington . Retrieved March 12, 2007. Jackson, W. Turrentine. " The Governorship of Wyoming, 1885-1889: A Study in Territorial Politics ," ( JSTOR ), The Pacific Historical Review , Vol. 13, No. 1, March 1944, pp. 1–11. Retrieved May 7, 2007. Larson, Taft Alfred. History of Wyoming , ( Google Books ), University of Nebraska Press, 1990 ( ISBN 0803279361 ). Retrieved April 30, 2007. Long, Priscilla. " Tacoma expels the entire Chinese community on November 3, 1885 ," The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History , January 17, 2003. Retrieved March 12, 2007. Long, Priscilla. " White and Indian hop pickers attack Chinese ," The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History , published by: History Ink, July 1, 2000. Retrieved March 12, 2007. Max, "Not the Chinese, but the Land-Thieves," Liberty (Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order) , March 17, 1883 The New York Times. " Anti Chinese Sentiment ," ( ProQuest ), October 8, 1885, pg. 1. Retrieved May 2, 2007. The New York Times. " The Chinese In Augusta ," ( ProQuest ), October 28, 1885, pg. 2. Retrieved May 2, 2007. The New York Times. " The Chinese Must Leave ," ( ProQuest ), September 29, 1885, pg. 1. Retrieved May 2, 2007. The New York Times. " Labor Meeting at Buffalo—Opposition to the Introduction of Chinese ," ( ProQuest ), November 3, 1870, pg. 1. Retrieved May 2, 2007. The New York Times. " The Message to Congress ," ( ProQuest ), (December 9, 1885, pg. 4. Retrieved March 12, 2007. The New York Times. " Mob law in Wyoming ," ( ProQuest ), September 19, 1885, pg. 4. Retrieved April 30, 2007. The New York Times. " Protection of the Chinese ," ( ProQuest ), November 10, 1885, pg. 4. Retrieved May 2, 2007. The New York Times. " The Rock Springs Massacre ," ( ProQuest ), September 26, 1885, Retrieved May 2, 2007. Peters, Gerhard. " State of the Union Messages ," The American Presidency Project , University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved March 12, 2007. Pletcher, David M. The Diplomacy of Involvement: American Economic Expansion Across the Pacific, 1784–1900 , ( Google Books ), 2001, University of Missouri Press ( ISBN 0826213154 ). Retrieved May 3, 2007. Rock Springs Independent , The return! , ( Editorial ), September 3, 1885, via George Mason University, "History Matters." Retrieved March 12, 2007. Saxton, Alexander. The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California , ( Google Books ), University of California Press, 1971, ( ISBN 0520029054 ). Retrieved April 30, 2007. Saxton, Alexander and Roediger, David R. (Contributor). The Rise and Fall of the White Republic , ( Google Books ), Verso, 2003 ( ISBN 1859844677 ). Retrieved May 7, 2007. "Seward's 'Chinese Immigration'," Scribner's Monthly , April, 1881, no. 6. Shewin, H. "Observations on the Chinese Laborer," Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine , January 1886, no. 37. Stone, W.W. "The Knights of Labor on the Chinese Labor Situation," Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine , March 1886, no.39. Storti, Craig and Daniels, Roger. " Communication – Letter from Storti " The Pacific Historical Review , Vol. 61, No. 4, November 1992, pp. 594–95. Retrieved May 4, 2007. Tucker, Henry St. George. " Limitations on the treaty-making power under the Constitution of the United States ," ( Google Books ), Little, Brown, and Company, 1915. Retrieved May 3, 2007. Tucker, J.R., " Race Progress in the United States ," The North American Review , February, 1884, no. 327. U.S. Census Bureau. Historic Wyoming Census , ( PDF ), (1870–1990), "Wyoming Race and Hispanic Origin – 1870–1990," [1] Retrieved March 12, 2007. Waley-Cohen, Joanna. The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History , ( Google Books ), W.W. Norton & Company, 1999 ( ISBN 0393320510 ). Retrieved April 30, 2007. Wu, Jean Yu-Wen Shen and Song, Min, eds. Asian American Studies , ( Google Books ), Rutgers University Press, New Jersey: 2000, pp. 51–52, 64, 367. ( ISBN 0813527260 ). Further reading The Chinese Massacre at Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, September 2, 1885, Boston: Franklin Press – Rand Avery and Co., 1886. Carroll, Murray L. "Governor Francis E. Warren, The United States Army and the Chinese Massacre at Rock Springs," Annals of Wyoming , 1987, Vol. 59 No. 2, pp. 16–27, (ISSN 0003-4991). Crane, Paul and Larson Alfred. "The Chinese Massacre," Annals of Wyoming , XII:1, January, 1940, pp. 47–55. Reprinted in Daniels Rogers, ed., Anti-Chinese Violence in North America , op. cit.; and Storti, Craig, Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre . Daniels, Roger, ed. Anti-Chinese Violence in North America: An Original Anthology , Arno Press, New York: 1979. ( ISBN 0405112637 ). Hata, Nadine I. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 . Roger Daniels ," ( Book review ) via ( JSTOR ), The Journal of American History , Vol. 77, No. 1, June 1990, pp. 304–5. Retrieved May 2, 2007. Laurie, Clayton D. "Civil Disorder and the Military in Rock Springs, Wyoming: The Army's Role in the 1885 Chinese Massacre," Montana , 1990, Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 44–59 (ISSN 0026-9891). McClellan, Robert F. " The Indispensable Enemy . Alexander Saxton ," ( Book review ) via ( JSTOR ), The Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 31, No. 1, November 1971, p. 176. Retrieved May 2, 2007. Storti, Craig. Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre , Iowa State Press, First edition: 1990, ( ISBN 0813814030 ), ( ISBN 9780813814032 ). Wei, William, Hom, Marlon K, et al., eds. "The Anti-Chinese Movement in Colorado: Interethnic Competition and Conflict on the Eve of Exclusion", Chinese America: History and Perspectives , 1995, San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1995, pp. 179–97. ( ISBN 0961419814 ). Yep, Laurence. True Heroes , ( Ebsco Host), Academic Search Premier, Horn Book Magazine , November/December 2002, Vol. 78, Issue 6, (ISSN 00185078). Retrieved April 30, 2007. External links Chinese accounts of killings at Rock Springs (1885) , ( PDF ): University of Colorado Rock Springs, Wyoming: official site v t e Chinese American topics Related groups Chinese American · American-born Chinese · Taiwanese American · Asian American · Hyphenated American History Chinese American history · Chinese immigration to Hawaii · Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico · Legal history of Chinese Americans Anti-Chinese discrimination Legislation: Anti-Chinese legislation · Anti-Coolie Act · Chinese Exclusion Act · Geary Act · Immigration Act of 1924 · Cable Act · Magnuson Act · Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 — Events: Chinese massacre of 1871 · Tape v. Hurley (1884) · Issaquah riot of 1885 · Rock Springs massacre (1885) · Tacoma riot of 1885 (1885) · Seattle riot of 1886 · Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886) · Chinese Massacre Cove (1887) · United States v. 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Museum · Wo Hing Museum Organizations List of Chinese American associations · Chinese American Citizens Alliance · Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association · Chinese Historical Society of Southern California · Chinese Society Halls on Maui · Ying On Association · Chinese Staff and Workers' Association · Chinese for Affirmative Action · Committee of 100 · Organization of Chinese Americans · Bing Kong Tong · Hip Sing Association Banks Cathay Bank · United International Bank · Global Commerce Bank · East West Bank · Others Lists List of Chinese Americans · List of U.S. cities with significant Chinese American populations v t e Major Armed Conflicts in American Labor Union History 19th Century Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Rock Springs massacre , 1885 Bay View Massacre , 1886 Haymarket affair , 1886 Thibodaux massacre , 1887 Homestead Strike , 1892 Coeur d'Alene, Idaho labor strike of 1892 Pullman Strike , 1894 Streetcar strikes in the United States , 1895–1929 Lattimer massacre , 1897 Battle of Virden , 1898 20th Century Streetcar strikes in the United States , 1895–1929 Colorado Labor Wars , 1903–1904 1905 Chicago Teamsters' strike Pressed Steel Car Strike of 1909 Westmoreland County Coal Strike of 1910–1911 Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike of 1912 Ludlow Massacre , 1914 Everett massacre , 1916 Bisbee Deportation , 1917 1920 Alabama coal strike Battle of Matewan , 1920 Battle of Blair Mountain , 1921 Herrin massacre , 1922 Columbine Mine massacre , 1927 Auto-Lite strike , 1934 1934 West Coast waterfront strike Memorial Day massacre of 1937 Portal:Organized Labour
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+Sei whale [ 1 ] A sei whale feeding at the surface. Size compared to an average human Conservation status Endangered ( IUCN 3.1 ) [ 2 ] Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Family: Balaenopteridae Genus: Balaenoptera Species: B. borealis Binomial name Balaenoptera borealis Lesson , 1828 Sei whale range Synonyms Balaena rostrata Rudolphi, 1822 Balaenoptera laticeps Gray , 1846 Sibbaldius laticeps Flower , 1864 Physalus laticeps Flower, 1864 Rudolphius laticeps Gray, 1868 The sei whale ( / ˈ s eɪ / or / ˈ s aɪ / ), Balaenoptera borealis, is a baleen whale , the third-largest rorqual after the blue whale and the fin whale . [ 3 ] It inhabits most oceans and adjoining seas, and prefers deep offshore waters. [ 4 ] It avoids polar and tropical waters and semi-enclosed bodies of water. The sei whale migrates annually from cool and subpolar waters in summer to winter in temperate and subtropical waters. [ 5 ] Reaching 20 metres (66 ft) long and weighing as much as 28 tonnes (28 long tons; 31 short tons), [ 5 ] the sei whale daily consumes an average of 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) of food, primarily copepods , krill , and other zooplankton . [ 6 ] It is among the fastest of all cetaceans , and can reach speeds of up to 50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) (27 knots ) over short distances. [ 6 ] The whale's name comes from the Norwegian word for pollock , a fish that appears off the coast of Norway at the same time of the year as the sei whale. [ 7 ] Following large-scale commercial whaling during the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when over 255,000 whales were taken, [ 8 ] [ 9 ] the sei whale is now internationally protected, [ 2 ] although limited hunting occurs under controversial research programmes conducted by Iceland and Japan . [ 10 ] [ 11 ] As of 2008, its worldwide population was about 80,000, nearly a third of its pre-whaling population. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Contents 1 Etymology 2 Taxonomy 3 Description 4 Anatomy 5 Life history 5.1 Feeding 5.2 Reproduction 5.3 Vocalizations 6 Range and migration 6.1 Migration 7 Whaling 7.1 North Atlantic 7.2 North Pacific 7.3 Southern Hemisphere 7.4 Post-protection whaling 8 Conservation status 9 Population estimates 10 See also 11 References 11.1 General references 12 Further reading 13 External links Etymology The species was first officially described by French naturalist René Primevère Lesson in 1828, but an earlier description was given by Karl Rudolphi in 1822 (although he assumed it was a minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata ), leading to occasional references to sei whales as Rudolphi's rorqual . [ 14 ] Additional names include pollack whale , coalfish whale , sardine whale , or Japan finner . [ 15 ] Additionally, it has been referred to as the lesser fin whale because it somewhat resembles the fin whale. [ 14 ] The American naturalist Roy Chapman Andrews compared the sei whale to the cheetah , because it can swim at great speeds "for a few hundred yards", but it "soon tires if the chase is long" and "does not have the strength and staying power of its larger relatives". [ 16 ] Sei is the Norwegian word for pollock , also referred to as coalfish, a close relative of codfish. Sei whales appeared off the coast of Norway at the same time as the pollock, both coming to feed on the abundant plankton . [ 7 ] The specific name is the Latin word borealis , meaning northern. In the Pacific, the whale has been called the Japan finner; "finner" was a common term used to refer to rorquals. In Japanese, the whale was called iwashi kujira , or sardine whale, named for a fish that the whale has been observed to eat in the Pacific. [ 17 ] Taxonomy The sei was classified as Balaena rostraia , Balaena borealis , Bataenoptera laticeps , and Eulama physalus , among others, before Lesson's alternative Balaenoptera borealis was formalized. [ 14 ] Sei whales are rorquals (family Balaenopteridae), baleens that includes the humpback whale , the blue whale , the Bryde's whale , the fin whale , and the minke whale . Rorquals take their name from the Norwegian word røyrkval , meaning "furrow whale", [ 18 ] because family members have a series of longitudinal pleats or grooves below the mouth that continue along the body's underside. Balaenopteridae diverged from the other families of suborder Mysticeti , also called the whalebone whales or great whales, as long ago as the middle Miocene . [ 19 ] However, little is known about when members of the various families in the Mysticeti, including the Balaenopteridae, diverged from each other. Two subspecies have been identified—the northern sei whale ( Balaenoptera borealis borealis ) and southern sei whale ( Balaenoptera borealis schlegelii ). [ 20 ] Their ranges do not overlap. Description The sei whale is the third-largest Balaenopteridae, after the blue whale (up to 180 tonnes, 200 tons) and the fin whale (up to 70 tonnes, 77 tons). [ 3 ] Mature adults typically measure between 12–15 meters (39–49 ft) [ 6 ] and weigh 20–30 tonnes (20–30 long tons; 22–33 short tons). The southern sei whale is larger than the northern. Females are considerably larger than males. [ 5 ] The largest known sei whale measured 20 meters (66 ft), [ 6 ] and weighed between 40–45 tonnes (39–44 long tons; 44–50 short tons). The largest specimens taken off Iceland were slightly longer than 16 meters (52 ft). [ 21 ] At birth, a calf typically measures 4–5 meters (13–16 ft) in length. [ 6 ] Anatomy The whale's body is typically a dark steel grey with irregular light grey to white markings on the ventral surface, or towards the front of the lower body. The whale has a series of 32–60 pleats or grooves along the bottom of the body that allow the throat area to expand greatly during feeding. The rostrum is pointed and the pectoral fins are relatively short, only 9%–10% of body length, and pointed at the tips. [ 7 ] It has a single ridge extending from the tip of the rostrum to the paired blowholes that are a distinctive characteristic of baleen whales. The whale's skin is often marked by pits or wounds, which after healing become white scars. These are believed to be caused by ectoparasitic copepods ( Penella spp.), [ 22 ] lampreys (family Petromyzontidae), [ 23 ] or possibly "cookie-cutter" sharks ( Isistius brasiliensis ). [ 24 ] It has a tall, sickle -shaped dorsal fin that ranges in height from 25–61 centimeters (9.8–24 in), about two-thirds of the way back from the tip of the rostrum. Dorsal fin shape, pigmentation pattern, and scarring have been used to a limited extent in photo-identification studies. [ 25 ] The tail is thick and the fluke , or lobe, is relatively small in relation to the size of the whale's body. [ 7 ] A close-up view of baleen plates. The plates are used to strain food from the water Adults have 300–380 ashy-black baleen plates on each side of the mouth, each about 48 centimeters (19 in) long. Each plate is made of fingernail -like keratin that frays out into whitish fine hairs on the ends inside the mouth near the tongue . [ 6 ] The sei's very fine baleen bristles, about 0.1 millimetres (0.004 in) are the most reliable characteristic that distinguishes it from other baleen whales. [ 26 ] The sei whale looks similar to other large baleen whales. The best way to distinguish between it and Bryde's whale , apart from differences in baleen plates, is by the presence of lateral ridges on the dorsal surface of the Bryde's whale's rostrum. Large individuals can be confused with fin whales , unless the fin whale's asymmetrical head coloration is clearly seen. The fin whale's lower jaw's right side is white, and the left side is grey. When viewed from the side, the upper edge of the sei's head has a small arch between the tip of the rostrum and eye, while the fin whale's profile is relatively flat. [ 5 ] Life history Sei whales usually travel alone [ 27 ] or in groups of up to six individuals. [ 25 ] Larger groups may assemble at particularly abundant feeding grounds. Very little is known about their social structure . Males and females may bond, but this is uncertain. [ 3 ] [ 28 ] The sei whale is among the fastest cetaceans . It can reach speeds of up to 50 kilometres per hour (27 kn) over short distances. [ 6 ] However, it is not a remarkable diver, reaching relatively shallow depths for five to fifteen minutes. Between dives, the whale surfaces for a few minutes, remaining visible in clear, calm waters, with blows occurring at intervals of about 40–60 seconds. Unlike the fin whale, the sei whale tends not to rise high out of the water as it dives. The blowholes and dorsal fin are often exposed above the water surface simultaneously. The whale almost never extends its flukes above the surface, and it rarely breaches . [ 5 ] Feeding Krill , shrimp-like marine invertebrate animals, are one of the sei whale's primary foods. This rorqual is a filter feeder , using its baleen plates to obtain its food by opening its mouth, engulfing large amounts of the water containing the food, then straining the water out through the baleen , trapping any food items inside its mouth. The sei whale feeds near the surface of the ocean, swimming on its side through swarms of prey to obtain its average of about 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) of food each day. [ 6 ] For an animal of its size, for the most part, its preferred foods lie unusually relatively low in the food chain , including zooplankton and small fish. The whale's diet preferences has been determined from stomach analyses, direct observation of feeding behavior., [ 29 ] [ 30 ] and analyzing fecal matter collected near them, which appears as a dilute brown cloud. The feces are collected in nets and DNA is separated, individually identified, and matched with known species. [ 31 ] The whale competes for food against clupeid fish ( herring and its relatives), basking sharks , and right whales . In the North Atlantic , it feeds primarily on calanoid copepods , specifically Calanus finmarchicus , with a secondary preference for euphausiids , in particular Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa inermis . [ 32 ] [ 33 ] In the North Pacific , it feeds on similar zooplankton, including the copepod species Neocalanus cristatus , Neocalanus plumchrus , and Calanus pacificus , and euphausid species Euphausia pacifica , Thysanoessa inermis , Thysanoessa longipes , and Thysanoessa spinifera . In addition, it eats larger organisms, such as the Japanese flying squid , Todarodes pacificus pacificus , [ 34 ] and small fish, including members of the Engraulis (anchovies), Cololabis (sauries), Sardinops (pilchards), and Trachurus (jack mackerels) genera. [ 32 ] [ 35 ] Some of these fish are commercially important. Off central California , the whale may feed on anchovies between June and August, and on krill ( Euphausia pacifica ) during September and October. [ 23 ] In the Southern Hemisphere, prey species include the copepods Neocalanus tonsus , Calanus simillimus , and Drepanopus pectinatus , as well as the euphausids Euphausia superba and Euphausia vallentini . [ 32 ] Reproduction Mating occurs in temperate , subtropical seas during the winter. Gestation is estimated to vary around 10 3 ⁄ 4 months, [ 36 ] 11 1 ⁄ 4 months, [ 37 ] or one year, [ 38 ] depending which model of foetal growth is used. The different estimates result from scientists' inability to observe an entire pregnancy; most reproductive data for baleen whales were obtained from animals caught by commercial whalers, which offers only a single snapshot of fetal growth. Researchers attempt to extrapolate conception dates by comparing fetus size and characteristics with newborns. A newborn is weaned from its mother at 6–9 months of age, when it is 11–12 meters (36–39 ft) long, [ 36 ] so weaning takes place at the summer or autumn feeding grounds. Females reproduce every 2–3 years, [ 36 ] with as many as six fetuses reported, but single births are far more common. [ 6 ] The average age of sexual maturity of both sexes is 8–10 years, [ 36 ] at a length of around 12 meters (39 ft) for males and 13 meters (43 ft) for females. [ 7 ] The whales can reach ages of up to 65 years. [ 39 ] Vocalizations See also: Whale sounds The sei whale makes long, loud, low-frequency sounds. Relatively little is known about specific calls, but in 2003, observers noted sei whale calls in addition to sounds that could be described as "growls" or "whooshes" off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula . [ 40 ] Many calls consisted of multiple parts at different frequencies. This combination distinguishes the their calls from those of other whales. Most calls lasted about a half second, and occurred in the 240–625 hertz range, well within the range of human hearing. The maximum volume of the vocal sequences is reported as 156 decibels relative to 1 micropascal (μPa) at a reference distance of one meter. [ 40 ] An observer situated one meter from a vocalizing whale would perceive a volume roughly equivalent to the volume of a jackhammer operating two meters away. [ 41 ] Range and migration Drawing of a sei whale on a Faroese stamp, issued 17 September 2001 Sei whales live in all oceans, although rarely in polar or tropical waters. [ 5 ] The difficulty of distinguishing them at sea from their close relatives, Bryde's whales and in some cases from fin whales, creates confusion about their range and population, especially in warmer waters where Bryde's whales are most common. In the North Atlantic, its range extends from southern Europe or northwestern Africa to Norway , and from the southern United States to Greenland . [ 4 ] The southernmost confirmed records are strandings along the northern Gulf of Mexico and in the Greater Antilles . [ 26 ] Throughout its range, the whale tends to avoid semi-enclosed bodies of water, such as the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence , Hudson Bay , the North Sea , and the Mediterranean Sea . [ 5 ] It occurs predominantly in deep water, occurring most commonly over the continental slope , [ 42 ] in basins situated between banks, [ 43 ] or submarine canyon areas. [ 44 ] In the North Pacific, it ranges from 20°N to 23°N latitude in the winter, and from 35°N to 50°N latitude in the summer. [ 45 ] Approximately 75% of the North Pacific population lives east of the International Date Line , [ 8 ] but there is little information regarding the North Pacific distribution. Two whales tagged in deep waters off California were later recaptured off Washington and British Columbia , revealing a possible link between these areas, [ 46 ] but the lack of other tag recovery data makes these two cases inconclusive. In the Southern Hemisphere , summer distribution based upon historic catch data is between 40°S and 50°S latitude, while winter distribution is unknown. [ 32 ] Migration In general, the sei whale migrates annually from cool and subpolar waters in summer to temperate and subtropical waters for winter, where food is more abundant. [ 5 ] In the northwest Atlantic, sightings and catch records suggest the whales move north along the shelf edge to arrive in the areas of Georges Bank , Northeast Channel , and Browns Bank by mid to late June. They are present off the south coast of Newfoundland in August and September, and a southbound migration begins moving west and south along the Nova Scotian shelf from mid-September to mid-November. Whales in the Labrador Sea as early as the first week of June may move farther northward to waters southwest of Greenland later in the summer. [ 47 ] In the northeast Atlantic, the sei whale winters as far south as West Africa , and follows the continental slope northward in spring. Large females lead the northward migration and reach the Denmark Strait earlier and more reliably than other sexes and classes, arriving in mid-July and remaining through mid-September. In some years, males and younger females remain at lower latitudes during the summer months. [ 21 ] Despite knowing some general migration patterns, exact routes are not known [ 21 ] and scientists cannot readily predict exactly where groups will appear from one year to the next. [ 48 ] F.O. Kapel noted a correlation between appearances west of Greenland and the incursion of relatively warm waters from the Irminger Current into that area. [ 49 ] Some evidence from tagging data indicates individuals return off the coast of Iceland on an annual basis. [ 50 ] Whaling Main articles: Whaling and History of whaling Photo of harpoon in anchored harpoon gun The development of explosive harpoons and steam-powered whaling ships in the late nineteenth century brought previously unobtainable large whales within reach of commercial whalers . Initially their speed and elusiveness, [ 51 ] and later the comparatively small yield of oil and meat partially protected them. Once stocks of more profitable right whales , blue whales, fin whales, and humpback whales became depleted, sei whales were hunted in earnest, particularly from 1950 to 1980. [ 3 ] North Atlantic In the North Atlantic between 1885 and 1984, 14,295 sei whales were taken. [ 8 ] They were hunted in large numbers off the coast of Norway and Scotland beginning in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, [ 48 ] and in 1885 alone, more than 700 were caught off Finnmark, Norway . [ 52 ] Their meat was a popular Norwegian food. The meat's value made the hunting of this difficult-to-catch species profitable in the early twentieth century. [ 53 ] In Iceland, a total of 2,574 whales were taken from the Hvalfjörður whaling station between 1948 and 1985. Since the late 1960s to early 1970s, the sei whale has been second only to the fin whale as the preferred target of Icelandic whalers, with meat in greater demand than whale oil , the prior target. [ 51 ] Small numbers were taken off the Iberian Peninsula , beginning in the 1920s by Spanish whalers, [ 54 ] off the Nova Scotian shelf in the late 1960s and early 1970s by Canadian whalers, [ 47 ] and off the coast of West Greenland from the 1920s to the 1950s by Norwegian and Danish whalers. [ 49 ] North Pacific In the North Pacific, the total reported catch by commercial whalers was 72,215 between 1910 and 1975; [ 8 ] the majority were taken after 1947. [ 55 ] Shore stations in Japan and Korea , processed 300–600 each year between 1911 and 1955. In 1959, the Japanese catch peaked at 1,340. Heavy exploitation in the North Pacific began in the early 1960s, with catches averaging 3,643 per year from 1963 to 1974 (total 43,719; annual range 1,280–6,053). [ 56 ] In 1971, after a decade of high catches, it became scarce in Japanese waters, ending commercial whaling in 1975. [ 32 ] [ 57 ] Off the coast of North America , sei whales were hunted off British Columbia from the late 1950s to the mid 1960s, when the number of whales captured dropped to around 14 per year. [ 3 ] More than 2,000 were caught in British Columbia waters between 1962 and 1967. [ 58 ] Between 1957 and 1971, California shore stations processed 386 whales. [ 23 ] Commercial Sei whaling ended in the eastern North Pacific in 1971. Southern Hemisphere A total of 152,233 were taken in the Southern Hemisphere between 1910 and 1979. [ 8 ] Whaling in southern oceans originally targeted humpback whales. By 1913, this species became rare, and the catch of fin and blue whales began to increase. As these species likewise became scarce, sei whale catches increased rapidly in the late 1950s and early 1960s. [ 32 ] The catch peaked in 1964-65 at over 20,000 sei whales, but by 1976, this number had dropped to below 2,000 and commercial whaling for the species ended in 1977. [ 3 ] Post-protection whaling Since the moratorium on commercial whaling, some sei whales have been taken by Icelandic and Japanese whalers under the IWC's scientific research programme. Iceland carried out four years of scientific whaling between 1986 and 1989, killing up to 40 sei whales a year. [ 59 ] Japanese scientists catch about 50 sei whales each year for this purpose. The research is conducted by the Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR) in Tokyo , a privately-funded, nonprofit institution. The main focus of the research is to examine what they eat and to assess the competition between whales and fisheries. Dr. Seiji Ohsumi, Director General of the ICR, said, "It is estimated that whales consume 3 to 5 times the amount of marine resources as are caught for human consumption, so our whale research is providing valuable information required for improving the management of all our marine resources." [ 60 ] He later added, "...Sei whales are the second most abundant species of whale in the western North Pacific, with an estimated population of over 28,000 animals. [It is] clearly not endangered." [ 61 ] Conservation groups, such as the World Wildlife Fund , dispute the value of this research, claiming that sei whales feed primarily on squid and plankton which are not hunted by humans, and only rarely on fish . They say that the program is "nothing more than a plan designed to keep the whaling fleet in business, and the need to use whales as the scapegoat for overfishing by humans." [ 10 ] At the 2001 meeting of the IWC Scientific Committee, 32 scientists submitted a document expressing their belief that the Japanese program lacked scientific rigour and would not meet minimum standards of academic review . [ 62 ] In 2010, a Los Angeles restaurant confirmed to be serving sei whale meat was closed by its owners after prosecution by authorities for handling a protected species. [ 63 ] Conservation status Member states of the International Whaling Commission (in blue) The sei whale did not have meaningful international protection until 1970, when the International Whaling Commission (IWC) first set catch quotas for the North Pacific for individual species. Before quotas, there were no legal limits. [ 64 ] Complete protection from commercial whaling in the North Pacific came in 1976. Quotas on sei whales in the North Atlantic began in 1977. Southern Hemisphere stocks were protected in 1979. Facing mounting evidence that several whale species were threatened with extinction, the IWC established a complete moratorium on commercial whaling beginning in 1986. [ 5 ] In the late 1970s, some "pirate" whaling took place in the eastern North Atlantic. [ 65 ] There is no direct evidence of illegal whaling in the North Pacific, although the acknowledged misreporting of whaling data by the Soviet Union [ 66 ] means that catch data are not entirely reliable. The species remained listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2000, categorized as "endangered". [ 2 ] Northern Hemisphere populations are listed as CITES Appendix II, indicating they are not immediately threatened with extinction, but may become so if they are not listed. Populations in the Southern Hemisphere are listed as CITES Appendix I, indicating they are threatened with extinction if trade is not halted. [ 6 ] The Sei whale is listed on both Appendix I [ 67 ] and Appendix II [ 67 ] of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals ( CMS ). It is listed on Appendix I [ 67 ] as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range and CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them and also on Appendix II [ 67 ] as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements. Sei whale is covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region ( Pacific Cetaceans MOU )and the Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas( ACCOBAMS ) The species is listed as endangered by the U.S. government National Marine Fisheries Service under the U.S. Endangered Species Act . Population estimates The current population is estimated at 80,000, nearly a third of the pre-whaling population. [ 7 ] [ 12 ] A 1991 study in the North Atlantic estimated only 4,000. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] Sei whales were said to have been scarce in the 1960s and early 1970s off northern Norway . [ 70 ] One possible explanation for this disappearance is that the whales were overexploited . [ 70 ] The drastic reduction in northeastern Atlantic copepod stocks during the late 1960s may be another culprit. [ 71 ] Surveys in the Denmark Strait found 1,290 whales in 1987, and 1,590 whales in 1989. [ 71 ] Nova Scotia 's population estimates are between 1,393 and 2,248, with a minimum of 870. [ 47 ] A 1977 study estimated Pacific Ocean totals of 9,110, based upon catch and CPUE data. [ 56 ] Japanese interests claim this figure is outdated, and in 2002 claimed the western North Pacific population was over 28,000, [ 61 ] a figure not accepted by the scientific community. [ 10 ] In California waters, there was only one confirmed and five possible sightings by 1991 to 1993 aerial and ship surveys, [ 72 ] [ 73 ] [ 73 ] [ 74 ] and there were no confirmed sightings off Oregon and Washington . Prior to commercial whaling, the North Pacific hosted an estimated 42,000. [ 56 ] By the end of whaling, the population was down to between 7,260 and 12,620. [ 56 ] In the Southern Hemisphere , population estimates range between 9,800 and 12,000, based upon catch history and CPUE. 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Kuhlberg, and P.J. Clapham (1992). "Behavior of individually identified sei whales Balaenoptera borealis during an episodic influx into the southern Gulf of Maine in 1986" . Fish. Bull. 90 : 749–755 . https://secure2.nni.com/whalecenter/pdfs/Sei_whales_FishBull92.pdf . ^ a b Mead, J.G. (1977). "Records of sei and Bryde's whales from the Atlantic coast of the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn Spec. Iss. 1 : 113–116. ^ Edds, P.L.; T.J. MacIntyre, and R. Naveen (1984). "Notes on a sei whale ( Balaenoptera borealis Lesson) sighted off Maryland". Cetus 5 (2): 4–5. ^ "The Sei Whale ( Balaenoptera borealis )" (PDF). The Institute for Marine Mammal Studies . http://www.dolphinsrus.com/factsheets/sei.pdf . Retrieved 2006-12-07 . ^ Watkins, W.A.; W.E. Schevill (1979). "Aerial observations of feeding behavior in four baleen whales: Eubalaena glacialis , Balaenoptera borealis , Megaptera novaeangliae , and Balaenoptera physalus ". J. Mamm. 60 (1): 155–163. doi : 10.2307/1379766 . JSTOR 1379766 . ^ Weinrich, M.T.; C.R. Belt, M.R. Schilling, and M. Marcy (1986). "Behavior of sei whales in the southern Gulf of Maine, summer 1986". Whalewatcher 20 (4): 4–7. ^ Darby, A. (February 6, 2002). "New Research Method May Ease Whale Killing" . National Geographic News . http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0206_020206_wirewhales.html . Retrieved 2006-12-19 . ^ a b c d e f Mizroch, S.A.; D.W. Rice and J.M. Breiwick (1984). "The Sei Whale, Balaenoptera borealis ". Mar. Fish. Rev. 46 (4): 25–29. ^ Christensen, I.; T. Haug, and N. Øien (1992). "A review of feeding and reproduction in large baleen whales (Mysticeti) and sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus in Norwegian and adjacent waters". Fauna norvegica Series A 13 : 39–48. ^ Tamura, T. (October 2001) (PDF). Competition for food in the Ocean: Man and other apical predators . Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1–4 October 2001 . ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/document/reykjavik/pdf/09tamura.pdf . Retrieved 2011-12-21 . ^ Nemoto, T.; and A. Kawamura (1977). "Characteristics of food habits and distribution of baleen whales with special reference to the abundance of North Pacific sei and Bryde's whales". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn Spec. Iss. 1 : 80–87. ^ a b c d Lockyer, C.; and A.R. Martin (1983). "The sei whale off western Iceland. II. Age, growth and reproduction". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 33 : 465–476. ^ Lockyer, C. (1977). "Some estimates of growth in the sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis ". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn Spec. Iss. 1 : 58–62. ^ Risting, S (1928). "Whales and whale foetuses". Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer 50 : 1–122. ^ WWF (2007-06-18). "Sei whale - Ecology & Habitat" . WWF Global Species Programme . http://www.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/cetaceans/about/sei_whale/seiwhale_ecology_habitat/ . Retrieved January 19, 2010 . ^ a b McDonald, M.; Hildebrand, J., Wiggins, S., Thiele, D., Glasgow, D., and Moore, S. (December 2005). "Sei whale sounds recorded in the Antarctic" . The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118 (6): 3941–3945. doi : 10.1121/1.2130944 . PMID 16419837 . http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JASMAN000118000006003941000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes . ^ Direct comparisons of sounds in water to sounds in air can be complicated, see this description for more information. ^ CETAP (1982). Final Report of the Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program, University of Rhode Island, to Bureau of Land Management . U.S. Department of the Interior. Ref. No. AA551-CT8–48. ^ Sutcliffe, W.H., Jr.; P.F. Brodie (1977). "Whale distributions in Nova Scotia waters". Fisheries & Marine Service Technical Report No. 722 . ^ Kenney, R.D.; H.E. Winn (1987). "Cetacean biomass densities near submarine canyons compared to adjacent shelf/slope areas". Cont. Shelf Res. 7 : 107–114. doi : 10.1016/0278-4343(87)90073-2 . ^ Masaki, Y. (1976). "Biological studies on the North Pacific sei whale". Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab. 14 : 1–104. ^ Rice, D.W. (1974). "Whales and whale research in the North Pacific". In Schervill, W.E. (ed.). The Whale Problem: a status report . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 170–195. ISBN 0-674-95075-5 . ^ a b c Mitchell, E.; D.G. Chapman (1977). "Preliminary assessment of stocks of northwest Atlantic sei whales ( Balaenoptera borealis )". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn Spec. Iss. 1 : 117–120. ^ a b Jonsgård, Å.; K. Darling (1977). "On the biology of the eastern North Atlantic sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis Lesson". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn Spec. Iss. 1 : 124–129. ^ a b Kapel, F.O. (1985). "On the occurrence of sei whales ( Balenoptera borealis ) in West Greenland waters". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 35 : 349–352. ^ Sigurjónsson, J. (1983). "The cruise of the Ljósfari in the Denmark Strait (June–July 1981) and recent marking and sightings off Iceland". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 33 : 667–682. ^ a b Sigurjónsson, J. (1988). "Operational factors of the Icelandic large whale fishery". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 38 : 327–333. ^ Andrews, R.C. (1916). "The sei whale ( Balaenoptera borealis Lesson)". Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. New Ser. 1 (6): 291–388. ^ Ingebrigtsen, A. (1929). "Whales caught in the North Atlantic and other seas". Rapports et Procès-verbaux des réunions, Cons. Perm. Int. L’Explor. Mer, Vol. LVI . Copenhagen: Høst & Fils. ^ Aguilar, A.; and S. Lens (1981). "Preliminary report on Spanish whaling operations". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 31 : 639–643. ^ Barlow, J., K. A. Forney, P.S. Hill, R.L. Brownell, Jr., J.V. Carretta, D.P. DeMaster, F. Julian, M.S. Lowry, T. Ragen, and R.R. Reeves (1997) (PDF). U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 1996 . NOAA Tech. Mem. NMFS-SWFSC-248 . http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-248.PDF . ^ a b c d Tillman, M.F. (1977). "Estimates of population size for the North Pacific sei whale". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn Spec. Iss. 1 : 98–106. ^ Committee for Whaling Statistics (1942). International whaling statistics . Oslo: Committee for Whaling Statistics. ^ Pike, G.C; and I.B. MacAskie (1969). "Marine mammals of British Columbia". Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull. 171 . ^ "WWF condemns Iceland’s announcement to resume whaling" (Press release). WWF-International. 2003-08-07 . http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/arctic/news/index.cfm?uNewsID=8221 . Retrieved 2006-11-10 . ^ "Japan not catching endangered whales" (PDF) (Press release). The Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo, Japan. 2002-03-01 . http://www.icrwhale.org/eng/SEI.pdf . Retrieved 2006-11-10 . ^ a b "Japan's senior whale scientist responds to New York Times advertisement" (PDF) (Press release). The Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo, Japan. 2002-05-20 . http://www.icrwhale.org/eng/NYTimes.pdf . Retrieved 2006-11-10 . ^ Clapham, P. et al. (2002). "Relevance of JARPN II to management, and a note on scientific standards. Report of the IWC Scientific Committee, Annex Q1". Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4 (supplement): 395–396. ^ "L.A. eatery charged with serving whale meat closes" . Reuters . 2010-03-20 . http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE62J1A420100320 . ^ Allen, K.R. (1980). Conservation and Management of Whales . Seattle, WA: Univ. of Washington Press. ISBN 0295957069 . ^ Best, P.B. (1992). "Catches of fin whales in the North Atlantic by the M.V. Sierra (and associated vessels)". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 42 : 697–700. ^ Yablokov, A.V. (1994). "Validity of whaling data". Nature 367 (6459): 108. doi : 10.1038/367108a0 . ^ a b c d " Appendix I and Appendix II " of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5th March 2009. ^ a b c Braham, H. (1992). Endangered whales: Status update . Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA. ^ Blaylock, R.A., J.W. Haim, L.J. Hansen, D.L. Palka, and G.T. Waring (1995). U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stock assessments . U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo NMFS-SEFSC-363. ^ a b Jonsgård, Å. (1974). "On whale exploitation in the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean". In W.E. Schevill (ed.). The whale problem . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 97–107. ^ a b Cattanach, K.L.; J. Sigurjonsson, S.T. Buckland, and Th. Gunnlaugsson (1993). "Sei whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 43 : 315–321. ^ Hill, P.S. and J. Barlow (1992) (PDF). Report of a marine mammal survey of the California coast aboard the research vessel "MacArthur" July 28 - November 5, 1991. . U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWFSC-169 . http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-169.PDF . ^ a b Carretta, J.V. and K.A. Forney (1993) (PDF). Report of two aerial surveys for marine mammals in California coastal waters utilizing a NOAA DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft: March 9 - April 7, 1991 and February 8 - April 6, 1992 . U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWFSC-185 . http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-185.PDF . ^ Mangels, K.F. and T. Gerrodette (1994) (PDF). Report of cetacean sightings during a marine mammal survey in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California aboard the NOAA ships "MacArthur" and "David Starr Jordan" July 28 - November 6, 1993 . U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWFSC-211 . http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-211.PDF . ^ IWC (1996). "Report of the sub-committee on Southern Hemisphere baleen whales, Annex E". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn 46 : 117–131. General references National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World , Reeves, Stewart, Clapham and Powell, 2002, ISBN 0-375-41141-0 Eds. C.Michael Hogan and C.J.Cleveland. Sei whale . Enclyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and Environment; ccontent partner Encyclopedia of Life Whales & Dolphins Guide to the Biology and Behaviour of Cetaceans , Maurizio Wurtz and Nadia Repetto. ISBN 1-84037-043-2 Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals , editors Perrin, Wursig and Thewissen, ISBN 0-12-551340-2 Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises , Carwardine (1995, reprinted 2000), ISBN 978-0-7513-2781-6 Further reading Oudejans, M. G. and Visser, F. 2010. First confirmed record of a living sei whale ( Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson, 1828)) in Irish coastal waters. Ir Nat. J. 31 : 46 - 48. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Balaenoptera borealis Wikispecies has information related to: Balaenoptera borealis US National Marine Fisheries Service Sei Whale web page ARKive – images and movies of the sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) IUCN Redlist entry World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) - species profile for the Sei Whale Official website of the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area Official webpage of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region v t e Extant Cetacea species Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Eutheria Superorder Laurasiatheria (unranked) Cetartiodactyla (unranked) Whippomorpha Suborder Mysticeti (Baleen whales) Balaenidae Balaena Bowhead whale ( B. mysticetus ) Eubalaena (Right whales) Southern right whale ( E. australis ) North Atlantic right whale ( E. glacialis ) North Pacific right whale ( E. japonica ) Balaenopteridae (Rorquals) Balaenoptera Common minke whale ( B. acutorostrata ) Antarctic minke whale ( B. bonaerensis ) Sei whale ( B. borealis ) Bryde's whale ( B. brydei ) Pygmy Bryde's whale ( B. edeni ) Blue whale ( B. musculus ) Omura's whale ( B. omurai ) Fin whale ( B. physalus ) Megaptera Humpback whale ( M. novaeangliae ) Eschrichtiidae Eschrichtius Gray whale ( E. robustus ) Neobalaenidae Caperea Pygmy right whale ( C. marginata ) Suborder Odontoceti (Toothed whales) (cont. below) Delphinidae (Oceanic dolphins) Cephalorhynchus Commerson's dolphin ( C. commersonii ) Chilean dolphin ( C. eutropia ) Haviside's dolphin ( C. heavisidii ) Hector's dolphin ( C. hectori ) Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin ( D. capensis ) Short-beaked common dolphin ( D. delphis ) Feresa Pygmy killer whale ( F. attenuata ) Globicephala (Pilot whales) Short-finned pilot whale ( G. macrorhynchus ) Long-finned pilot whale ( G. melas ) Grampus Risso's dolphin ( G. griseus ) Lagenodelphis Fraser's dolphin ( L. hosei ) Lagenorhynchus Atlantic white-sided dolphin ( L. acutus ) White-beaked dolphin ( L. albirostris ) Peale's dolphin ( L. australis ) Hourglass dolphin ( L. cruciger ) Pacific white-sided dolphin ( L. obliquidens ) Dusky dolphin ( L. obscurus ) Lissodelphis (Right whale dolphins) Northern right whale dolphin ( L. borealis ) Southern right whale dolphin ( L. peronii ) Orcaella Irrawaddy dolphin ( O. brevirostris ) Australian snubfin dolphin ( O. heinsohni ) Orcinus Killer whale ( O. orca ) Peponocephala Melon-headed whale ( P. electra ) Pseudorca False killer whale ( P. crassidens ) Sotalia Tucuxi ( S. fluviatilis ) Costero ( S. guianensis ) Sousa Pacific humpback dolphin ( S. chinensis ) Indian humpback dolphin ( S. plumbea ) Atlantic humpback dolphin ( S. teuszii ) Stenella Pantropical spotted dolphin ( S. attenuata ) Clymene dolphin ( S. clymene ) Striped dolphin ( S. coeruleoalba ) Atlantic spotted dolphin ( S. frontalis ) Spinner dolphin ( S. longirostris ) Steno Rough-toothed dolphin ( S. bredanensis ) Tursiops Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin ( T. aduncus ) Burrunan dolphin ( T. australis ) Common bottlenose dolphin ( T. truncatus ) Suborder Odontoceti (Toothed whales) (cont. above) Monodontidae Delphinapterus Beluga ( D. leucas ) Monodon Narwhal ( M. monoceros ) Phocoenidae (Porpoises) Neophocaena Finless porpoise ( N. phocaeniodes ) Phocoena Spectacled porpoise ( P. dioptrica ) Harbor porpoise ( P. phocoena ) Vaquita ( P. sinus ) Burmeister's porpoise ( P. spinipinnis ) Phocoenoides Dall's porpoise ( P. dalli ) Physeteridae Physeter Sperm whale ( P. macrocephalus ) Kogiidae Kogia Pygmy sperm whale ( K. breviceps ) Dwarf sperm whale ( K. simus ) Iniidae Inia Amazon river dolphin ( I. geoffrensis ) Lipotidae Lipotes Baiji ( L. vexillifer ) Platanistidae Platanista Ganges and Indus River dolphin ( P. gangetica ) Pontoporiidae Pontoporia La Plata dolphin ( P. blainvillei ) Ziphiidae (Beaked whales) Berardius Arnoux's beaked whale ( B. arnuxii ) Baird's beaked whale ( B. bairdii ) Hyperoodon Northern bottlenose whale ( H. ampullatus ) Southern bottlenose whale ( H. planifrons ) Indopacetus Tropical bottlenose whale ( I. pacificus ) Mesoplodon (Mesoplodont whales) Sowerby's beaked whale ( M. bidens ) Andrews' beaked whale ( M. bowdoini ) Hubbs' beaked whale ( M. carlhubbsi ) Blainville's beaked whale ( M. densirostris ) Gervais' beaked whale ( M. europaeus ) Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale ( M. ginkgodens ) Gray's beaked whale ( M. grayi ) Hector's beaked whale ( M. hectori ) Strap-toothed whale ( M. layardii ) True's beaked whale ( M. mirus ) Perrin's beaked whale ( M. perrini ) Pygmy beaked whale ( M. peruvianus ) Stejneger's beaked whale ( M. stejnegeri ) Spade-toothed whale ( M. traversii ) Tasmacetus Shepherd's beaked whale ( T. sheperdi ) Ziphius Cuvier's beaked whale ( Z. cavirostris )
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+USS Chesapeake (1799)
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+For other ships of the same name, see USS Chesapeake . Career (United States of America) Name: USS Chesapeake Namesake: Chesapeake Bay [ 1 ] Ordered: 27 March 1794 Builder: Josiah Fox Cost: $220,677 Laid down: December 1795 Launched: 2 December 1799 Commissioned: 22 May 1800 Captured: 1 June 1813 General characteristics (1813) Class and type: 38-gun Frigate [ Note 1 ] Tonnage: 1,244 [ 2 ] Length: 152.6 ft (46.5 m) lpp Beam: 41.3 ft (12.6 m) Draft: 20 ft (6.1 m) [ 1 ] Depth of hold: 13.9 ft (4.2 m) [ 3 ] Decks: Orlop , Berth , Gun , Spar Propulsion: Sail Complement: 340 officers and enlisted [ 3 ] Armament: 29 × 18-pounder (8 kg) long guns 18 × 32-pounder (14.5 kg) carronades 2 × 12-pounder long guns (5.5 kg) 1 × 12-pounder (5.5 kg) carronade [ 4 ] USS Chesapeake was a 38-gun wooden- hulled , three- masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy . She was one of the original six frigates whose construction was authorized by the Naval Act of 1794 . Joshua Humphreys designed these frigates to be the young navy's capital ships . Chesapeake was originally designed as a 44-gun frigate but construction delays, material shortages, and budget problems caused builder Josiah Fox to alter her design to 38 guns. Launched at the Gosport Navy Yard on 2 December 1799, Chesapeake began her career during the Quasi-War with France and saw service in the First Barbary War . On 22 June 1807 she was fired upon by HMS Leopard of the Royal Navy for refusing to comply with a search for deserters. The event, now known as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair , angered the American populace and government and was a precipitating factor that led to the War of 1812 . As a result of the affair, Chesapeake ' s commanding officer, James Barron , was court-martialed and the United States instituted the Embargo Act of 1807 against England. Early in the War of 1812 she made one patrol and captured five British merchant ships before returning. She was captured by HMS Shannon shortly after sailing from Boston, Massachusetts, on 1 June 1813. The Royal Navy took her into their service as HMS Chesapeake , where she served until she was broken up and her timbers sold in 1820; they are now part of the Chesapeake Mill in Wickham , England. Contents 1 Design and construction 1.1 Armament 2 Quasi-War 3 First Barbary War 4 Chesapeake–Leopard Affair 5 War of 1812 5.1 Chesapeake vs Shannon 6 Royal Navy service and legacy 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading Design and construction Main article: Original six frigates of the United States Navy American merchant vessels began to fall prey to Barbary Pirates , most notably from Algiers , in the Mediterranean during the 1790s. Congress responded with the Naval Act of 1794 . [ 5 ] The Act provided funds for the construction of six frigates, and directed that the construction would continue unless and until the United States agreed to peace terms with Algiers. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Joshua Humphreys ' design was long on keel and narrow of beam (width) to allow for the mounting of very heavy guns. The design incorporated a diagonal scantling (rib) scheme to limit hogging (warping) and included extremely heavy planking. This gave the hull greater strength than those of more lightly built frigates. Since the fledgling United States could not match the numbers of ships of the European states, Humphreys designed his frigates to be able to overpower other frigates, but with the speed to escape from a ship of the line . [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] Originally designated as "Frigate D", the ship remained unnamed for several years. Her keel was laid down in December 1795 at the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk, Virginia, where Josiah Fox had been appointed her naval constructor and Richard Dale as superintendent of construction. In March 1796 a peace accord was announced between the United States and Algiers and construction was suspended in accordance with the Naval Act of 1794. The keel remained on blocks in the navy yard for two years. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The onset of the Quasi-War with France in 1798 prompted Congress to authorize completion of "Frigate D", and they approved resumption of the work on 16 July. When Fox returned to Norfolk he discovered a shortage of timber caused by its diversion from Norfolk to Baltimore in order to finish Constellation . He corresponded with Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert , who indicated a desire to expedite construction of the ship and reduce the overall cost. Fox, always an opponent of Humphreys's large design, submitted new plans to Stoddert which called for utilizing the existing keel but reducing the overall dimensions substantially in length and partially of beam. Fox's plans essentially proposed an entirely different design than originally planned by Humphreys. Secretary Stoddert approved the new design plans. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] When construction finished, she had the smallest dimensions of the six frigates. A length of 152.8 ft (46.6 m) between perpendiculars and 41.3 ft (12.6 m) of beam contrasted with her closest sisters, Congress and Constellation , which were built to 164 ft (50 m) in length and 41 ft (12 m) of beam. [ 13 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] The final cost of her construction was $220,677—the second-least expensive frigate of the six. The least expensive was Congress at $197,246. [ 2 ] During construction, a sloop named Chesapeake was launched on 20 June 1799 but was renamed Patapsco between 10 October and 14 November, apparently to free up the name Chesapeake for "Frigate D". [ 18 ] In communications between Fox and Stoddert, Fox repeatedly referred to her as Congress , further confusing matters, until he was informed by Stoddert the ship was to be named Chesapeake , after Chesapeake Bay . [ 1 ] She was the only one of the six frigates not named by President George Washington , nor after a principle of the United States Constitution. [ 13 ] [ 19 ] Armament See also: Naval artillery in the Age of Sail Chesapeake ' s nominal rating is stated as either 36 or 38 guns. [ Note 1 ] Originally designated as a 44-gun ship, her redesign by Fox led to a rerating, apparently based on her smaller dimensions when compared to Congress and Constellation . Joshua Humphreys may have rerated Chesapeake to 38 guns, [ 23 ] or Secretary Stoddert rerated Congress and Constellation to 38 guns because they were larger than Chesapeake , which was rated to 36 guns. [ 20 ] The most recent information on her rating is from the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships , which states she was rerated "from 44 guns to 36, eventually increased to 38". [ 1 ] Her gun rating remained a matter of confusion throughout her career; Fox used a 44-gun rating in his correspondence with Secretary Stoddert. [ 19 ] In preparing for the War of 1812 Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton directed Captain Samuel Evans to recruit the number of crewmen required for a 44-gun ship. Hamilton was corrected by William Bainbridge in a letter stating, "There is a mistake in the crew ordered for the Chesapeake , as it equals in number the crews of our 44-gun frigates, whereas the Chesapeake is of the class of the Congress and Constellation ." [ 26 ] Gun ratings did not correspond to the actual number of guns a ship would carry. Chesapeake was noted as carrying 40 guns during her encounter with HMS Leopard and 50 guns during her engagement with HMS Shannon in 1813. The 50 guns consisted of twenty-eight 18-pounder (8 kg) long guns on the gun deck , fourteen on each side. This main battery was complemented by two long 12-pounders (5.5 kg), one long 18-pounder, eighteen 32-pounder (14.5 kg) carronades , and one 12-pound carronade on the spar deck . Her broadside weight was 542 pounds (246 kg). [ 4 ] [ 27 ] The ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns; guns were completely portable and were often exchanged between ships as situations warranted. Each commanding officer modified his vessel's armaments to his liking while taking into consideration factors such as the overall tonnage of cargo, complement of personnel aboard, and planned routes to be sailed. Consequently, a vessel's armament would change often during its career; records of the changes were not generally kept. [ 28 ] Quasi-War See also: Quasi-War Chesapeake was launched on 2 December 1799 during the undeclared Quasi-War (1798–1800), which arose after the French navy seized American merchant ships. Her fitting-out continued through May 1800. In March Josiah Fox was reprimanded by Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert for continuing to work on Chesapeake while Congress , still awaiting completion, was fully manned with a crew drawing pay. Stoddert appointed Thomas Truxton to ensure that his directives concerning Congress were carried out. [ 29 ] Chesapeake first put to sea on 22 May commanded by Captain Samuel Barron and marked her departure from Norfolk with a 13-gun salute. [ 30 ] Her first assignment was to carry currency from Charleston, South Carolina, to Philadelphia. [ 31 ] On 6 June she joined a squadron patrolling off the southern coast of the United States and in the West Indies escorting American merchant ships. [ 32 ] Capturing the 16-gun French privateer La Jeune Creole on 1 January 1801 after a chase lasting 50 hours, she returned to Norfolk with her prize on 15 January. Chesapeake returned briefly to the West Indies in February, soon after a peace treaty was ratified with France. She returned to Norfolk and decommissioned on 26 February, subsequently being placed in reserve . [ 1 ] [ 33 ] First Barbary War See also: First Barbary War Barbary States in southern area of the Mediterranean During the Quasi-War, the United States had paid tribute to the Barbary States to ensure that they would not seize or harass American merchant ships. [ 34 ] In 1801 Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli , dissatisfied with the amount of tribute in comparison to that paid to Algiers, demanded an immediate payment of $250,000. [ 35 ] Thomas Jefferson responded by sending a squadron of warships to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and to pursue peace negotiations with the Barbary States. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] The first squadron was under the command of Richard Dale in President and the second was assigned to the command of Richard Valentine Morris in Chesapeake . Morris's squadron eventually consisted of the vessels Constellation , New York , John Adams , Adams , and Enterprise . It took several months to prepare the vessels for sea; they departed individually as they became ready. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] Chesapeake departed from Hampton Roads on 27 April 1802 and arrived at Gibraltar on 25 May; she immediately put in for repairs, as her main mast had split during the voyage. [ 40 ] Morris remained at Gibraltar while awaiting word on the location of his squadron, as several ships had not reported in. On 22 July Adams arrived with belated orders for Morris, dated 20 April. Those orders were to "lay the whole squadron before Tripoli" and negotiate peace. [ 41 ] Chesapeake and Enterprise departed Gibraltar on 17 August bound for Leghorn , while providing protection for a convoy of merchant ships that were bound for intermediate ports. Morris made several stops in various ports before finally arriving at Leghorn on 12 October, after which he sailed to Malta . Chesapeake undertook repairs of a rotted bowsprit . [ 42 ] [ 43 ] Chesapeake was still in port when John Adams arrived on 5 January 1803 with orders dated 23 October 1802 from Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith . These directed Chesapeake and Constellation to return to the United States; Morris was to transfer his command to New York . [ 44 ] Constellation sailed directly as ordered, but Morris retained Chesapeake at Malta, claiming that she was not in any condition to make an Atlantic voyage during the winter months. [ 45 ] Morris now had the ships New York , John Adams , and Enterprise gathered under him, while Adams was at Gibraltar. [ 45 ] On 30 January Chesapeake and the squadron got underway for Tripoli, where Morris planned to burn Tripolitan ships in the harbor. Heavy gales made the approach to Tripoli difficult. Fearing Chesapeake would lose her masts from the strong winds, Morris returned to Malta on 10 February. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] With provisions for the ships running low and none available near Malta, Morris decided to abandon plans to blockade Tripoli and sailed the squadron back to Gibraltar for provisioning. They made stops at Tunis on 22 February and Algiers on 19 March. Chesapeake arrived at Gibraltar on 23 March, where Morris transferred his command to New York . [ 48 ] Under James Barron , Chesapeake sailed for the United States on 7 April and she was placed in reserve at the Washington Navy Yard on 1 June. [ 49 ] Morris remained in the Mediterranean until September, when orders from Secretary Smith arrived suspending his command and instructing him to return to the United States. There he faced a Naval Board of Inquiry which found that he was censurable for "inactive and dilatory conduct of the squadron under his command". He was dismissed from the navy in 1804. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] Morris's overall performance in the Mediterranean was particularly criticized for the state of affairs aboard Chesapeake and his inactions as a commander. His wife, young son, and housekeeper accompanied him on the voyage, during which Mrs. Morris gave birth to another son. Midshipman Henry Wadsworth wrote that he and the other midshipman referred to Mrs. Morris as the "Commodoress" and believed she was the main reason behind Chesapeake remaining in port for months at a time. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] Consul William Eaton reported to Secretary Smith that Morris and his squadron spent more time in port sightseeing and doing little but "dance and wench" than blockading Tripoli. [ 54 ] Chesapeake–Leopard Affair Main article: Chesapeake–Leopard Affair Chesapeake fires her only shot upon Leopard In January 1807 Master Commandant Charles Gordon was appointed Chesapeake ' s commanding officer (Captain). He was ordered to prepare her for patrol and convoy duty in the Mediterranean to relieve her sister ship Constitution , which had been on duty there since 1803. James Barron was appointed overall commander of the squadron as its Commodore. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] Chesapeake was in much disarray from her multi-year period of inactivity and many months were required for repairs, provisioning, and recruitment of personnel. [ 57 ] Lieutenant Arthur Sinclair was tasked with the recruiting. Among those chosen were three sailors who had deserted from HMS Melampus . The British ambassador to the United States requested the return of the sailors. Barron found that, although they were indeed from Melampus , they had been impressed into Royal Navy service from the beginning. He therefore refused to release them back to Melampus and nothing further was communicated on the subject. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] In early June Chesapeake departed the Washington Navy Yard for Norfolk, Virginia, where she completed provisioning and loading armaments. Captain Gordon informed Barron on the 19th that Chesapeake was ready for sea and they departed on 22 June armed with 40 guns. [ 27 ] At the same time, a British squadron consisting of HMS Melampus , Bellona , and Leopard (a 50-gun fourth-rate ) were lying off the port of Norfolk blockading two French ships there. As Chesapeake departed, the squadron ships began signaling each other and Leopard got under way preceding Chesapeake to sea. [ 58 ] [ 60 ] After sailing for some hours, Leopard , commanded by Captain Salusbury Pryce Humphreys , approached Chesapeake and hailed a request to deliver dispatches to England, a customary request of the time. [ 61 ] When a British lieutenant arrived by boat he handed Barron an order, given by Vice-Admiral George Berkeley of the Royal Navy, which instructed the British ships to stop and board Chesapeake to search for deserters. Barron refused to allow this search, and as the lieutenant returned to Leopard Barron ordered the crew to general quarters . [ 62 ] Shortly afterward Leopard hailed Chesapeake ; Barron could not understand the message. Leopard fired a shot across the bow , followed by a broadside , at Chesapeake . For fifteen minutes, while Chesapeake attempted to arm herself, Leopard continued to fire broadside after broadside until Barron struck his colors . Chesapeake only managed to fire one retaliatory shot after hot coals from the galley were brought on deck to ignite the cannon. [ 63 ] The British boarded Chesapeake and carried off four crewmen, declining Barron's offer that Chesapeake be taken as a prize of war. [ 64 ] Chesapeake had three sailors killed and Barron was among the 18 wounded. [ 65 ] Word of the incident spread quickly upon Chesapeake ' s return to Norfolk, where the British squadron that included Leopard was provisioning. Mobs of angry citizens destroyed two hundred water casks destined for the squadron and nearly killed a British lieutenant before local authorities intervened. President Jefferson recalled all US warships from the Mediterranean and issued a proclamation: all British warships were banned from entering US ports and those already in port were to depart. The incident eventually led to the Embargo Act of 1807 . [ 66 ] [ 67 ] Chesapeake was completely unprepared to defend herself during the incident. None of her guns were primed for operation and the spar deck was filled with materials that were not properly stowed in the cargo hold. [ 68 ] A court-martial was convened for Barron and Captain Gordon, as well as Lieutenant Hall of the Marines. Barron was found guilty of "neglecting on the probability of an engagement to clear his Ship for action" and suspended from the navy for five years. Gordon and Hall were privately reprimanded, and the ship's gunner was discharged from the navy. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] War of 1812 Captain James Lawrence See also: War of 1812 After the heavy damage inflicted by Leopard , Chesapeake returned to Norfolk for repairs. Under the command of Stephen Decatur , she made patrols off the New England coast enforcing the laws of the Embargo Act throughout 1809. [ 71 ] The Chesapeake–Leopard Affair, and later the Little Belt Affair , contributed to the United States' decision to declare war on Britain on 18 June 1812. Chesapeake , under the command of Captain Samuel Evans, was prepared for duty in the Atlantic. [ 72 ] Beginning on 13 December, she ranged from Madeira and traveled clockwise to the Cape Verde Islands and South America, and then back to Boston. She captured six ships as prizes: the British ships Volunteer , Liverpool Hero , Earl Percy , and Ellen ; the brig Julia , an American ship trading under a British license; and Valeria , an American ship recaptured from British privateers. During the cruise she was chased by an unknown British ship-of-the-line and frigate but, after a passing storm squall, the two pursuing ships were gone the next morning. The cargo of Volunteer , 40 tons of pig iron and copper, sold for $185,000. Earl Percy never made it back to port as she ran aground off the coast of Long Island, and Liverpool Hero was burned as she was considered leaky. Chesapeake ' s total monetary damage to British shipping was $235,675. She returned to Boston on 9 April 1813 for refitting. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] Captain Evans, now in poor health, requested relief of command. Captain James Lawrence , late of the Hornet and her victory over HMS Peacock , took command of Chesapeake on 20 May. Affairs of the ship were in poor condition. The term of enlistment for many of the crew had expired and they were daily leaving the ship. [ 74 ] Those who remained were disgruntled and approaching mutiny, as the prize money they were owed from her previous cruise was held up in court. [ 75 ] Lawrence paid out the prize money from his own pocket in order to appease them. Some sailors from Constitution joined Chesapeake and they filled the crew along with sailors of several nations. [ 76 ] Meanwhile Captain Philip Broke and HMS Shannon , a 38-gun frigate, were patrolling off the port of Boston on blockade duty. Shannon had been under the command of Broke since 1806 and, under his direction, the crew held daily gun and weapon drills lasting up to three hours. Crew members who hit their bullseye were awarded a pound (454 g) of tobacco for their good marksmanship. In this regard Chesapeake , with her new and inexperienced crew, was greatly inferior. [ 77 ] Chesapeake vs Shannon Main article: Capture of USS Chesapeake Captain Broke leads the boarding party to Chesapeake Lawrence, advised that Shannon had moved in closer to Boston, began preparations to sail on the evening of 31 May. The next morning Broke wrote a challenge to Lawrence and dispatched it to Chesapeake ; it did not arrive before Lawrence set out to meet Shannon on his own accord. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Leaving port with a broad white flag bearing the motto "Free Trade and Sailors' Rights", Chesapeake met with Shannon near 5 pm that afternoon. During six minutes of firing, each ship managed two full broadsides. Chesapeake damaged Shannon with her broadsides but suffered early in the exchange. A succession of helmsmen were killed at the wheel and she lost maneuverability. [ 80 ] Captain Broke brought Shannon alongside Chesapeake and ordered the two ships lashed together to enable his crew to board Chesapeake . Confusion and disarray reigned on the deck of Chesapeake ; Captain Lawrence tried rallying a party to board Shannon , but the bugler failed to sound the call. [ 81 ] At this point a shot from a sniper mortally wounded Lawrence; as his men carried him below, he gave his last order: "Don't give up the ship. Fight her till she sinks." [ 82 ] [ 83 ] During the exchange of cannonfire 362 shots struck Chesapeake , while only 158 hit Shannon . [ 84 ] Captain Broke boarded Chesapeake at the head of a party of 20 men. They met little resistance from Chesapeake ' s crew, most of whom had run below deck. The only resistance from Chesapeake came from her contingent of marines. The British soon overwhelmed them; only nine escaped injury out of 44. [ 85 ] Captain Broke was severely injured in the fighting on the forecastle, being struck in the head with a sword. Soon after, Shannon ' s crew pulled down Chesapeake ' s flag. Only 15 minutes had elapsed from the first exchange of gunfire to the capture. [ 86 ] [ 87 ] Gravestones for the casualties of Chesapeake (left) and Shannon (right) in Halifax, Nova Scotia Reports on the number of killed and wounded aboard Chesapeake during the battle vary widely. Broke's after-action report from 6 July states 70 killed and 100 wounded. [ 88 ] Contemporary sources place the number between 48–61 killed and 85–99 wounded. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] Discrepancies in the number of killed and wounded are possibly caused by the addition of sailors who died of their wounds in the ensuing days after the battle. [ 91 ] The counts for Shannon have fewer discrepancies with 23 killed; 56 wounded. [ 92 ] Despite his serious injuries, Broke ordered repairs to both ships and they proceeded on to Halifax , Nova Scotia . Captain Lawrence died en route and was buried in Halifax with military honors. The British imprisoned his crew. Captain Broke survived his wounds and was later made a baronet . [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Royal Navy service and legacy Chesapeake ' s flag on display in London, 1914 The Royal Navy repaired Chesapeake and took her into service as HMS Chesapeake . She served on the Halifax station under the command of Alexander Gordon through 1814, and under the command of George Burdett she sailed to Plymouth, England, for repairs in October of that year. Afterward she made a voyage to Cape Town , South Africa, until learning of the peace treaty with the United States in May 1815. [ 95 ] Upon returning to England later in the year, Chesapeake went into reserve and apparently never returned to active duty. In 1819 she was sold to a Portsmouth timber merchant for £500 who dismantled the ship and sold its timbers to Joshua Holmes for £3,450. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] Eventually her timbers became part of the Chesapeake Mill in Wickham , Hampshire, England, where they can be viewed to this day. [ 98 ] [ 99 ] Almost from her beginnings, Chesapeake was considered an "unlucky ship", the "runt of the litter" to the superstitious sailors of the 19th century, [ 100 ] and the product of a disagreement between Humphreys and Fox. Her ill-fated encounters with HMS Leopard and Shannon , the court martials of two of her captains, and the accidental deaths of several crewmen led many to believe she was cursed. [ 13 ] [ 20 ] [ 22 ] Arguments defending both Humphreys and Fox regarding their long-standing disagreements over the design of the frigates carried on for years. Humphreys disowned any credit for Fox's redesign of Chesapeake . In 1827 he wrote, "She [ Chesapeake ] spoke his [Fox's] talents. Which I leave the Commanders of that ship to estimate by her qualifications." [ 101 ] Lawrence's last command of "Don't give up the ship!" became a rallying cry for the US Navy. Oliver Hazard Perry , in command of naval forces on Lake Erie during September 1813, named his flagship Lawrence , which flew a broad blue flag bearing the words "Dont give up the ship!" The phrase is still used in the US Navy today, as displayed on the USS Lake Erie . [ 102 ] Chesapeake ' s blood-stained and bullet-ridden American flag was sold at auction in London in 1908. Purchased by William Waldorf Astor , it now resides in the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich , England, along with her signal book. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia, holds several artifacts of the battle with Shannon . [ 105 ] In 1996 a timber fragment from the Chesapeake Mill was returned to the United States. It is on display at the Hampton Roads Naval Museum . [ 106 ] Notes ^ a b For purposes of this article, Chesapeake is listed as a 38-gun ship since the majority of references use that number. Stating 36 guns are Allen, [ 14 ] Beach, [ 20 ] and Maclay and Smith. [ 21 ] Those stating 38 guns are Calhoun, [ 22 ] Chapelle, [ 23 ] Cooper, [ 24 ] Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships , [ 1 ] Roosevelt, [ 2 ] and Toll. [ 25 ] Fowler does not mention a rating. References ^ a b c d e f " Chesapeake " . Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . Navy Department , Naval History & Heritage Command . http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c7/chesapeake-i.htm . Retrieved 29 March 2011 . ^ a b c Roosevelt (1883), p. 48. ^ a b Chapelle (1949), p. 535. ^ a b Roosevelt (1883), p. 181. ^ Allen (1909), pp. 41–42. ^ Beach (1986), p. 29. ^ An Act to provide a Naval Armament . 1 Stat. 350 (1794). Library of Congress . Retrieved 17 February 2011. ^ Toll (2006), pp. 49–53. ^ Beach (1986), pp. 29–30, 33. ^ Allen (1909), pp. 42–45. ^ "Navy History: Federal/Quasi War" . Naval History & Heritage Command . http://www.history.navy.mil/biblio/biblio4/biblio4a.htm . Retrieved 27 March 2011 . ^ Beach (1986), p. 30. ^ a b c d Toll (2006), p. 289. ^ a b Allen (1909), p. 56. ^ Beach (1986), pp. 30–31. ^ " Congress " . Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command . http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c12/congress-iii.htm . Retrieved 29 March 2011 . ^ " Constellation " . Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command . http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c13/constellation-i.htm . Retrieved 29 March 2011 . ^ " Patapsco " . Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command . http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/p2/patapsco-i.htm . Retrieved 29 March 2011 . ^ a b Beach (1986), p. 31. ^ a b c Beach (1986), p. 32. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, p. 158. ^ a b Calhoun (2008), p. 6. ^ a b Chapelle (1949), p. 128. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 134. ^ Toll (2006), p. 107. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 50. ^ a b Cooper (1856), pp. 225–226. ^ Jennings, John (1966). Tattered Ensign: The Story of America's Most Famous Fighting Frigate, U.S.S Constitution . New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 17–19. OCLC 1291484 . ^ Toll (2006), p. 138. ^ Toll (2006), p. 139. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 139. ^ Allen (1909), p. 217. ^ Allen (1909), pp. 217, 252. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, pp. 215–216. ^ Allen (1905), pp. 88, 90. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, p. 228. ^ Allen (1905), p. 92. ^ Allen (1905), pp. 105–106. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 155. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 158. ^ Allen (1905), pp. 113–114. ^ Allen (1905), pp. 114–116. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 159. ^ Allen (1905), p. 117. ^ a b Allen (1905), p. 118. ^ Allen (1905), p. 120. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, p. 235. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, pp. 236–237. ^ Allen (1905), pp. 121–123. ^ Allen (1905), pp. 133–135. ^ Beach (1986), p. 45. ^ Toll (2006), p. 173. ^ Fowler (1984), p. 73. ^ Fowler (1984), pp. 74–75. ^ Toll (2006), p. 290. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 224. ^ Fowler (1984), p. 152. ^ a b Fowler (1984), p. 153. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, pp. 305–306. ^ Toll (2006), p. 295. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, p. 306. ^ Cooper (1856), pp. 227, 229. ^ Fowler (1984), p. 155. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 230. ^ Toll (2006), pp. 295–298. ^ Fowler (1984), pp. 155–156. ^ Toll (2006), pp. 299, 301. ^ Toll (2006), p. 294. ^ Fowler (1984), p. 156. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, pp. 307–308. ^ Toll (2006), pp. 289, 310. ^ Toll (2006), p. 402. ^ Calhoun (2008), pp. 6–8, 14–16. ^ a b Roosevelt (1883), p. 163. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 305. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 178. ^ Roosevelt (1883), pp. 179–180. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 304. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 182. ^ Roosevelt (1883), pp. 182–183. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 306. ^ Cooper (1856), pp. 305–307. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 184. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 188. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 185. ^ Roosevelt (1883), pp. 186–187. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 307. ^ London Gazette : no. 16750. p. 1330 . 6 July 1813. Retrieved 22 April 2011. ^ Maclay and Smith (1898), Volume 1, p. 459. ^ Beach (1986), p. 110. ^ Toll (2006), p. 415. ^ London Gazette : no. 16750. p. 1329 . 6 July 1813. Retrieved 22 April 2011. ^ Roosevelt (1883), p. 187. ^ Cooper (1856), p. 308. ^ Beach (1986), pp. 112–113. ^ Caiella,, J. M (August 2007). "Connecting with the Ships". Naval History 21 (4). ^ Winfield (2007), p. 176. ^ "The Chesapeake Mill — history" (PDF). The Chesapeake Mill . http://www.chesapeakemill.co.uk/historypdf001.pdf . Retrieved 22 April 2011 . ^ Beach (1986), p. 113. ^ Clancy, Paul (16 November 2008). "Frigate Chesapeake Lives On In Old Mill". The Virginian-Pilot : p. B3. ^ Toll (2006), pp. 472–473. ^ "Battle of Lake Erie" . USS Lake Erie Website . United States Navy . http://www.public.navy.mil/surfor/cg70/Pages/History.aspx . Retrieved 23 March 2011 . ^ "Chesapeake's Flag Stays in England" . The New York Times . 24 April 1908 . http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10D11FF3D5517738DDDAD0A94DC405B888CF1D3 . Retrieved 29 April 2011 . ^ Tomlinson, Barbara (21 April 2009). "Don't give up the ship" . National Maritime Museum . http://www.nmm.ac.uk/blogs/collections/2009/04/dont_give_up_the_ship.html . Retrieved 18 March 2011 . [ dead link ] ^ "The Exhibits of The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic" . Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. 11 January 2007 . http://museum.gov.ns.ca/mma/exhibits/exhibits.html#navygallery . Retrieved 24 March 2011 . ^ Clancy, Paul (17 June 2007). "The Little Warship That Never Quite Could". The Virginian Pilot : p. B3. Bibliography Wikimedia Commons has media related to: USS Chesapeake Allen, Gardner Weld (1905). Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs . Boston; New York; Chicago: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 2618279 . http://books.google.com/?id=gsFYAAAAMAAJ . (1909). Our Naval War With France . Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 1202325 . http://books.google.com/?id=-RkOAAAAIAAJ . Beach, Edward L. (1986). The United States Navy 200 Years . New York: H. Holt. ISBN 0-03-044711-9 . OCLC 12104038 . Calhoun, Gordon. "The Frigate Chesapeake's War of 1812 Raid on British Commerce" (PDF). The Daybook (Norfolk: Hampton Roads Naval Museum ) XIII (II). OCLC 51784156 . Archived from the original on May 8, 2011 . http://www.webcitation.org/5yWsOH9Z5 . Chapelle, Howard Irving (1949). The History of the American Sailing Navy; the Ships and Their Development . New York: Norton. OCLC 1471717 . Cooper, James Fenimore (1856). History of the Navy of the United States of America (Abridged ed.). New York: Stringer & Townsend. OCLC 197401914 . http://books.google.com/?id=WK3mWOlYYNsC . Fowler, William M. (1984). Jack Tars and Commodores: The American Navy, 1783–1815 . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-35314-9 . OCLC 10277756 . Maclay, Edgar Stanton; Smith, Roy Campbell (1898) [1893]. A History of the United States Navy, from 1775 to 1898 . 1 (New ed.). New York: D. Appleton. OCLC 609036 . http://books.google.com/?id=3tVCAAAAIAAJ . Roosevelt, Theodore (1883) [1882]. The Naval War of 1812 or The History of the United States Navy during the Last War with Great Britain (3rd ed.). New York: G.P. Putnam's sons. OCLC 133902576 . http://books.google.com/?id=Fb1CAAAAYAAJ . Toll, Ian W (2006). Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy . New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-05847-6 . OCLC 70291925 . Winfield, Rif (2007). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates . London: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-86176-246-7 . OCLC 181927614 . Further reading Poolman, Kenneth (1962). Guns Off Cape Ann; The Story of the Shannon and the Chesapeake . Chicago: Rand McNally. OCLC 1384754 . v t e Original six frigates of the United States Navy United States Constellation Constitution Congress Chesapeake President List of sailing frigates of the United States Navy
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+This article is about the original Game Boy Advance game. For the series, see Golden Sun (series) . Golden Sun North American box art Developer(s) Camelot Software Planning Publisher(s) Nintendo Director(s) Shugo Takahashi Producer(s) Hiroshi Yamauchi ( executive producer ) Writer(s) Hiroyuki Takahashi Composer(s) Motoi Sakuraba Series Golden Sun Platform(s) Game Boy Advance Release date(s) JP August 1, 2001 NA November 11, 2001 EU February 22, 2002 Genre(s) Role-playing video game Mode(s) Single player , 2 players via Game Link Cable Rating(s) CERO : A ESRB : E PEGI : 7+ Media / distribution 64- megabit cartridge Golden Sun , released in Japan as Ōgon no Taiyō Hirakareshi Fūin ( 黄金の太陽 開かれし封印 ? , literally " Golden Sun: The Broken Seal ") , is the first installment in a series of fantasy role-playing video games developed by Camelot Software Planning and published by Nintendo . It was released in November 2001 for Nintendo's Game Boy Advance and was followed by a sequel, Golden Sun: The Lost Age , in 2003. The game is notable for certain distinctive game elements, such as the use of special " Djinn " that empower the player and can be used against enemies. Golden Sun ' s story follows a band of magic-attuned "Adepts" whose purpose, as it is revealed early on, is to protect the world of Weyard from alchemy , a potentially destructive power that was sealed away long ago. During their quest, the Adepts gain new abilities (called Psynergy), assist others, and learn more about why alchemy was sealed away. The story continues in The Lost Age , this time from the perspective of the antagonists. The game was highly praised by critics; IGN 's Craig Harris said that Golden Sun could "arguably be one of the best 2D-based Japanese RPGs created for any system." [ 1 ] The game has sold more than one million copies in Japan and the United States. A third game in the series, Golden Sun: Dark Dawn , was released in 2010. Contents 1 Gameplay 1.1 Battle and Djinn 2 Synopsis 2.1 Setting 2.2 Characters 2.3 Plot 3 Development 4 Reception 5 References 6 External links Gameplay Golden Sun ' s form of magic, Psynergy, can be used in battle and in dungeons. Here, a cold spell is used to create a navigable path of frozen ice pillars from puddles of water. Golden Sun is a contemporary presentation of the traditional role-playing video game formula, in which the player controls a cast of four characters as they journey through a fantasy-themed world, interact with other characters, battle monsters, acquire increasingly powerful abilities and equipment, and take part in an ongoing narrative. [ 2 ] Although many of the player's actions are compulsory, Golden Sun often allows the player to visit previous locations and complete certain objectives out of order. Much of the time spent outside of battle takes place in dungeons , caves, and other locales, which often feature puzzles integrated into their layout. [ 3 ] These puzzles require the player to perform a variety of actions, such as creating makeshift bridges by pushing logs into rivers, or shifting the track of a mine cart to gain access to new areas. [ 3 ] Many of these puzzles require use of the game's form of magic spells , "Psynergy" ("Energy" in the Japanese version); [ 4 ] [ 5 ] this is in contrast to many RPGs, which often restrict magic to within battles and post-combat healing. [ 6 ] Psynergy, however, is used for both purposes; for example, the "Whirlwind" spell that damages enemies in battle is also used out of battle to remove overgrown foliage blocking the player's path. [ 7 ] Psynergy comes in four elements : Venus (manipulation of rocks and plants), Mars (revolving around fire and heat), Jupiter (based on wind and electricity), and Mercury (concerning water and ice). [ 8 ] Players can return to previous locations in the game to finish puzzles which they could not solve earlier because of the lack of a specific Psynergy spell. [ 3 ] Battle and Djinn Battles in Golden Sun have many special effects. Here, a weapon specific attack is unleashed by the sword Gaia Blade. Golden Sun contains both random monster encounters , featuring randomly selected enemies, [ 9 ] and compulsory boss battles that advance the story. When a battle begins, a separate screen is brought up in which the player's party faces off against the enemy. During a battle, the characters and the background rotate to offer a pseudo- 3D effect. [ 10 ] In each battle, players must defeat the enemies by a variety of measures while keeping their own party alive through items and Psynergy that restore life and supplement defense. [ 11 ] The player receives a "Game Over" if each character's hit points are reduced to zero; if this happens, the player will incur a monetary penalty and the party will be returned to the sanctum in the last visited town. After winning a battle, players receive experience points , coins, and occasionally items . [ 12 ] Golden Sun also features an optional battling mode accessible from the menu screen. In this mode, players can enter a team from their saved game files into an arena environment where they battle increasingly difficult CPU-controlled enemies. Additionally, players can select three of their four characters to fight another player's three-character team. The player does not receive any reward or punishment for participating in these battles. [ 13 ] One of the most distinctive features of Golden Sun is the collection and manipulation of creatures called Djinn . The Djinn are scattered in hiding throughout the game; once found, they can be allocated to each character. They form the basis of the game's statistic enhancement, as well as the system that dictates the character's Psynergy capabilities. [ 14 ] Attaching different Djinn to different characters modifies that character's character class , subsequently modifying hit points, Psynergy points, and other statistics, as well as determining what Psynergy the character is able to perform. [ 15 ] Djinn can either be "Set" to a player or put on "Standby". When a Djinni is Set, it gives bonuses to the stats of the character it is on, and may change the character′s class or usable Psynergy. Set Djinn also have abilities that can be used in battle to attack, heal, or otherwise affect the battle, however using these abilities causes the Djinn to move from being Set to being in Standby mode. There are seven Djinn of each element, and these Djinn can be mixed and matched to the four characters, allowing a large array of possible class setups and a variety of combat options. [ 16 ] In combat, a Djinni has several uses. Each Set Djinni has a special ability which can be invoked during combat by the character it is attached to, which can include enhanced elemental attacks, buffing /debuffing spells, healing/restoration spells, and other effects. After a successful invoke, the Djinni shifts to "Standby" mode until it is "Set" on the character again. [ 17 ] While in standby, the Djinn do not contribute to statistics or change character classes, but can be used for summon spells, which are attacks where the player summons a powerful elemental monster to inflict damage on every enemy. This is the game's most powerful method of attack, but the required switch to Standby mode is a risky trade-off: Djinn used for summoning must rest for several turns before reverting to the Set position, during which time they cannot bolster statistics or classes. [ 18 ] There are sixteen Summon Sequences in Golden Sun —four for each element—and each summon sequence requires between one and four Djinn of the same element on Standby. Synopsis Setting Golden Sun takes place in the fantasy world of "Weyard"—a massive, earth-like environment with several major continents and oceans. It is revealed in the game's sequel, Golden Sun: The Lost Age , that the setting is based on the flat Earth concept; it is a flat, roughly elliptical plane whose oceans perpetually spill off the edge of the world's perimeter into an endless abyss. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] The plot progression of Golden Sun spans the two largest continents in the world's central region: Angara to the north and Gondowan to the south. Weyard is governed by the mythological concept of the classical elements . All matter on Weyard consists of any combination of the four base elements: Venus, Mars, Mercury and Jupiter, or earth, fire, water, and wind, respectively. [ 21 ] These four building blocks of reality can be manipulated by the omnipotent force of Alchemy, which reigned supreme in the world's ancient past. Alchemy was sealed away in the past, however, and the world in the present age has become seemingly devoid of this power. However, in various places throughout the world, people demonstrate an aptitude to manipulate one of the elements through a form of magic called Psynergy. These wielders of Psynergy, called Adepts, usually refrain from displaying their talents to outsiders. Characters Main article: List of Golden Sun characters The player controls four characters in Golden Sun . Isaac , the game's silent protagonist, is a seventeen-year-old Venus Adept from the village of Vale. Garet , a seventeen-year-old Mars Adept also from Vale, is Isaac's closest companion. Ivan is a fifteen-year-old Jupiter Adept who has lived with a famous merchant in the town of Kalay his entire life. Mia , a seventeen-year-old Mercury Adept from the wintry town of Imil, is a gentle healer from a heritage of Mercury Adept clansmen. A fifth character seen and playable in the game's exposition sequence is the 17-year-old Mars Adept Jenna , another childhood friend to Isaac. [ 22 ] The primary antagonists of the game are Saturos and Menardi , a pair of immensely powerful and talented Mars Adepts of a foreign race hailing from Prox, a town in Weyard's frigid north. [ 23 ] Their goal is to restore Alchemy to the world, and they are assisted by the powerful and mysterious Mercury Adept Alex , who is of the same heritage as Mia; and Jenna's older brother, the 18-year-old Venus Adept Felix , who is indebted to Saturos for saving Felix from death. [ 22 ] Plot The prevalent force of Alchemy in Weyard's ancient past enabled the development of great civilizations. However, this thriving period eventually gave way to worldwide conflict that subsided only with the sealing away of Alchemy. [ 24 ] The keys to unlocking Alchemy, the four Elemental Stars which hold the pure power of the four elements, are hidden within the mountain shrine, Mt. Aleph, which in turn is guarded by the town of Vale at the mountain's base. In the game's prologue, Saturos and Menardi, with help from a raiding party, storm Mt. Aleph with the intention to seize the Elemental Stars for themselves. They fail to solve the riddles guarding the stars and are driven away by the mountain's trap, a magically generated thunderstorm and rock slide. [ 25 ] Three years later, Isaac, Garet, and Jenna join their teacher, Kraden , in his research of Mt. Aleph. [ 26 ] Their research coincides with a second raid of the sanctum by Saturos and Menardi, now assisted by Felix and Alex, [ 27 ] who coerce Isaac into giving them three of the four stars. [ 28 ] The volcano erupts before they can retrieve the final star, [ 29 ] but before escaping they capture Jenna and Kraden as eventual bargaining chips. [ 30 ] The guardian of Mt. Aleph, the Wise One , appears before Isaac and Garet and instructs them to prevent Saturos' group from casting the Elemental Stars into their respective Elemental Lighthouses across Weyard; if this happens, Alchemy will be restored and the period of instability will begin anew. [ 31 ] Isaac and Garet pursue Saturos' group to the Mercury Lighthouse, joined by Ivan [ 32 ] and Mia. [ 33 ] Despite their best efforts, they fail to prevent Saturos from activating Mercury Lighthouse with the Mercury Star. [ 34 ] Saturos' group leaves for the next Lighthouse with Isaac's party remaining in pursuit. In the ensuing chase, Isaac learns that Saturos has taken another Adept hostage: the female Jupiter Adept, Sheba . [ 35 ] Saturos and Menardi activate the Venus Lighthouse with the Venus Star, and are confronted by Isaac's party immediately thereafter. [ 36 ] Attempting to annihilate their opponents, Saturos and Menardi magically merge to form a massive two-headed dragon, [ 37 ] but Isaac's party slay Saturos and Menardi for good. [ 38 ] The remnants of Saturos' group, headed by Felix and Alex, continue their quest to light the remaining two Lighthouses, with Jenna, Sheba, and Kraden still with them. [ 39 ] The game ends as Isaac's party boards a ship and sail out into Weyard's open seas to continue their mission. Development Camelot Software Planning spent between twelve and eighteen months developing Golden Sun , which is considered a long time for a handheld video game; [ 40 ] the finished product was described as a testament to the positive results a long development cycle can bring to a game. [ 1 ] In August 2000, Camelot showed an early but playable version at the Nintendo Spaceworld Expo in Japan. [ 10 ] North American previewers received the game a few weeks before the release, and IGN noted that the experience of developing Shining Force for Sega helped Camelot develop a gripping RPG for the handheld. [ 41 ] Camelot originally planned to create a single title instead of a series, and in the extremely early stages of their project they had created a game design document for the one Golden Sun game to be on the Nintendo 64 console. When it became apparent the N64 was to be superseded by the Nintendo GameCube , Camelot shifted their focus to making a game on the handheld Game Boy Advance . [ 42 ] Golden Sun was still intended to be a single game, but due to the hardware limitations of putting the game on a single Game Boy Advance cartridge and the developers' own desire for what they wanted to do with the game, it was expanded to become two successive games, Golden Sun and Golden Sun: The Lost Age . Scenario writer Hiroyuki Takahashi and director Shugo Takahashi had previously designed Shining Force III , where the story involved playing through the perspectives of both the "good" and "bad" characters. Thinking that it was an effective way of conveying the full story of a fictional game world, they incorporated elements of this storytelling methodology into the two-game setup of the Golden Sun series, having the player control the "good guys" in Golden Sun and some of the antagonists in The Lost Age . [ 43 ] Reception Reception Aggregate scores Aggregator Score GameRankings 90%(45 Reviews) [ 44 ] Metacritic 91%(29 Reviews) [ 45 ] Review scores Publication Score G4 [ 46 ] Game Informer 8.5, 9.0 [ 47 ] GamePro [ 48 ] GameSpot 8.6/10 [ 49 ] IGN 9.7/10 [ 1 ] Thunderbolt Games 9/10 [ 50 ] Advance 94% [ 51 ] Awards Nintendo Power Best GBA Game of the Year Golden Sun sold 740,000 copies in the United States [ 52 ] and 338,000 in Japan. [ 53 ] It was received positively by critics; the title is ranked 91% and 90% on the review score aggregator sites Metacritic and GameRankings , respectively. Many reviewers praised the game's graphics, sound, and varied yet refined RPG gameplay, with particular emphasis on the Battle Mode and Djinn system. [ 54 ] Certain critics felt that, despite the technical limitations of its 32-bit cartridge, the game's graphical quality was still extremely high; GameSpot wrote that " Golden Sun is a throwback to some of the SNES 's best." [ 49 ] Complaints generally focused on a perceived overuse of text dialogue in the game's cutscenes—particularly during the prologue section. [ 1 ] Some faulted the game for relying on the "wander around, get into a random battle, win battle, wander around, random battle, etc." mechanics present in many other role-playing games. [ 50 ] G4 TV stated, "It's the best original (nonport) GBA RPG to date", [ 46 ] while GamePro called it a "huge, fantastic, creative, and wickedly fun RPG that doesn't seem to care that it's 'just' on a GBA". [ 48 ] Game Informer called Golden Sun "a visual treat", and said that its graphics "would have amazed Super Nintendo owners back in the day". Noting the game's similarity to previous Japanese role-playing games, the reviewers believed that it was "easily the best original RPG on the GBA", and the "new ruler in the GBA RPG realm". [ 47 ] Advance compared the game to the Pokémon series, and considered its graphics "luscious" and sound "incredible [and] cinematic". Despite describing its plot as "Cliche City", the magazine hailed the game as "the best handheld role-player ever". [ 51 ] In 2001, Golden Sun won the Nintendo Power Award for best Game Boy Advance game of the year. Golden Sun was ranked 94 on IGN's Readers Choice Top 100 games ever. [ 55 ] In 2007, it was named 24th best Game Boy Advance game in IGN 's feature reflecting on the Game Boy Advance's long lifespan; [ 56 ] the website also named it Game of the Month for April 2003 because it had "amazing graphics and sound presentation, as well as a quest that lasts for more than thirty hours." [ 57 ] It was rated the 31st best game made on a Nintendo System in Nintendo Power ' s Top 200 Games list. [ 58 ] References ^ a b c d Harris, Craig (2001-11-09). "IGN Golden Sun Review" . IGN . http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/165/165255p1.html . Retrieved 2010-11-07 . ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual . Nintendo. p. 3. ^ a b c Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Advice for Adepts . Nintendo. pp. 50–53. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Psynergy . Nintendo. p. 18. ^ "Psynergy List" . GameSpy . Archived from the original on 2008-02-28 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080228202756/http://www.goldensun.rpgplanet.gamespy.com/gs/psynergy.php . Retrieved 2006-07-11 . ^ Flowe, Doug (2001-12-08). "GBA Reviews: Golden Sun" . Armchair Empire . http://www.armchairempire.com/Reviews/gba/golden_sun.htm . Retrieved 2007-09-19 . ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Advice for Adepts . Nintendo. p. 51. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Djinn . Nintendo. p. 16. ^ "Allgame: Golden Sun " . allgame.com . http://allgame.com/game.php?id=35091 . Retrieved 2007-09-20 . ^ a b IGN Staff (2001). "Golden Sun Preview" . IGN . http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/135/135255p1.html . Retrieved 2007-01-06 . ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Shops, Inns, and Sanctums . Nintendo. p. 34. ^ Nguyen, Chase. "Golden Sun" . AllRPG. Archived from the original on 2007-06-03 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070603152912/http://www.allrpg.com/games/goldensun/index.php3?page=review&num=2 . Retrieved 2007-09-20 . ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: The Arena . Nintendo. pp. 52–54. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Djinn and their Abilities . Nintendo. p. 19. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Character Classes . Nintendo. p. 32. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Tips . Nintendo. p. 50. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual: Dijinn . Nintendo. p. 44. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manual . Nintendo. Appendix A. ^ " Male villager: The huge waterfall at the edge of the world is known as Gaia Falls."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun: The Lost Age . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2003-04-14) ^ " Old male villager: Well, at least Gaia Falls will put an end to a few silly arguments. After all, if it's got an edge and you can fall off it, the world is clearly FLAT!"— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun: The Lost Age . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2003-04-14) ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun: A Forbidden Power Is Unleashed . Nintendo. pp. 5–6. ^ a b Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manua: The Adepts . Nintendo. pp. 14–15. ^ Camelot, ed. (2002). Golden Sun Instruction Manua: Isaac's Antagonists . Nintendo. p. 15. ^ " In-game text: Ages ago, or so the stories tell, the power of Alchemy ruled over the world of Weyard. Alchemy wrought the base elements of humanity into thriving civilizations, like lead into gold. But in time, man's dreams gave birth to untold strife. Dreams of endless riches, of eternal life, of dominion over all that lived... Dreams of conquest and war."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun: The Lost Age . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2003-04-14) ^ " Menardi: How could we have anticipated Sol Sanctum would unleash such fury? / Saturos: It's a miracle that even the two of us were spared. / Menardi: That switch... It must have been a trap. / Saturos: But to think it could conjure up a storm this powerful! / Menardi: ...Another demonstration of the awesome powers of Alchemy. / Saturos: Regardless, we must not fail the next time we challenge Sol Sanctum."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Dora: Where do you all plan to go today? / Garet: We're going to Mt. Aleph with Kraden. / Dora: Mountain climbing with Kraden, eh? Kids and their games... / Jenna: No! It's part of our studies... / Dora: Ah, yes... Alchemy."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Felix: I know I've caused you much grief, Jenna. It was a miracle that I survived that day... / Saturos: We are the ones who saved him. / Menardi: We saw him floating unconscious in the river as we passed. / Felix: I've been with them ever since... I've experienced a lot."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Saturos: You heard us... If you wish to save your friends, then give us the Elemental Stars! / Menardi: Do you accept our terms? / Isaac: Yes. / Kraden: No, Isaac! You must not give them the Elemental Stars! / Saturos: Why would you deny us? Don't you want your friends to be safe?"— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " The Wise One: The volcano will erupt... Without the power of the Elemental Stars to contain it, the magma flows freely once again, and this chamber is collapsing."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Saturos: Forget about them. They won't make it out alive. / Menardi: But Saturos, there's still a chance they might survive. / Saturos: Anything is possible... So what do you suggest we do? / Alex: We take this "Jenna" with us... If they survive, they will want her back. And if they want her back, they will bring us the Star."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " The Wise One: The world will be exposed to the threat of Alchemy. / Garet: Alchemy? A threat? / The Wise One: It can be a dangerous power if it is misused... If the Elemental Stars ignite the flames of the four lighthouses, that power will be released. As long as the four lighthouses remain unlit..."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Ivan: Your quest has been on my mind ever since I left Vault. Remember? I read everything that happened in your minds. I couldn't just leave, not with all these terrible things happening. If I can't rescue Master Hammet, then I want to help you... Please, allow me to join your quest."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Mia: Well, I... Uh... I... I'll be joining Isaac on his quest."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Garet: It's too late! The lighthouse has already been lit! / Mia: It... It can't be! The beacon cannot be lit without the Mercury Star..."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Iodem: There were seven? Is this the same group you were following before? / Soldier 2: I'm certain of it. One of them must have been...Sheba. / Iodem: Sheba, you say... Is this true!? / Soldier 1: The scholar Kraden was protecting her. I'm sure it was Sheba... / Iodem: Did you hear that, Isaac? What do they want with Sheba?"— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Saturos: I hope you don't think you've finished us off. / Mia: You may not be finished, but you can barely stand. / Menardi: Right now, yes... But we'll be back on our feet... as soon as we do THIS! / Saturos: (Throws the Venus Star into the Venus Lighthouse well) / Ivan: Oh, no! He threw the Elemental Star into the lighthouse! / Mia: How could this happen... We couldn't keep them from lighting the beacon! / Saturos: That's not all... The energy of the beacon will restore our power."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Saturos: Heh heh... Felix is the least of your worries right now. / Mia: Oh my-they're glowing! / Menardi: It's time you learned what true power is! / Ivan: Their Psynergy is overflowing! / Saturos: Hya ha ha! It's too late to run! / Garet: Uh-oh... They're fusing! / Ivan: They've merged into one another! Everyone get back!"— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Saturos: How... How... did we lose? / Menardi: We are superior in every way, but still we were defeated..."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ " Garet: We did it! We won! / Ivan: We beat them...but have we really won? / Isaac: Yes. / Ivan: Even though we couldn't stop the beacon from being lit? / Garet: What are you talking about? We did everything we could! Sure we couldn't save the Venus Lighthouse, but... We beat them! They're gone! You saw them fall down into the pit... So we don't have to worry about any more beacons being lit! / Mia: But Felix is gone, and he's taken Sheba..."— Camelot Software Planning. Golden Sun . (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2001-11-11) ^ IGN Staff (2001). "Import Impressions: Golden Sun" . IGN . http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/097/097263p1.html . Retrieved 2007-01-06 . ^ IGN staff (2001-11-02). "First Look: US Golden Sun" . IGN . http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/099/099610p1.html . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . ^ James Mielke (2008). "Previews: We Love Golf!" . 1UP.com . http://www.1up.com/do/previewPage?cId=3167178&p=44 . Retrieved 2008-04-13 . ^ "Rumor: Golden Sun for Gamecube?" . Nintendo World Report. 2004 . http://www.nintendoworldreport.com/rumor/4522 . Retrieved January 7, 2007 . ^ "Golden Sun at Gamerankings.com" . Game Rankings . http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/468548.asp?q=golden%20sun . Retrieved 2012-01-13 . ^ "Golden Sun at Metacritic" . Metacritic . http://www.metacritic.com/game/game-boy-advance/golden-sun . Retrieved 2012-01-13 . ^ a b Concepcion, Miguel (September 2002). " Golden Sun (GBA) Review" . TechTV . Archived from the original on December 13, 2002 . http://web.archive.org/web/20021213155913/http://www.techtv.com/extendedplay/reviews/story/0,24330,3373913,00.html . Retrieved November 9, 2010 . ^ a b Leeper, Justin; McNamara, Andy. "GBA's Golden Child" . Game Informer . Archived from the original on March 11, 2005 . http://web.archive.org/web/20050311172208/www.gameinformer.com/Games/Review/200201/R03.0731.1805.25876.htm?CS_pid=160111 . Retrieved November 9, 2010 . ^ a b Molloy, Sean (November 14, 2001). " Golden Sun " . GamePro . Archived from the original on 2009-04-17 . http://web.archive.org/web/20090417023530/http://www.gamepro.com/article/reviews/18240/golden-sun/ . Retrieved November 9, 2010 . ^ a b Torres, Ricardo (2001-11-12). "Golden Sun for GBA- gamespot.com" . GameSpot . http://www.gamespot.com/gba/rpg/goldensun/review.html . Retrieved 2007-02-01 . ^ a b Wadleigh, Matt (2005-03-23). "Golden Sun Review" . Thunderbolt Games . http://www.thunderboltgames.com/reviews/article/golden-sun-review-for-gba.html . Retrieved 2008-06-05 . ^ a b Moulton, Rick (May 15, 2002). " Golden Sun " . Advance . Archived from the original on January 30, 2003 . http://web.archive.org/web/20030130183329/gamesradar.msn.co.uk/reviews/default.asp?subsectionid=170&articleid=63489&pagetype=2 . Retrieved November 9, 2010 . ^ "The Century's Top 50 Handheld Games" . Next Generation Magazine . 2006-08-02. Archived from the original on 2009-07-10 . http://www.next-gen.biz/features/the-centurys-top-50-handheld-games?page=0,2 . Retrieved 2008-04-13 . ^ "Nintendo GBA Japanese Ranking" . Japan Game Charts . http://www.japan-gamecharts.com/gba.php . Retrieved 2008-04-13 . ^ IGN Game Rankings review "Game Rankings- Golden Sun" . Gamerankings.com . http://www.gamerankings.com/itemrankings/launchreview.asp?reviewid=59181 IGN Game Rankings review . Retrieved July 13, 2006 . ^ "IGN Rankings" . IGN . http://top100.ign.com/2006/091-100.html . Retrieved October 10, 2006 . ^ Craig Harris (2007-03-16). "Top 25 Game Boy Advance Games of All Time" . IGN . http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/772/772284p1.html . Retrieved 2007-03-18 . ^ "IGN:Game of the Month" . IGN. 2003-04-14 . http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/400/400522p1.html . Retrieved 2008-07-13 . ^ "NP Top 200". Nintendo Power 200 : pp. 58–66. February 2006 External links The official Nintendo Golden Sun website ( English ) ( Japanese ) The official Camelot Golden Sun website Golden Sun Universe v t e Golden Sun series Golden Sun The Lost Age Dark Dawn Characters Camelot Software Planning Book:Golden Sun series
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+Clarke with viola in 1919 Rebecca Helferich Clarke (27 August 1886 – 13 October 1979) was an English classical composer and violist best known for her chamber music featuring the viola . She was born in Harrow and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and Royal College of Music in London, later becoming one of the first female professional orchestral players. Stranded in the United States at the outbreak of World War II, she settled permanently in New York City and married composer and pianist James Friskin in 1944. Clarke died at her home in New York at the age of 93. Although Clarke wrote little, due in part to her ideas about the role of a female composer, her work was recognised for its compositional skill. Most of her works have yet to be published (or have only recently been published), and were largely forgotten after she stopped composing. Scholarship and interest in her compositions revived in 1976. The Rebecca Clarke Society was established in 2000 to promote the study and performance of her music. Contents 1 Early life 2 Later life and marriage 3 Music 4 Rebecca Clarke Society 5 Selected works 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Early life London's Royal College of Music where Clarke studied from 1907 to 1910 Clarke was born in Harrow , England, to Joseph Thacher Clarke, an American, and his German wife, Agnes Paulina Marie Amalie Helferich. [ 1 ] Her father was interested in music, and had her take up the violin at age nine. [ 2 ] She began her studies at the Royal Academy of Music in 1903, but was withdrawn by her father in 1905 after teacher Percy Hilder Miles proposed to her (he later left her his Stradivarius violin in his will). She made the first of many visits to the United States shortly after leaving the Royal Academy. [ 2 ] She then attended the Royal College of Music from 1907 to 1910, becoming one of Sir Charles Villiers Stanford 's first female composition students. [ 3 ] At Stanford's urging she shifted her focus from the violin to the viola, just as the latter was coming to be seen as a legitimate solo instrument. [ 1 ] She studied with Lionel Tertis , who was considered by some the greatest violist of the day. [ 1 ] In 1910 she composed a setting of Chinese poetry, called "Tears", in collaboration with a group of fellow students at RCM. [ 2 ] She also sang under the direction of Ralph Vaughan Williams in a student ensemble organized by Clarke to study and perform Palestrina 's music. [ 2 ] Following her criticism of his extra-marital affairs, Clarke's father turned her out of the house and cut off her funds. [ 4 ] She had to leave the Royal College in 1910 and supported herself through her viola playing. Clarke became one of the first female professional orchestral musicians when she was selected by Sir Henry Wood to play in the Queen's Hall Orchestra in 1912. [ 3 ] [ 5 ] In 1916 she moved to the United States to continue her performing career. A short, lyrical piece for viola and piano entitled Morpheus , composed under the pseudonym of "Anthony Trent", was premiered at her 1918 joint recital with cellist May Muklé in New York City. Reviewers praised the "Trent", largely ignoring the works credited to Clarke premiered in the same recital. [ 4 ] Her compositional career peaked in a brief period, beginning with the viola sonata she entered in a 1919 competition sponsored by Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge , Clarke's neighbour and a patron of the arts. In a field of 72 entrants, Clarke's sonata tied for first place with a composition by Ernest Bloch . Coolidge later declared Bloch the winner. Reporters speculated that "Rebecca Clarke" was only a pseudonym for Bloch himself, or at least that it could not have been Clarke who wrote these pieces, [ 5 ] as the idea that a woman could write such a work was socially inconceivable. The sonata was well received and had its first performance at the Berkshire music festival in 1919. In 1921 Clarke again made an impressive showing in Coolidge's composition competition with her piano trio , though again failed to take the prize. A 1923 rhapsody for cello and piano followed, sponsored by Coolidge, making Clarke the only female recipient of Coolidge's patronage. [ 5 ] These three works represent the height of Clarke's compositional career. [ 1 ] Later life and marriage Clarke began a career as a solo and ensemble performer in London in 1924 after completing a world tour in 1922-23. [ 6 ] In 1927 she helped form the English Ensemble, a piano quartet that included her, Marjorie Hayward, Kathleen Long and May Muklé . She also performed on several recordings in the 1920s and 1930s, and participated in BBC music broadcasts. Her compositional output greatly decreased during this period. [ 1 ] However, she continued to perform, participating in the Paris Colonial Exhibition in 1931 as part of the English Ensemble. [ 7 ] Between 1927 and 1933 she was romantically involved with the British baritone , John Goss , who was eight years her junior and married at the time. [ 3 ] He had premiered several of her mature songs, two of which were dedicated to him, "June Twilight" and "The Seal Man". Her "Tiger, Tiger", finished at the time the relationship was ending, proved to be her last composition for solo voice until the early 1940s. [ 8 ] At the outbreak of World War II, Clarke was in the US vsiting her two brothers, and was unable to obtain a visa to return to Britain. She lived for a while with her brothers' families and then in 1942 took a position as a governess for a family in Connecticut. [ 9 ] She composed 10 works between 1939 and 1942, including her Passacaglia on an Old English Tune . [ 2 ] She had first met her husband, James Friskin (a composer, concert pianist and founding member of the Juilliard School faculty), when they were both students at the Royal College of Music. They renewed their friendship after a chance meeting on a Manhattan street in 1944 and married in September of that year when both were in their late 50s. According to musicologist Liane Curtis, Friskin was "a man who gave [Clarke] a sense of deep satisfaction and equilibrium." [ 3 ] Clarke has been described by Curtis as one of the most important British composers in the period between World War I and World War II, [ 5 ] and by Stephen Banfield as the most distinguished British female composer of the inter-war generation. [ 10 ] However, her later output was sporadic. [ 1 ] She suffered from dysthymia , a chronic form of depression ; [ 11 ] the lack of encouragement—sometimes outright discouragement—she received for her work also made her reluctant to compose. [ 3 ] Clarke did not consider herself able to balance her personal life and the demands of composition: "I can't do it unless it's the first thing I think of every morning when I wake and the last thing I think of every night before I go to sleep." After her marriage, she stopped composing, despite the encouragement of her husband, although she continued working on arrangements until shortly before her death. She also stopped performing. [ 1 ] [ 3 ] Clarke sold the Stradivarius she had been bequeathed, and established the May Muklé prize at the Royal Academy. The prize is still awarded annually to an outstanding cellist. [ 12 ] After her husband's death in 1967, Clarke began writing a memoir , entitled I Had a Father Too (or the Mustard Spoon) ; it was completed in 1973 but never published. In it she describes her early life, marked by frequent beatings from her father and strained family relations which affected her perceptions of her proper place in life. [ 3 ] Clarke died in 1979 at her home in New York City at the age of 93, and was cremated . [ 1 ] Music A 1918 program showcasing Clarke's work. Here, her duet Morpheus is credited to the pseudonym "Anthony Trent" A large portion of Clarke's music features the viola, as she was a professional performer for many years. Much of her output was written for herself and the all-female chamber ensembles she played in, including the Norah Clench Quartet, the English Ensemble, and the d'Aranyi Sisters. She also toured worldwide, particularly with cellist May Muklé. Her works were strongly influenced by several trends in 20th century classical music . Clarke also knew many leading composers of the day, including Bloch and Ravel, with whom her work has been compared. [ 1 ] The impressionism of Debussy is often mentioned in connection with Clarke's work, particularly its lush textures and modernistic harmonies . The Viola Sonata (published in the same year as the Bloch and the Hindemith Viola Sonata) is an example of this, with its pentatonic opening theme, thick harmonies, emotionally intense nature, and dense, rhythmically complex texture. The Sonata remains a part of standard repertoire for the viola. Morpheus , composed a year earlier, was her first expansive work, after over a decade of songs and miniatures. The Rhapsody that Coolidge sponsored is Clarke's most ambitious work: it is roughly 23 minutes long, with complex musical ideas and ambiguous tonalities contributing to the varying moods of the piece. In contrast, "Midsummer Moon", written the following year, is a light miniature, with a flutter-like solo violin line. [ 4 ] In addition to her chamber music for strings, Clarke wrote many songs. Nearly all of Clarke's early pieces are for solo voice and piano. Her 1933 "Tiger, Tiger", a setting of Blake 's poem " The Tyger ", is dark and brooding, almost expressionist . She worked on it for five years to the exclusion of other works during her tumultuous relationship with John Goss and revised it in 1972. [ 5 ] Most of her songs, however, are lighter in nature. Her earliest works were parlour songs , and she went on to build up a body of work drawn primarily from classic texts by Yeats , Masefield , and A.E. Housman . [ 1 ] During 1939 to 1942, the last prolific period near the end of her compositional career, her style became more clear and contrapuntal , with emphasis on motivic elements and tonal structures, the hallmarks of neoclassicism . Dumka (1941), a recently published work for violin, viola, and piano, reflects the Eastern European folk styles of Bartók and Martinů . [ 5 ] The " Passacaglia on an Old English Tune", also from 1941 and premiered by Clarke herself, is based on a theme attributed to Thomas Tallis which appears throughout the work. The piece is modal in flavor, mainly in the Dorian mode but venturing into the seldom-heard Phrygian mode . The piece is dedicated to "BB", ostensibly Clarke's niece Magdalen; scholars speculate that the dedication is more likely referring to Benjamin Britten , who organised a concert commemorating the death of Clarke's friend and major influence Frank Bridge . [ 13 ] The Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale , also composed in 1941, is another neoclassically-influenced piece, written for clarinet and viola (originally for her brother and sister-in-law). [ 4 ] Clarke composed no large scale works such as symphonies. Her total output of compositions comprises 52 songs, 11 choral works, 21 chamber pieces, the Piano Trio, and the Viola Sonata. [ 5 ] Her work was all but forgotten for a long period of time, but interest in it was revived in 1976 following a radio broadcast in celebration of her ninetieth birthday. Over half of Clarke's compositions remain unpublished and in the personal possession of her heirs, along with most of her writings. [ 11 ] However, in the early 2000s more of her works were printed and recorded. [ 14 ] Examples of recent publications include two string quartets and Morpheus , published in 2002. [ 4 ] Modern reception of Clarke's work has been generally positive. A 1981 review of her Viola Sonata called it a "thoughtful, well constructed piece" from a relatively obscure composer; [ 15 ] a 1985 review noted its "emotional intensity and use of dark tone colours". [ 16 ] Andrew Achenbach, in his review of a Helen Callus recording of several Clarke works, referred to Morpheus as "striking" and "languorous". [ 17 ] Laurence Vittes noted that Clarke's "Lullaby" was "exceedingly sweet and tender". [ 18 ] A 1987 review concluded that "it seems astonishing that such splendidly written and deeply moving music should have lain in obscurity all these years". [ 19 ] Rebecca Clarke Society The Rebecca Clarke Society was established in September 2000 to promote performance, scholarship, and awareness of the works of Rebecca Clarke. Founded by musicologists Liane Curtis and Jessie Ann Owens and based in the Women's Studies Research Center at Brandeis University , the Society has promoted recording and scholarship of Clarke's work, including several world premiere performances, recordings of unpublished material, and numerous journal publications. [ 20 ] The Society made available previously unpublished compositions from Clarke's estate. "Binnorie", a twelve-minute song based on Celtic folklore, was discovered in 1997, and not premiered until 2001. Over 25 previously unknown works have been published since the establishment of the Society. Several of Clarke's chamber works, including the expansive Rhapsody for cello and piano, and Cortège , her only piano work, were first recorded in 2000 on the Dutton label, using material from the Clarke estate. In 2002, the Society organised and sponsored the world premieres of the 1907 and 1909 violin sonatas. [ 21 ] The head of the Rebecca Clarke Society, Liane Curtis, is the editor of A Rebecca Clarke Reader , originally published by Indiana University Press in 2004. The book was withdrawn from circulation by the publisher following complaints from the copyright holders about the inclusion musical examples. [ 22 ] However, the Reader has since been reissued by the Rebecca Clarke Society itself. [ 23 ] Selected works For a complete listing, see List of compositions by Rebecca Clarke . Chamber music 2 Pieces: Lullaby and Grotesque for viola (or violin) and cello ( ca . 1916) Morpheus for viola and piano (1917–1918) Sonata for viola (or cello) and piano (1919) Piano Trio (1921) Rhapsody for cello and piano (1923) Passacaglia on an Old English Tune for viola (or cello) and piano (?1940–1941) Prelude, Allegro and Pastorale for viola and clarinet (1941) Vocal Shiv and the Grasshopper for voice and piano (1904); words from The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling Shy One for voice and piano (1912); words by William Butler Yeats He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place ( Psalm 91 ) for soloists and mixed chorus (1921) The Seal Man for voice and piano (1922); words by John Masefield The Aspidistra for voice and piano (1929); words by Claude Flight The Tiger for voice and piano (1929–1933); words by William Blake God Made a Tree for voice and piano (1954); words by Katherine Kendall Choral Music, When Soft Voices Die for mixed chorus (1907); words by Percy Bysshe Shelley References ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ponder, Michael (2004). "Clarke, Rebecca Helferich (1886–1979)" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . Oxford University Press . http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/61135 . (Subscription required) ^ a b c d e Curtis, Liane (2005). "Rebecca Clarke and the British Musical Renaissance". In Curtis, Liane. A Rebecca Clarke reader . Rebecca Clarke Society. pp. 19–42. ISBN 978-0-9770079-0-5 . ^ a b c d e f g Curtis, Liane (May 1996). "A Case of Identity" . Musical Times : 15–21 . http://www.rebeccaclarke.org/pdf/identity.pdf . ^ a b c d e Ponder, Michael (2000). Rebecca Clarke: Midsummer Moon (Album notes). Dutton Laboratories. ^ a b c d e f g Curtis, Liane. "Rebecca Clarke" . Grove Music Online . http://www.grovemusic.com . (Subscription required) ^ Reich, Nancy B (2005). "Rebecca Clarke: An Uncommon Woman". In Curtis, Liane. A Rebecca Clarke reader . Rebecca Clarke Society. pp. 10–18. ISBN 978-0-9770079-0-5 . ^ Clarke, Rebecca (Autumn 1931). "La Semaine Anglaise at the Paris Colonial Exhibition". BMS Bulletin New Series I : 7–11. ^ Stein, Deborah (2005). "'Dare seize the fire': An introduction to the songs of Rebecca Clarke". In Curtis, Liane. A Rebecca Clarke Reader . Rebecca Clarke Society. pp. 43–78. ISBN 978-0-9770079-0-5 . ^ Ammer, Christine (2001). Unsung: A History of Women in American Music (2nd Edition ed.). Amadeus. p. 167. ISBN 1-57467-058-1 . ^ Banfield, Stephen (1995). "Clarke, Rebecca (Thacher)". The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers . W.W. Norton and Co. p. 120. ^ a b Curtis, Liane (Fall 2003). "When Virginia Woolf met Rebecca Clarke". Newsletter of the Rebecca Clarke Society . ^ Schleifer, Martha Furman (2000). Program notes to Clarke's Sonata for Viola and Piano . Hildegard Publishing Company. ^ Curtis, Liane (1999). Program notes to "Passacaglia on an Old English Tune". Hildegard Publishing Company. ^ Curtis, Liane, ed. (2005). A Rebecca Clarke reader . The Rebecca Clarke Society. pp. 3–5. ^ "Review: Britten. Lacrymae, Op. 48, Clarke. Viola Sonata.". Gramophone : 48. July 1981. ^ "Review: Clarke. Viola Sonata.". Gramophone : 42. July 1985. ^ Achenbach, Andrew (February 2003). "Review: A Portrait of the Viola". Gramophone : 65. ^ Vittes, Laurence (November 2005). "Viola View". Gramophone : 49. ^ "Review: Clarke. Piano Trio.". Gramophone : 75. March 1987. ^ "About the Rebecca Clarke Society" . Rebecca Clarke Society. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010 . http://web.archive.org/web/20100923132358/http://www.rebeccaclarke.org/aboutRCS.html . Retrieved 1 December 2010 . ^ "News and Events" . Rebecca Clarke Society. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010 . http://web.archive.org/web/20101109012123/http://www.rebeccaclarke.org/news.html . Retrieved 1 December 2010 . ^ Byrne, Richard (2004-07-16). "Silent Treatment" . The Chronicle of Higher Education . http://chronicle.com/article/Silent-Treatment/36247 . Retrieved 1 December 2010 . ^ "A Rebecca Clarke Reader" . Rebecca Clarke Society. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010 . http://web.archive.org/web/20100315135529/http://www.rebeccaclarke.org/reader.html . Retrieved 16 March 2010 . Further reading Ann M. Woodward, program notes to Clarke's Sonata for Viola and Piano, J. & W. Chester, Ltd., 1985. External links The Rebecca Clarke Society Homepage Authority control : LCCN : n82159302 | WorldCat Persondata Name Clarke, Rebecca Alternative names Friskin, Rebecca Clarke Short description English classical composer Date of birth 27 August 1886 Place of birth London Borough of Harrow , England Date of death 13 October 1979 Place of death New York City , New York , United States
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent This article is about the Mothers of Invention album. For other uses, see Freak out (disambiguation) . Freak Out! Studio album by The Mothers of Invention Released June 27, 1966 ( 1966-06-27 ) Recorded March 9–12, 1966 at Sunset-Highland Studios of TTG Genre Rock , blues , experimental Label Verve Producer Tom Wilson Frank Zappa chronology Freak Out! (1966) Absolutely Free (1967) Back cover Featuring a "letter" from Suzy Creamcheese Freak Out! is the debut album by American band The Mothers of Invention , released June 27, 1966 on Verve Records . Often cited as one of rock music's first concept albums , the album is a satirical expression of frontman Frank Zappa 's perception of American pop culture. It was also one of the earliest double albums in rock music (although Bob Dylan 's Blonde on Blonde preceded it by a week), and the first 2-record debut. In the UK the album was originally released as a single disc. The album was produced by Tom Wilson , who signed The Mothers, formerly a bar band called the Soul Giants. Zappa said many years later that Wilson signed the group to a record deal in the belief that they were a white blues band. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The album features vocalist Ray Collins , along with bass player Roy Estrada , drummer Jimmy Carl Black and guitar player Elliot Ingber , who would later join Captain Beefheart 's Magic Band under the name Winged Eel Fingerling. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The band's original repertoire consisted of rhythm and blues covers; though after Zappa joined the band he encouraged them to play his own original material, and the name was changed to The Mothers. [ 5 ] The musical content of Freak Out! ranges from rhythm and blues, doo-wop and standard blues -influenced rock to orchestral arrangements and avant-garde sound collages . Although the album was initially poorly received in the United States, it was a success in Europe. It gained a cult following in America, where it continued to sell in substantial quantities until it was prematurely discontinued in the early 1970s. In 1999, it was honored with the Grammy Hall of Fame Award , [ 6 ] and in 2003, Rolling Stone ranked it among the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time . [ 7 ] In 2006, The MOFO Project/Object , an audio documentary on the making of the album, was released in honor of its 40th anniversary. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Contents 1 Background 2 Recording 3 Release 4 Response 5 Track listing 6 Credits 7 Charts 8 References [ edit ] Background In the early 1960s, Zappa met Ray Collins. Collins supported himself by working as a carpenter, and on weekends sang with a group called the Soul Giants. Collins got into a fight with their guitar player, who quit, leaving the band in need of a substitute, and Zappa filled in. [ 1 ] [ 10 ] The Soul Giants' repertoire originally consisted of R&B covers; though after Zappa joined the band he encouraged them to play his own original material and try to get a record contract. [ 5 ] While most of the bandmembers liked the idea, then-leader and saxophone player Davy Coronado felt that performing original material would cost them bookings, and quit the band. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The Soul Giants became The Mothers, and Zappa took over leadership of the band. [ 1 ] The group moved to Los Angeles in early 1965 after Zappa got them a management contract with Herb Cohen . They gained steady work at clubs along the Sunset Strip. MGM staff producer Tom Wilson offered the band a record deal on the Verve Records division in early 1966. He had heard of their growing reputation but had seen them perform only one song, " Trouble Every Day ", which concerned the Watts riots . [ 10 ] According to Zappa, this led Wilson to believe that they were a "white blues band." [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The group signed their contract on March 1, 1966 and quickly began work on their first album. This would have made them a part of the "white blues band" trend, initiated in 1965 with the debut of The Paul Butterfield Blues Band from Chicago and the 1966 debut of the Blues Project from New York City. [ edit ] Recording "Hungry Freaks, Daddy" (sample) "The Return of the Son of Monster Magnet" (sample) Problems listening to these files? See media help . The first two songs recorded for the album were "Any Way The Wind Blows" and "Who Are the Brain Police?" [ 1 ] [ 10 ] When Tom Wilson heard the latter, he realized that The Mothers were not merely a blues band. In The Real Frank Zappa Book , Zappa wrote "I could see through the window that he was scrambling toward the phone to call his boss—probably saying: 'Well, uh, not exactly a "white blues band," but...sort of.'" [ 1 ] In a 1968 article written for Hit Parader magazine, Zappa wrote that when Wilson heard these songs, "he was so impressed he got on the phone and called New York, and as a result I got a more or less unlimited budget to do this monstrosity." [ 10 ] Freak Out! is an early example of the concept album , a sardonic farce about rock music and America. "All the songs on it were about something," Zappa wrote in The Real Frank Zappa Book . "It wasn't as if we had a hit single and we needed to build some filler around it. Each tune had a function within an overall satirical concept." [ 1 ] If you were to graphically analyze the different types of directions of all the songs in the Freak Out! album, there's a little something in there for everybody. At least one piece of material is slanted for every type of social orientation within our consumer group, which happens to be six to eighty. Because we got people that like what we do, from kids six years old screaming on us to play "Wowie Zowie." Like I meet executives doing this and that, and they say, 'My kid's got the record, and 'Wowie Zowie s their favorite song." [ 11 ] The album was recorded at TTG Studios at the corner of Sunset and Highland in Hollywood, California, between March 9 and March 12, 1966. [ 12 ] Some songs, such as "Motherly Love" and "I Ain't Got No Heart" had already been recorded before the Freak Out! sessions. These early recordings, said to have been made around 1965, [ 12 ] were not officially released until 2004, when they appeared on the posthumous Zappa album Joe's Corsage . An early version of the song "Any Way The Wind Blows," recorded in 1963, [ 13 ] appears on another posthumous release, The Lost Episodes . The song was written when Zappa considered divorcing first wife Kay Sherman. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] In the liner notes for Freak Out! , Zappa wrote "If I had never gotten divorced, this piece of trivial nonsense would never have been recorded." [ 14 ] Frank Zappa in the recording studio. Tom Wilson became more enthusiastic as the sessions continued. In the middle of the week of recording, Zappa told him "I would like to rent $500 worth of percussion equipment for a session that starts at midnight on Friday and I want to bring all the freaks from Sunset Boulevard into the studio to do something special." Wilson agreed. The material was worked into " The Return of the Son of Monster Magnet ". [ 1 ] According to Zappa, the record label refused to allow him the time needed to complete the composition, and so it was released in unfinished form. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Zappa later found out that when the material was recorded, Wilson had taken LSD . "I've tried to imagine what he must have been thinking, sitting in that control room, listening to all that weird shit coming out of the speakers, and being responsible for telling the engineer, Ami Hadani (who was not on acid), what to do." [ 1 ] By the time Freak Out! was edited and shaped into an album, Wilson had spent $25–35,000 of MGM's money. [ 1 ] In Hit Parader magazine, Zappa wrote "Wilson was sticking his neck out. He laid his job on the line by producing the album. MGM felt that they had spent too much money on the album." [ 10 ] The label requested that two lines be removed from the "It Can't Happen Here" section of "Help, I'm a Rock," (a song dedicated to Elvis Presley ) [ 14 ] [ 16 ] both of which had been interpreted by MGM executives to be drug references. However, the label either had no objections to, or else did not notice, a sped-up recording of Zappa shouting the word "fuck" after accidentally smashing his finger, [ 17 ] occurring at 11 minutes and 36 seconds into "The Return of the Son of Monster Magnet". On the 1995 compact disc issue of the album, "Help, I'm a Rock" and "It Can't Happen Here" were indexed as separate tracks, as "It Can't Happen Here" had been on the 1969 vinyl compilation " Mothermania ." [ 18 ] MGM also told Zappa that the band would have to change their name, claiming that no DJ would play a record on the air by a group called "The Mothers." [ 1 ] [ 19 ] ...at the time, it was, you know, if you were a good musician, you were a motherfucker, and Mothers was short for collection of motherfuckers. And actually, it was kind of presumptuous to name the band that, because we weren't that good musicians, we were...But by bar-band standards in the area, we were light-years ahead of our competition, but in terms of real musicianship, I just suppose we were right down there in the swamp. [ 2 ] —Frank Zappa [ edit ] Release The Mothers of Invention in 1966 (with Carl Franzoni, third from right.) Freak Out! was released June 27, 1966 with the band's name changed to The Mothers of Invention, a name Zappa chose in favor of MGM's original suggested name, "The Mothers Auxiliary." [ 20 ] The album's back cover included a "letter" from Zappa-created fictional character Suzy Creamcheese (who also appears on the album itself), which read: These Mothers is crazy. You can tell by their clothes. One guy wears beads and they all smell bad. We were gonna get them for a dance after the basketball game but my best pal warned me you can never tell how many will show up...sometimes the guy in the fur coat doesn't show up and sometimes he does show up only he brings a big bunch of crazy people with him and they dance all over the place. None of the kids at my school like these Mothers...specially since my teacher told us what the words to their songs meant. Sincerely forever, Suzy Creamcheese, Salt Lake City, Utah. [ 21 ] Because the text was printed in a typeface resembling typewriter lettering, some people thought that Suzy Creamcheese was real, and many listeners expected to see her in concert performances. Because of this, it was decided that "it would be best to bring along a Suzy Creamcheese replica who would demonstrate once and for all the veracity of such a beast." [ 22 ] Because the original voice of Suzy Creamcheese, Jeanne Vassoir, was unavailable, Pamela Lee Zarubica took over the part. [ 22 ] Early US pressings of the album included a blurb for a "Freak Out Hot Spots!" map. Inside the gatefold jacket the small ad was aimed at people coming to visit Los Angeles and it listed several famous restaurants and clubs including Canter's and The Whiskey A Go-Go. The ad also claimed information concerning police arrests. It states: "Also shows where the heat has been busting frequently, with tips on safety in police terror situations". Those interested in the map were instructed to send $1.00 to MGM Records c/o 1540 Broadway NY. NY. address. The phony map blurb was not included on later pressings but was removed and the space was left blank. , [ 18 ] It was eventually reprinted and included with The MOFO Project/Object , a four-disc audio documentary on the making of the album, released posthumously by the Zappa Family Trust in 2006. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ edit ] Response Professional ratings Review scores Source Rating Allmusic [ 23 ] The Daily Vault (B) [ 24 ] Los Angeles Times (unfavorable) [ 25 ] Q [ 26 ] Yahoo! Music (favorable) [ 27 ] Though it reached #130 on the Billboard chart, [ 28 ] Freak Out! was neither a major commercial nor critical success when it was first released in the United States. [ 2 ] Some listeners were convinced that the album was drug-inspired, [ 1 ] and interpreted the album's title as slang for a bad LSD trip. [ 29 ] In The Real Frank Zappa Book , Zappa quotes a negative review of the album by Pete Johnson of the Los Angeles Times , who wrote: I guess you might call it surrealistic paintings set to music. Not content to record just two sides of musical gibberish, the MOI devote four full sides to their type of 'artistry.' If anyone owns this album, perhaps he can tell me what in hell is going on...The Mothers of Invention, a talented but warped quintet, have fathered an album poetically entitled Freak Out , which could be the greatest stimulus to the aspirin industry since the income tax. [ 30 ] However the album did develop a major cult following in the US by the time MGM/Verve had been merged into a division of PolyGram in 1972. At that time many MGM/Verve releases including Freak Out! were prematurely deleted in an attempt to keep the struggling company financially solvent. Zappa had already moved on to his own companies Bizarre Records and Straight Records which were distributed by Warner Bros. Records . Freak Out! was initially more successful in Europe and quickly influenced many English rock musicians. [ 17 ] According to David Fricke the album was a major influence on The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band . [ 31 ] However, Zappa criticized the Beatles, as he felt they were "only in it for the money". [ 32 ] Freak Out! was honored with the Grammy Hall of Fame Award in 1999, [ 6 ] ranked at number 243 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the " 500 Greatest Albums of All Time " in 2003, [ 7 ] and featured in the 2006 book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die . [ 33 ] The album was named as one of Classic Rock magazine ' s "50 Albums That Built Prog Rock". [ 34 ] [ edit ] Track listing All songs written and composed by Frank Zappa except where noted. Side one No. Title Writer(s) Length 1. "Hungry Freaks, Daddy" 3:32 2. "I Ain't Got No Heart" 2:34 3. "Who Are The Brain Police?" 3:25 4. "Go Cry on Somebody Else's Shoulder" Frank Zappa and Ray Collins 3:43 5. " Motherly Love" 2:50 6. "How Could I Be Such a Fool?" 2:16 Side two No. Title Length 7. "Wowie Zowie" 2:55 8. "You Didn't Try to Call Me" 3:21 9. "Any Way the Wind Blows" 2:55 10. "I'm Not Satisfied" 2:41 11. "You're Probably Wondering Why I'm Here" 3:41 Side three No. Title Length 12. " Trouble Every Day " 5:53 13. "Help, I'm a Rock: Okay To Tap Dance/In Memoriam, Edgar Varèse /It Can't Happen Here" 8:37 Side four No. Title Length 14. " The Return of the Son of Monster Magnet (Unfinished Ballet in Two Tableaux: Ritual Dance of the Child-Killer/Nullis Pretii (No commercial potential))" 12:22 Total length: 60:55 [ edit ] Credits Musicians Frank Zappa – guitar , conductor, vocals Jimmy Carl Black – percussion , drums , vocals Ray Collins – harmonica, cymbals, sound effects, tambourine, vocals, finger cymbals Elliot Ingber – alternate lead & rhythm guitar Roy Estrada – bass , vocals, guitarron , soprano vocals Gene Estes – percussion Eugene Di Novi – piano Neil Le Vang – guitar John Rotella – clarinet, sax Carol Kaye - 12-string guitar Kurt Reher – cello Raymond Kelley – cello Paul Bergstrom – cello Emmet Sargeant – cello Joseph Saxon – cello Edwin V. Beach – cello Arthur Maebe – French horn, tuba Motorhead Sherwood – noises Kim Fowley - megaphone Mac Rebennack – piano Paul Butterfield Les McCann – piano Jeannie Vassoir – (the voice of Cheese) Production Producer: Tom Wilson Engineering director: Val Valentin Engineers: Ami, Tom, Val Valentin Assistant: Eugene Dinovi, Neil Levang, Vito, Ken Watson Musical director: Frank Zappa Orchestration: Frank Zappa Arranger: Frank Zappa Cover design: Jack Anesh Hair stylist: Ray Collins [ edit ] Charts Album Year Chart Position 1967 Billboard Pop Albums 130 [ 28 ] [ edit ] References ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Zappa, Frank; Occhiogrosso, Peter (1989). The Real Frank Zappa Book . New York: Poseidon Press. pp. 65–80. ISBN 0-671-70572-5 . ^ a b c d e Leigh, Nigel. Interview with Frank Zappa for BBC Late Show. UMRK, LA. March, 1993. ^ "Elliot Ingber info" . United Mutations . http://www.united-mutations.com/i/elliot_ingber.htm . Retrieved 2007-02-22 . ^ "FZ Musicians & Collaborators H-L: Elliot Ingber (Winged Eel Fingerling)" . Information Is Not Knowledge . http://globalia.net/donlope/fz/musicians/H-L.html#IngberElliot . Retrieved 2007-02-22 . ^ a b Billy James, Necessity Is . . .: The Early Years of Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention , page 23 . SAF Publishing Ltd, 2002, ISBN 0946719519 . 2002-10-01. ISBN 978-0-946719-51-8 . http://books.google.com/?id=Q9AkNKdIuEcC&pg=PA23&dq=So%22the+Soul+Giants+no+longer+seemed+like+an+appropriate+name&cd=1#v=onepage&q=So%22the%20Soul%20Giants%20no%20longer%20seemed%20like%20an%20appropriate%20name . Retrieved 2010-05-28 . ^ a b "GRAMMY Hall Of Fame Awards" . Grammy.com . http://www.grammy.org/recording-academy/awards/hall-of-fame . Retrieved 2007-03-20 . ^ a b "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" . Rolling Stone . http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/_/id/6599773 . Retrieved 2007-01-20 . ^ a b Zappa, Frank. The MOFO Project/Object . ZR 20004. ^ a b "Vinyl Vs. CDs: MoFo: The Making of Freak Out! " . The Zappa Patio . http://www.lukpac.org/~handmade/patio/vinylvscds/mofo.html . Retrieved 2007-01-20 . ^ a b c d e Zappa, Frank (June 1968). "The Incredible History Of The Mothers" . Hit Parader . http://www.zappa.com/fz/interviews/006_19680600.html . Retrieved 2007-02-09 . ^ Eisen, Jonathan. The Age of Rock: Sounds of the American Cultural Revolution . Random House Inc. ISBN 0-394-70535-1 . ^ a b "FZ chronology: 1965–1969: The Mothers of Invention" . Information Is Not Knowledge . http://globalia.net/donlope/fz/chronology/1965-1969.html . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ a b The Lost Episodes . Liner notes. RCD 40573. ^ a b c d Zappa, Frank. Freak Out! Liner notes. V/V6-5005-2. ^ Zappa, Frank. Radio appearance. WDET, Detroit, MI. November 13, 1967. ^ Shelton, Robert (December 25, 1966). "Son of Suzy Creamcheese" . The New York Times . http://www.zappa.com/fz/interviews/001_19661225.html . Retrieved 2007-02-09 . ^ a b Biberfeld, Matty. Interview with Frank Zappa. WRVR, New York City, NY. Summer, 1967. ^ a b "Vinyl Vs. CDs: Freak Out! " . The Zappa Patio . http://www.lukpac.org/~handmade/patio/vinylvscds/freakout.html . Retrieved 2007-01-20 . ^ "Interview" . Rolling Stone . 1988 . http://home.online.no/~corneliu/rs88.htm . Retrieved 2007-02-09 . ^ Zappa, Frank (Unknown date). ""Pretty Pat" (Interview excerpted on Joe's Corsage , VR 20041)" . http://globalia.net/donlope/fz/lyrics/Joe's_Corsage.html#Pretty . Retrieved 2007-02-07 . ^ Zappa, Frank. Freak Out! Back cover. V/V6-5005-2. ^ a b Zappa, Frank. Interview. KBEY-FM, Kansas City, MO. October 22, 1971. ^ Huey, Steve. "Review: Freak Out! " . Allmusic . http://www.allmusic.com/album/r53126 . Retrieved 13 June 2009 . ^ Thelen, Christopher. "Review: Freak Out! " . Daily Vault . http://dailyvault.com/toc.php5?review=5820 . Retrieved 13 June 2009 . ^ Johnson, Pete (1966-07-10). "Popular Record: Pass Aspirin, Please" . Los Angeles Times . http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/496874152.html?dids=496874152:496874152&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Jul+10%2C+1966&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&desc=POPULAR+RECORDS%3A+PASS+ASPIRIN%2C+PLEASE&pqatl=google . Retrieved 20 November 2009 . ^ "Review: Freak Out! ". Q (August 1995): 150–151. ^ Walls, Richard C.. "Review: Freak Out! " . Yahoo! Music . http://ca.music.yahoo.com/read/review/12048959 . Retrieved 13 June 2009 . [ dead link ] ^ a b "Chart & Awards for Freak Out! " . Allmusic . http://www.allmusic.com/album/r53126 . Retrieved 2007-12-06 . ^ Zappa, Frank. Interview. Mixed Media, Detroit, MI November 13, 1967. ^ Johnson, Pete (August 1966). "Review of Freak Out! ". Los Angeles Times . ^ Fricke, David (2006). The MOFO Project/Object (Album notes). Frank Zappa. Zappa Records. ^ Fricke, David (2008). Lumpy Money (Album notes). Frank Zappa. Zappa Records. ^ Robert Dimery, ed. (2006). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die . Universe. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5 . http://www.rocklistmusic.co.uk/steveparker/1001albums.htm . ^ Classic Rock magazine , July 2010, Issue 146. Listen to this article ( info/dl ) This audio file was created from a revision of the " Freak Out! " article dated 2008-05-15, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ( Audio help ) More spoken articles v t e Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention Albums 1960s Freak Out! Absolutely Free We're Only in It for the Money Lumpy Gravy Cruising with Ruben & the Jets Uncle Meat Mothermania Hot Rats 1970s Burnt Weeny Sandwich Weasels Ripped My Flesh Chunga's Revenge Fillmore East – June 1971 200 Motels Just Another Band from L.A. 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Mystery Disc EIHN (Everything Is Healing Nicely) 2000s FZ:OZ Halloween Joe's Corsage Joe's Domage QuAUDIOPHILIAc Joe's XMASage Imaginary Diseases MOFO (Deluxe 4-Disc) MOFO (2-Disc) Trance-Fusion Buffalo The Dub Room Special Wazoo One Shot Deal Joe's Menage Lumpy Money Philly '76 2010s Greasy Love Songs Congress Shall Make No Law... Hammersmith Odeon Feeding the Monkies At Ma Maison Carnegie Hall Other releases The Guitar World According to Frank Zappa Beat the Boots Beat the Boots II Strictly Commercial Strictly Genteel Cucamonga Cheap Thrills Son of Cheep Thrills The Frank Zappa AAAFNRAA Birthday Bundle 2006 The Frank Zappa AAAFNRAAA Birthday Bundle 2008 Beat the Boots III The Frank Zappa AAAFNRAAAA Birthday Bundle 2010 The Frank Zappa AAAFNRAAAAAM Birthday Bundle 2011 Singles "Who Are The Brain Police?" 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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent John Barbirolli in the mid-1960s Sir John Barbirolli , CH (2 December 1899 – 29 July 1970), né Giovanni Battista Barbirolli , was an English conductor and cellist. He is remembered above all as conductor of the Hallé Orchestra in Manchester , which he helped save from dissolution in 1943 and conducted for the rest of his life. Earlier in his career he was Arturo Toscanini 's successor as music director of the New York Philharmonic , serving from 1936 to 1943. He was also chief conductor of the Houston Symphony from 1961 to 1967, and was a guest conductor of many other orchestras, including the BBC Symphony Orchestra , London Symphony Orchestra , the Philharmonia , the Berlin Philharmonic and the Vienna Philharmonic , with all of which he made recordings. Born in London of Italian and French parentage, Barbirolli grew up in a family of professional musicians. After starting out as a cellist, he was given the chance to conduct, from 1926 with the British National Opera Company , and then with Covent Garden 's touring company. On taking up the conductorship of the Hallé he had less opportunity to work in the opera house, but in the 1950s he conducted productions of works by Verdi , Wagner , Gluck , and Puccini at Covent Garden with such success that he was invited to become the company's permanent musical director, an invitation he declined. Late in his career he made several recordings of operas, of which his 1967 set of Puccini's Madama Butterfly for EMI is probably the best known. Both in the concert hall and on record, Barbirolli was particularly associated with the music of English composers such as Elgar , Delius and Vaughan Williams . His interpretations of other late romantic composers, such as Mahler and Sibelius , as well as of earlier classical composers, including Schubert , are also still admired. Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early years 1.2 First conducting posts 1.3 New York Philharmonic 1.4 Hallé Orchestra 2 Honours, awards and memorials 3 Repertoire and recordings 3.1 Pre-war 3.2 1943 and later 4 Notes and references 5 Sources 6 External links [ edit ] Biography [ edit ] Early years Barbirolli was born in Southampton Row , Holborn , London, the second child and eldest son of an Italian father and a French mother. He was a British national from birth, and as Southampton Row is within the sound of Bow Bells , Barbirolli always regarded himself as a Cockney . [ 1 ] His father, Lorenzo Barbirolli (1864–1928), was a Venetian violinist who had settled in London with his wife, Louise Marie, née Ribeyrol (1870–1962). [ 2 ] Lorenzo and his father had played in the orchestra at La Scala , Milan , where they had taken part in the première of Otello in 1887. [ 3 ] In London they played in West End theatre orchestras, principally that of the Empire, Leicester Square . [ 4 ] Royal Academy of Music , London The young Barbirolli began to play the violin when he was four, but soon changed to the cello. [ 5 ] He later said that this was at the instigation of his grandfather who, exasperated at the child's habit of wandering around while practising the violin, bought him a small cello to stop him from "getting in everybody's way". [ n 1 ] His education at St. Clement Danes Grammar School overlapped, from 1910, with a scholarship at Trinity College of Music . [ 2 ] [ 7 ] As a Trinity student, he made his concert debut in a cello concerto in the Queen's Hall in 1911. [ 5 ] The following year he won a scholarship to the Royal Academy of Music , which he attended from 1912 to 1916, studying harmony, counterpoint and theory under Dr. J. B. McEwen and the cello with Herbert Walenn. [ 2 ] [ 8 ] In 1914 he was joint winner of the academy's Charles Rube Prize for ensemble playing, [ 9 ] and in 1916 The Musical Times singled him out as "that excellent young 'cello player, Mr Giovanni Barbirolli." [ 10 ] The principal of the Academy, Sir Alexander Mackenzie , had forbidden students to play the chamber music of Ravel , which he regarded as "a pernicious influence". Barbirolli was keenly interested in modern music, and he and three colleagues secretly rehearsed Ravel's String Quartet in the privacy of a men's lavatory in the Academy. [ 11 ] From 1916 to 1918 Barbirolli was a freelance cellist in London. He recalled, "My first orchestral engagement was with the Queen's Hall Orchestra – I was probably the youngest orchestral musician ever, joining them in 1916. We had an enormous repertory – six concerts a week, three hours or more rehearsal a day. In those days we were happy if we began and finished together". [ 12 ] While playing in the Queen's Hall Orchestra, Barbirolli also played in the opera pit for the Beecham and Carl Rosa opera companies, in recitals with the pianist Ethel Bartlett, with orchestras in theatres, cinemas, hotels and dance-halls, and, as he said, "everywhere except the street". [ 13 ] During the last year of World War I Barbirolli enlisted in the army and became a lance-corporal in the Suffolk Regiment . [ 8 ] Here he had his first opportunity to conduct, when an orchestra of volunteers was formed. He later described the experience: I was stationed on the Isle of Grain – a ghastly place but the first line of defence against invasion – and in our battalion of the Suffolks we had a number of professional musicians. So we formed an orchestra and played in the equivalent of the NAAFI during our spare time. I was the principal cello and we were conducted by the bandmaster, one Lieutenant Bonham. The other boys knew that I was longing to conduct and one day when Bonham fell ill with 'flu, they thought "old Barby" – as I was known – should have a go. It was really rather romantic – I was scrubbing the floor in the Officers' Mess when they came and invited me to take over. We did the Light Cavalry overture and Coleridge-Taylor 's Petite Suite de Concert but I can't say I recall the rest of the programme. [ 12 ] While in the army, Barbirolli adopted the anglicised form of his first name for the sake of simplicity: "The sergeant-major had great difficulty in reading my name on the roll-call. 'Who is this Guy Vanni?' he used to ask. So I chose John." [ 14 ] After demobilisation he reverted to the original form of his name until 1922. [ 15 ] On re-entering civilian life, Barbirolli resumed his career as a cellist. His association with Elgar's Cello Concerto began with its première in 1919, when he played as a rank and file member of the London Symphony Orchestra . [ 16 ] He was the soloist at another performance of the concerto just over a year later. [ n 2 ] The Musical Times commented, "Signor Giovanni Barbirolli was not entirely equal to the demands of the solo music, but his playing unquestionably gave a considerable amount of pleasure." [ 17 ] At the Three Choirs Festival of 1920 he took part in his first Dream of Gerontius , under Elgar's baton, in the LSO cellos. [ 18 ] He joined two newly founded string quartets as cellist: the Kutcher Quartet, led by his former fellow student at Trinity, Samuel Kutcher, [ 19 ] and the Music Society Quartet (later called the International Quartet) led by André Mangeot. He also made several early broadcasts with Mangeot's quartet. [ 20 ] [ edit ] First conducting posts Barbirolli's ambition was to conduct. He was the prime mover in establishing the Guild of Singers and Players Chamber Orchestra in 1924, [ 21 ] and in 1926 he was invited to conduct a new ensemble at the Chenil Gallery in Chelsea , [ 8 ] [ 22 ] initially called the "Chenil Chamber Orchestra" but later renamed "John Barbirolli's Chamber Orchestra". [ 23 ] Barbirolli's concerts impressed Frederic Austin , director of the British National Opera Company (BNOC), who in the same year invited him to conduct some performances with the company. Barbirolli had never conducted a chorus or a large orchestra, but had the confidence to accept. [ 12 ] He made his operatic debut directing Gounod 's Roméo et Juliette at Newcastle , followed within days by performances of Aida and Madama Butterfly . [ 24 ] He conducted the BNOC frequently over the next two years, and made his debut at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, with Madama Butterfly in 1928. [ 25 ] The following year he was invited to conduct the opening work in Covent Garden's international season, Don Giovanni , with a cast that included Mariano Stabile , Elisabeth Schumann and Heddle Nash . [ 26 ] Royal Opera House, Covent Garden In 1929, after financial problems had forced the BNOC to disband, the Covent Garden management set up a touring company to fill the gap, and appointed Barbirolli as its musical director and conductor. The operas in the company's first provincial tour included Die Meistersinger , Lohengrin , La bohème , Madama Butterfly , The Barber of Seville , Tosca , Falstaff , Faust , Cavalleria rusticana , Pagliacci , Il trovatore , and the first performances in English of Turandot . [ 27 ] In later tours with the company Barbirolli had the chance to conduct more of the German opera repertory, including Der Rosenkavalier , Tristan und Isolde , and Die Walküre . [ 28 ] During his years with the touring opera companies Barbirolli did not neglect the concert hall. In 1927, deputising at short notice for Sir Thomas Beecham , he conducted the London Symphony Orchestra in a performance of Elgar's Symphony No. 2 , winning the thanks of the composer. Barbirolli also won warm praise from Pablo Casals , whom he had accompanied in Haydn's D major cello concerto at the same concert. [ 8 ] [ n 3 ] He conducted a Royal Philharmonic Society concert at which Ralph Vaughan Williams was presented with the society's Gold Medal, [ 30 ] and another RPS concert at which Mahler's music, rarely heard in the mid-twentieth century, was given – Kindertotenlieder , with Elena Gerhardt as soloist. [ 31 ] Although Barbirolli later came to love Mahler's music, in the 1930s he thought it sounded thin. [ 32 ] When the Hallé Orchestra announced in 1932 that its regular conductor, Hamilton Harty , was to spend some time conducting overseas, Barbirolli was one of four guest conductors named to direct the orchestra in Harty's absence: the other three were Elgar, Beecham and Pierre Monteux . Barbirolli's programmes included works by composers as diverse as Purcell , Delius , Mozart and Franck . [ 33 ] In June 1932, Barbirolli married the singer Marjorie Parry, a member of the BNOC. [ 34 ] In 1933 Barbirolli was invited to become conductor of the Scottish Orchestra . It was not then, as its successor the Scottish National Orchestra was later to be, a permanent ensemble, but gave a season lasting about six months of each year. [ 35 ] Barbirolli remained with the Scottish Orchestra for three seasons, "rejuvenating the playing and programmes and winning most favourable opinions". [ 2 ] Notwithstanding his growing reputation in Britain, Barbirolli's name was little known internationally, and most of the musical world was taken by surprise in 1936 when he was invited to conduct the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in succession to Arturo Toscanini . [ n 4 ] [ edit ] New York Philharmonic By the spring of 1936, the management of the New York Philharmonic was confronted with a problem. Toscanini had left in search of higher fees with the NBC Symphony Orchestra . [ n 5 ] Wilhelm Furtwängler had accepted the orchestra's invitation to fill the post, but he was politically unacceptable to a section of the Philharmonic's audience because he continued to live and work in Germany under the Nazi government. Following a campaign of protest in New York he felt unable to take up the appointment. For want of any available conductor of comparable fame the management of the orchestra invited five guest conductors to divide the season among them. Barbirolli was allotted the first ten weeks of the season, comprising 26 concerts. [ 38 ] He was followed by the composer-conductors Igor Stravinsky , Georges Enescu and Carlos Chávez , each conducting for two weeks, and finally by Artur Rodziński of the Cleveland Orchestra , for eight weeks. [ 39 ] Carnegie Hall , New York, where Barbirolli conducted from 1936 to 1943 Barbirolli's first concert in New York was on 5 November 1936. The programme consisted of short pieces by Berlioz and Arnold Bax , and symphonies by Mozart (the Linz ) and Brahms (the Fourth ). [ 40 ] During his ten weeks, he programmed several American novelties including Charles Martin Loeffler 's tone-poem Memories of My Childhood , a symphony by Anis Fuleihan , and Philip James 's Bret Harte overture. He also conducted Serge Koussevitzky 's Double Bass Concerto. [ 41 ] The players told the Philharmonic management that they would be happy for Barbirolli to be appointed to a permanent position. [ 42 ] The outcome of this was an invitation to him to become Music Director and Permanent Conductor for three years starting with the 1937–38 season. [ 43 ] At the same time as this great change in his professional life, Barbirolli's personal life was also transformed. His marriage had not lasted; within four years he and Marjorie Barbirolli had been living apart. In 1938 she sued for divorce on the grounds of his desertion. The suit was undefended, and the divorce was granted in December 1938. [ 34 ] In 1939, Barbirolli married the British oboist Evelyn Rothwell . The marriage lasted for the rest of Barbirolli's life. [ n 6 ] One of the features of Barbirolli's time in New York was his regular programming of modern works. He gave the world premières of Walton 's second Façade Suite, [ 44 ] and Britten 's Sinfonia da Requiem and Violin Concerto ; he also introduced pieces by Jacques Ibert , Eugene Goossens , and Arthur Bliss and by many American composers including Samuel Barber , Deems Taylor and Daniel Gregory Mason . The new works he presented were not avant-garde, but they nevertheless alienated the conservative subscription audience, and after an initial increase in ticket sales in his early years sales declined. [ 45 ] Barbirolli also had to cope with what The Gramophone described as "a rough press campaign in New York from interested parties who wished to evict him from his post". [ 46 ] The influential critic Olin Downes had opposed Barbirolli's appointment from the outset, insisting that though "we abhor chauvinism" preference should have been given to "native conductors". [ 47 ] Downes had a grudge against the Philharmonic: shortly before Barbirolli's appointment Downes was sacked as the commentator for the orchestra's prestigious Sunday broadcasts. [ 48 ] He and the composer Virgil Thomson , continually wrote disparagingly about Barbirolli, comparing him unfavourably with Toscanini. [ 49 ] The management of the orchestra nevertheless renewed Barbirolli's appointment in 1940. In 1942, when his second contract was reaching its expiry, he was offered 18 concerts for the 1943–44 season, and the Los Angeles Philharmonic invited him to become its conductor, but he accepted neither offer as he had decided to return to England. [ 50 ] Barbirolli's first reason for leaving was local musical politics. He later said, "The Musicians Union there ... brought out a new regulation saying that everyone, even soloists and conductors, must become members. Horowitz , Heifetz and the rest were shocked by this but there was little they could do about it. They also said that conductors must become American citizens. I couldn't do that during the war, or at any time for that matter." [ 12 ] His second reason for leaving was that he felt strongly that he was needed in England. In the spring of 1942 he made a hazardous Atlantic crossing: I was in America when the war broke out, as conductor of the New York Philharmonic. A. V. Alexander , who was First Sea Lord, [ n 7 ] wrote to me to say that, contrary to expectations, music was flourishing and would I come back as I was missed. I was longing to return and it was just a question of how it was to be managed. A.V. went to Churchill, who apparently said, "If he's fool enough to come, let him come". It took us 23 days to cross on a fruit trader and, of our convoy of 75, only 32 ships arrived in Liverpool. I played here for ten weeks with the LSO and LPO for the benefit of the musicians, and then went back on a Fyffe banana boat of 5,000 tons. We were spotted by U-boats the moment we left Northern Ireland but that kind of thing never worries me as I'm something of a fatalist. It had been wonderful anyhow to be back, to see England at its greatest, and to visit my old mother. [ 12 ] Barbirolli returned to New York to complete his contractual obligations to the Philharmonic. [ n 8 ] Shortly after his return he received an appeal from the Hallé Orchestra in Manchester to become its conductor. The orchestra was in danger of extinction for lack of players, and Barbirolli seized the opportunity to help it. [ 12 ] [ edit ] Hallé Orchestra Free Trade Hall , Manchester, the Hallé's main base in the Barbirolli years In 1943 Barbirolli made another Atlantic crossing, avoiding death by a fluke: he changed flights with the actor Leslie Howard when the latter wished to postpone his own flight for a few days. [ 52 ] Barbirolli's plane landed safely; Howard's, BOAC Flight 777 , was shot down. [ 12 ] In Manchester, Barbirolli immediately set about reviving the Hallé. The number of players in the orchestra was down to about 30. Most younger players were serving in the armed forces, and to compound the shortage the management of the orchestra had ended the arrangement by which many of its players were also members of the BBC Northern Orchestra . [ 53 ] The Hallé board resolved that its orchestra must follow the example of the Liverpool Philharmonic , which the Hallé's former conductor Malcolm Sargent had transformed into a full-time, permanent orchestra. [ 5 ] [ 54 ] Only four of the players shared with the BBC chose to join the Hallé. [ 55 ] The Times later wrote of Barbirolli's first actions for the orchestra: "In a couple of months of endless auditions, he rebuilt the Hallé, accepting any good player, whatever his musical background – he found himself with a schoolboy first flute, a schoolmistress hornist, and various brass players recruited from brass and military bands in the Manchester area ... The reborn Hallé's first concert somehow lived up to the Hallé's great reputation." [ 5 ] The Musical Times also noted, "From his earliest days with the orchestra it was the string tone that commanded immediate attention and respect. There was a fiery intensity and glowing warmth that proclaimed the born string coach". [ 18 ] Barbirolli retained his reputation for training orchestras: after his death, one of his former players commented, "If you wanted orchestral experience you'd be set for life, starting in the Hallé with John Barbirolli." [ 56 ] Further afield, critics, audiences and players in Europe and the United States commented on the improvement in the playing of their orchestras when Barbirolli was in charge. [ 57 ] Later he extended his teaching skills to the Royal Academy of Music, where he took charge of the student orchestra from 1961. [ 58 ] Barbirolli refused invitations to take up more prestigious and lucrative conductorships. [ 5 ] Shortly after he took over the Hallé he received an offer from the sponsors of an ambitious scheme that would have put him in charge of the London Symphony Orchestra, [ 59 ] and in the early 1950s the BBC sought to recruit him for the BBC Symphony Orchestra . [ 60 ] Also in the early 1950s the head of the Royal Opera House, David Webster , wanted him to become the musical director there. Barbirolli conducted six operas for Webster, Turandot , Aida , Orfeo ed Euridice , Tristan und Isolde , La bohème and Madama Butterfly , 1951–53, [ 61 ] but he declined to be wooed away from the Hallé. [ 62 ] His biographer Charles Reid wrote, "His Manchester kingdom is a kingdom indeed. He is not manacled or chivied in his choice of programmes. Broadly speaking he conducts only what he loves ... His kingdom approximates to a conductor's paradise." [ 63 ] Nevertheless, in 1958, after building the orchestra up and touring continually, conducting up to 75 concerts a year, he arranged a less onerous schedule, allowing him more time to appear as a guest conductor with other orchestras. [ 64 ] He also appeared at the Vienna State Opera , [ 65 ] and Rome Opera House , where he conducted Aida in 1969. [ 66 ] In 1960 he accepted an invitation to succeed Leopold Stokowski as chief conductor of the Houston Symphony in Texas, a post he held until 1967, conducting an annual total of 12 weeks there in early spring and late autumn between Hallé engagements. [ 67 ] In 1961 he began a regular association with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra , which lasted for the rest of his life. [ 64 ] The Hallé's first programme (1858) replicated by Barbirolli and the orchestra a hundred years later From 1953 onwards, Barbirolli and the Hallé appeared regularly at the Henry Wood Promenade Concerts at the Royal Albert Hall in London. As well as major works from the mainstream repertory they gave an annual concert of music by Viennese composers, including Franz Lehár and Johann Strauss , which, like Sir Malcolm Sargent's annual Gilbert and Sullivan nights, rapidly became a firm favourite with the promenaders. [ 68 ] At one 1958 promenade concert Barbirolli and the Hallé played a replica of Charles Hallé 's first concert with the orchestra in 1858. [ 69 ] Barbirolli's interest in new music waned in post-war years, [ 70 ] but he and the Hallé appeared regularly at the Cheltenham Festival , where he premiered new works of a mostly traditional style by Arthur Benjamin , Alan Rawsthorne , Richard Arnell , Gordon Jacob , Peter Racine Fricker , William Alwyn and others. [ 71 ] For its hundredth anniversary in 1958 the Hallé commissioned several new works, including Walton 's virtuosic divertimento Partita . [ 72 ] Increasingly, Barbirolli concentrated on his core repertory of the standard symphonic classics, the works of English composers, and late-romantic music, particularly that of Mahler. [ 32 ] In the 1960s he made a series of international tours with the Philharmonia (Latin America, 1963), BBC Symphony Orchestra (USSR, 1967) and the Hallé (Latin America and West Indies, 1968). [ 64 ] It was a lasting disappointment to him that it never proved possible to take the Hallé on a tour of the United States. [ 5 ] In 1968, after 25 years with the Hallé, Barbirolli retired from the principal conductorship; no successor was appointed in his lifetime. [ n 9 ] He was appointed the orchestra's Conductor Laureate. [ 2 ] He reduced the number of his appearances with the Hallé, but nevertheless took it on another European tour in 1968, this time to Switzerland, Austria and Germany. [ 74 ] In his last years a propensity to concentrate on detail at the expense of the whole of a piece became marked. His loyal friend and admirer the critic Neville Cardus wrote privately in 1969, "he seems so much to love a single phrase that he lingers over it, caressing it; meanwhile the general momentum is lost." [ 75 ] His final year, 1970, was dogged by heart trouble; he suffered collapses in April, May, June and July. His last two concerts were with the Hallé at the 1970 King's Lynn Festival. He produced "inspired" renderings of Elgar's Symphony No. 1 and Sea Pictures . [ 76 ] The last work he conducted in public was Beethoven 's Symphony No. 7 on the Saturday before his death. [ 77 ] On the day he died, 29 July 1970, he spent several hours rehearsing the New Philharmonia Orchestra for a forthcoming tour of Japan which he was scheduled to lead. [ 78 ] Barbirolli died at his London home of a heart attack, aged 70. [ 79 ] Among planned engagements forestalled by his death were a production of Otello at the Royal Opera House, which would have been his first appearance there for nearly 20 years, [ 80 ] and opera recordings for EMI, including Puccini's Manon Lescaut [ 32 ] and Verdi's Falstaff . [ 46 ] [ edit ] Honours, awards and memorials Bust of Barbirolli in Barbirolli Square Among Barbirolli's state awards were a British knighthood in 1949 and Companion of Honour in 1969; the Finnish Grand Star and Collar of Commander 1st Class of the Order of the White Rose in 1963; from Italy the Order of Merit in 1964; and from France, Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, 1966, and Officier de l' Ordre national du Mérite , 1968. [ 81 ] Awards from musical institutions included the Freedom of the Worshipful Company of Musicians , 1966; Honorary Academician of the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia , 1960; Gold Medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society , 1950; Bruckner Medal, Bruckner Society of America, 1959; and the Mahler Medal, Mahler-Bruckner Society of America, 1965. [ 81 ] There are memorials to Barbirolli in Manchester and London. Barbirolli Square in Manchester is named in his honour and features a sculpture of him by Byron Howard (2000). [ 82 ] The square includes the present base of the Hallé Orchestra, the Bridgewater Hall , in which the Barbirolli Room commemorates the conductor. [ 83 ] At his old school, St Clement Danes , now relocated in Chorleywood, the main hall is named in his honour. [ 84 ] A commemorative blue plaque was placed on the wall of the Bloomsbury Park Hotel in Southampton Row in May 1993 to mark Barbirolli's birthplace. [ 85 ] The Sir John Barbirolli Memorial Foundation of the Royal Philharmonic Society was instituted after his death to assist young musicians with the purchase of instruments. [ 86 ] In 1972 the Barbirolli Society was set up with the principal aim of promoting the continued release of Barbirolli's recorded performances. Its honorary officers have included Evelyn Barbirolli , Daniel Barenboim and Michael Kennedy . [ 87 ] [ edit ] Repertoire and recordings Elgar (top l.), Verdi , (top r.) Vaughan Williams (lower l.) and Mahler , whose music was central to Barbirolli's repertoire Barbirolli is remembered as an interpreter of Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Mahler, as well as Schubert , Beethoven, Sibelius , Verdi and Puccini , and as a staunch supporter of new works by British composers. Vaughan Williams dedicated his Seventh and Eighth Symphonies to Barbirolli, whose nickname, "Glorious John", comes from the inscription Vaughan Williams wrote at the head of the score of the Eighth: "For glorious John, with love and admiration from Ralph." [ 88 ] Barbirolli did not disdain lighter repertoire. The music critic Richard Osborne wrote that if all Barbirolli's recordings were to be lost except that of Lehár's Gold and Silver waltz "there would be reason enough to say, 'Now, there was a conductor!'" [ 89 ] Barbirolli's repertoire was not as wide as that of many of his colleagues because he insisted on exhaustive preparation for any work he conducted. His colleague Sir Adrian Boult liked and admired Barbirolli but teased him for his meticulousness: "We can't all be like you and spend months studying these things and then have days of rehearsals before we conduct them. For some of us they're only sporting events." Barbirolli was shocked by such levity. [ 90 ] [ n 10 ] His approach was illustrated by the care he took with Mahler's symphonies. His biographer, Michael Kennedy , commented, "it is ironical that the effort of composing the symphonies shortened Mahler's life; interpreting them certainly put an enormous strain on Barbirolli in his last decade." [ 92 ] He found that mastering a Mahler symphony took between 18 months and two years, and he would spend hours meticulously bowing all the string parts in preparation for his performances. [ 32 ] His first performance of Mahler's Ninth took nearly 50 hours of rehearsal. [ 93 ] [ edit ] Pre-war From almost the start of his career Barbirolli was a frequent recording artist. As a young cellist he made four records for Edison Bell in 1911, with piano accompaniment by his sister Rosa, [ 94 ] and as part of the Kutcher and the Music Society string quartets he recorded music by Mozart, Purcell, Vaughan Williams and others in 1925 and 1926. [ 95 ] As a conductor he began recording in 1927 for the National Gramophonic Society (an offshoot of The Gramophone ). [ 96 ] Among his records from that period was the first to be made of Elgar's Introduction and Allegro for Strings . On hearing it, the composer said, "I'd never realised it was such a big work." Elgar, despite an extensive discography as a conductor, never recorded the work himself, and some have speculated that "the breadth, nobility and lyrical poetry" of Barbirolli's interpretation left the composer disinclined to compete. [ 97 ] In 1928 Barbirolli made some recordings for the Edison Bell label. The same year, he began his long association with the His Master's Voice (HMV) label. Immediately after the LSO concert at which he had stood in for Beecham, he was approached by Fred Gaisberg , the chief recording producer for HMV who signed him for his company shortly afterwards. [ 98 ] An HMV colleague of Gaisberg described Barbirolli as "a treasure", because he "could accompany Chaliapin without provoking an uproar, win golden opinions from Jascha Heifetz, Artur Rubinstein , Fritz Kreisler and Pablo Casals, and conduct one of the finest recorded performances of the Quintet from Meistersinger ". [ 46 ] Fritz Kreisler (top l.), Jascha Heifetz (top r.), Alfred Cortot (lower l.) and Arthur Rubinstein , whom Barbirolli accompanied in his early HMV recordings Many of Barbirolli's pre-war recordings for HMV were of concertos. His reputation as an accompanist tended to obscure his talents as a symphonic conductor, and later, his detractors in New York "damned him with faint praise by exalting his powers as an accompanist and then implying that that was where it all stopped." Barbirolli became very sensitive on this point, and for many years after the war he was reluctant to accompany anyone in the recording studio. [ 46 ] Among his early HMV records are works, mainly concertos, by Brahms, Bruch , Chopin , Dvořák , Glazunov , Mendelssohn , Mozart, Schumann , Sibelius, Tchaikovsky and Vieuxtemps . [ 96 ] From the 1990s onwards, archive recordings of Barbirolli's early concerts in New York have been issued on CD. Kennedy wrote in 2004 that they "prove that the orchestra played superbly for him and that the criticism of him was largely unjustified." [ 2 ] Recordings from this period include symphonies by Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Schubert, Schumann, Sibelius and Tchaikovsky, and other orchestral music by Berlioz, Debussy , Menotti , Purcell, Ravel , Respighi , and Rimsky-Korsakov . [ 96 ] [ edit ] 1943 and later Within six months of his return to Britain in 1943, Barbirolli resumed his contract with HMV, conducting the Hallé in the Third Symphony of Bax and the Fifth of Vaughan Williams, followed by works by a wide range of composers from Corelli to Stravinsky. [ 99 ] In 1955 he signed a contract with Pye Records , with whom he and the Hallé recorded a wide repertoire, and made their first stereophonic recordings. These records were distributed in the U.S. by Vanguard Records . A company was formed, named Pye-Barbirolli, of which he was a director: the arrangement was designed to ensure an equal partnership between the company and the musicians. [ 100 ] They made many recordings, including symphonies by Beethoven, Dvořák, Elgar, Mozart, Nielsen , Sibelius, Mahler, Tchaikovsky and Vaughan Williams, as well as a few concertos, short orchestral pieces and operatic excerpts. [ 101 ] In 1962, HMV persuaded Barbirolli to return. [ 46 ] With the Hallé he recorded a Sibelius symphony cycle, Elgar's Second Symphony , Falstaff and The Dream of Gerontius , Vaughan Williams's A London Symphony , and works by Grieg and Delius . With other orchestras, Barbirolli recorded a wide range of his repertoire, including many recordings still in the catalogues in 2012. Of these, his Elgar recordings include the Cello Concerto with Jacqueline du Pré , Sea Pictures with Janet Baker , and orchestral music including the First Symphony , Enigma Variations and many of the shorter works. His Mahler recordings include the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies (with the New Philharmonia) and Ninth Symphony (with the Berlin Philharmonic). With the Vienna Philharmonic , he recorded a Brahms symphony cycle, and with Daniel Barenboim , the two Brahms Piano Concertos. He made three operatic sets for HMV: Purcell's Dido and Aeneas with Victoria de los Ángeles (1966), [ 102 ] Verdi's Otello with James McCracken , Gwyneth Jones and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (1969), [ 103 ] and a set of Madama Butterfly with Renata Scotto , Carlo Bergonzi and Rome Opera forces that has remained in the catalogues since its first issue in 1967. [ 104 ] The impact of the last was such that the head of the Rome Opera invited him to come and conduct "any opera you care to name with as much rehearsal as you wish." [ 46 ] HMV planned to record Die Meistersinger with Barbirolli in Dresden in 1970, but following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 he refused to conduct in the Soviet bloc, and his place was taken by Herbert von Karajan . [ 105 ] [ edit ] Notes and references Notes ^ In adult life, Barbirolli, when he needed to play the violin to show how he wanted a passage to be phrased, would hold the violin upright on his lap like a miniature cello. [ 6 ] ^ Some sources state that Barbirolli gave the second performance of the concerto, but the original soloist, Felix Salmond , gave the work its second performance, with the Hallé in Manchester on 20 March 1920, and Beatrice Harrison also played the solo part before Barbirolli did: see Kennedy (1971), p. 40. ^ The critic of The Times did not share Elgar's and Casals's enthusiasm, criticising "Mr. Barbirolli's excessively jerky manner ... a lack of flow in the playing ... disastrous in Elgar's symphony." [ 29 ] ^ Barbirolli's biographer Charles Reid writes, "Barbirolli's appointment was announced by the New York Philharmonic Society's directorial board on 7 April 1936. The musical world rubbed incredulous eyes. … In much newspaper comment the following day surprise verged on perplexity. Nobody had heard of John Barbirolli. … What sense was there in giving the New York Philharmonic to a man who had never been on an American front page before or, so far as could be made out, on any front page of moment anywhere?" [ 36 ] ^ NBC paid Toscanini $3,334 a concert, compared with his fee of $1,833 a concert with the Philharmonic. Barbirolli's fee with the Philharmonic was $312 a concert. [ 37 ] ^ There were no children of either of Barbirolli's marriages. [ 5 ] ^ Alexander was in fact First Lord of the Admiralty – the government minister responsible for the Royal Navy – rather than First Sea Lord , who is the senior serving officer of the navy. ^ Barbirolli's last concert as conductor of the New York Philharmonic was on 7 March 1943. He did not conduct the orchestra again until he appeared as guest conductor in 1959, after which he conducted a further 27 concerts, the last of which was on 4 April 1968. [ 51 ] ^ His successor, James Loughran , was not named until five months after Barbirolli's death. [ 73 ] ^ Despite his musical single-mindedness, Barbirolli had a keen sense of humour, and was a noted raconteur. One of his anecdotes was of a 1920s touring performance of Aida in which the tenor's "Aida, where are thou now?" was answered by the sonorous flushing of a backstage lavatory: "I'm afraid the opera ended there, though we continued gallantly to the end." [ 91 ] References ^ Ayre, p. 18 ^ a b c d e f Kennedy, Michael. Barbirolli, Sir John (1899–1970) , Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition, October 2009, accessed 7 February 2010 (Subscription required) ^ Rothwell, p. 1 ^ Rigby, p. 15 ^ a b c d e f g The Times , obituary, 30 July 1970, p. 8 ^ Rigby, p. 17 ^ "Miscellaneous Intelligence" , The Musical Times , 1 September 1910, p. 599 (Subscription required) ^ a b c d Graves, Perceval. "From Cellist to Conductor" , The Gramophone , September 1929, p. 5 ^ "Royal Academy of Music", The Times , 30 May 1914, p. 5 ^ "Royal Academy of Music" , The Musical Times , 1 August 1916, p. 381 (Subscription required) ^ Rothwell, p. 19 ^ a b c d e f g Blyth, Alan. "Sir John Barbirolli talks to Alan Blyth" , The Gramophone , December 1969, p. 34 ^ Rothwell, pp. 19–20 (Bartlett and quotation); and Kennedy p. 30 (theatres, cinemas, halls) ^ Ayre, p. 19 ^ "Music", The Times , 27 October 1919, p. 10; "Royal Academy of Music Awards", The Times , 14 June 1922, p. 11; and Kennedy (1971), p. 41 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 38 ^ "Music in the Provinces" , The Musical Times , March 1921, p. 195 (Subscription required) ^ a b Anderson, Robert, "Obituary, Sir John Barbirolli" , The Musical Times , September 1970, p. 926 (Subscription required) ^ "Concerts", The Observer , 22 June 1924, p. 1 ^ "Today's Programmes", The Manchester Guardian , 16 November 1925. p. 11; 25 November 1925, p. 11; 16 December 1925, p. 13; and 10 April 1926, p. 12 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 43 ^ "Our London Correspondence", The Manchester Guardian , 25 May 1926, p. 6 ^ "Wireless Notes and Programmes", The Manchester Guardian , 7 June 1928, p. 12 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 49 and "British National Opera Company", The Manchester Guardian , 17 November 1926, p. 1 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 57 ^ Blom, Eric, "Covent Garden Opera: 'Don Giovanni'", The Manchester Guardian , 29 May 1929, p. 8 ^ "Covent Garden Opera Tour", The Manchester Guardian , 7 September 1929, p. 7 ^ "Covent Garden Opera Company", The Manchester Guardian , 4 October 1932, p. 9 ^ "The London Symphony Orchestra", The Times , 13 December 1927, p. 14 ^ "Gold Medal for Dr. Vaughan Williams", The Manchester Guardian , 14 March 1930, p. 5 ^ Blom, Eric, "Royal Philharmonic Society: A Mahler Song Cycle", The Manchester Guardian , 30 January 1931, p. 4 ^ a b c d "John Barbirolli" , EMI Classics, accessed 7 February 2010 ^ "Concerts", The Manchester Guardian , 6 October 1932, p. 1; and "The Hallé Concert", The Manchester Guardian , 13 January 1933, p. 11. ^ a b "Decree Nisi for Conductor's Wife", The Times , 6 December 1938, p. 5 ^ Lindsay, p. 233 ^ Reid (1971), p. 149 ^ Horowitz, p. 153 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 105 ^ "New York Philharmonic's Guest Conductors", The Times , 9 April 1936, p. 12 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 111 ^ "Barbirolli Gives Youths' Concert" , The New York Times , 19 December 1937 (Subscription required) ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 116 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 221 ^ Kennedy (1989), p. 99 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 144 ^ a b c d e f Bicknell, David, and Ronald Kinloch Anderson. "Sir John Barbirolli" , The Gramophone , September 1970, p. 33 ^ Downes, Olin. "And After Toscanini: What?", The North American Review , Vol. 241, No. 2 (June 1936), pp. 218–219 ^ Rothwell, p. 64. ^ Horowitz, pp. 159 and 183; and Kennedy (1971), pp. 129–130 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 152 and 167–168 ^ Performance History Search , New York Philharmonic archives, accessed 29 January 2011. ^ Rothwell, pp. 93–94 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 165–166 ^ Rigby, pp. 130–132 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 167 ^ Previn, p. 67 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 266, 273 and 281 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 289 ^ Rigby, p. 154 ^ Reid (1968), p. 353 ^ "Covent Garden Opera: 'Turandot' to Open New Season", The Times , 5 October 1951, p. 8; "The Covent Garden Season", The Times , 23 December 1952, p. 2; "Covent Garden Opera: 'Tristan und Isolde'", The Times , 10 January 1953, p. 8; "Royal Opera House: 'La Bohème'", The Times , 5 November 1953, p. 4; and "Covent Garden Opera: 'Madam Butterfly'", The Times , 9 December 1953, p. 3 ^ Haltrecht, p. 185 and ODNB ^ Reid (1957), p. 8 ^ a b c Crichton, Ronald and José A. Bowen. "Barbirolli, Sir John (Giovanni Battista)" , Grove Music Online , accessed 7 February 2010 (Subscription required) ^ "Mr. John Barbirolli: Another Invitation to Vienna", The Manchester Guardian , 27 August 1946, p. 3 ^ "Barbirolli, John (Sir Giovanni Battista Barbirolli )" , Oxford Dictionary of Music , online version, accessed 7 February 2010 (Subscription required) ^ "Sir J. Barbirolli for Texas", The Times , 1 November 1960, p. 16, and ODNB ^ Cox, p. 163 ^ Cox, p. 178 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 201 ^ "Cheltenham Musical Festival", The Times , 1 July 1948, p. 6; "Cheltenham Festival", The Times , 2 July 1948, p. 6; "Cheltenham Festival", The Times , 30 June 1949, p. 7; "Cheltenham Festival", The Times , 2 July 1949, p. 7; "Cheltenham Festival", The Times , 6 July 1950, p. 8; and "Cheltenham Festival", The Times , 7 July 1950, p. 6 ^ Kennedy (1989), pp. 208–209 ^ Morris, Michael. "Scot takes the Halle baton", The Guardian , 17 December 1970, p. 22 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 308 ^ Brookes, p. 253 ^ March, Ivan, "Elgar" , Gramophone , May 2003, p. 42 ^ Kennedy (1982), p. 92 ^ Marshall, Rita, "World tributes to genius of Barbirolli", The Times , 30 July 1970, p. 1 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 326 ^ "Solti's last Garden season", The Times , 26 June 1970, p. 7 ^ a b "Barbirolli, Sir John (Giovanni Battista)" , Who Was Who , A & C Black, 1920–2008; online edition, Oxford University Press, December 2007, accessed 7 February 2010 (Subscription required) ^ "John Barbirolli" , Manchester Art Gallery, accessed 26 January 2011 ^ "The Barbirolli Room" , Bridgewater Hall, accessed 27 January 2011 ^ "School History" , St. Clement Danes School, accessed 27 January 2011 ^ Rennison, p. xxvii, entry number 231 ^ "Sir John Barbirolli Memorial Foundation" , Royal Philharmonic Society, accessed 12 January 2011 ^ The Barbirolli Society , accessed 1 February 2011 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 244 ^ Osborne, p. 461 ^ Kennedy (1987), p. 268 ^ Ayre, pp. 7–8 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 245–246 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 247 ^ Kennedy (1971), p. 341 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 341–342 ^ a b c "John Barbirolli" , Naxos records, accessed 7 February 2010 ^ Kennedy, Michael (2000). Liner notes to EMI CD 5-67240-2. ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 55–56 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 362–372 ^ Pye-Barbirolli" , The Gramophone , July 1956, p. 40 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 373–384 ^ Robertson, Alec, "Dido and Aeneas" , The Gramophone , October 1966, p. 77 ^ Blyth, Alan, "Verdi: Otello" , The Gramophone , October 1969, p. 97 ^ Anderson, Robert Kinloch, "Barbirolli's Roman Butterfly" , The Gramophone , September 1967, p. 25; Oliver, Michael, "Madama Butterfly" , Gramophone , May 1989, p. 90; and O'Connor, Patrick, "Madama Butterfly" , Gramophone , March 2009, p. 93 ^ Kennedy (1971), pp. 306–307, and Opera: Wagner , The Gramophone , October 1971, p. 102 [ edit ] Sources Ayre, Leslie (1966). The Wit of Music: Introduction by Sir John Barbirolli . London: Leslie Frewin. OCLC 857354 . Brookes, Christopher (1985). His Own Man: The Life of Neville Cardus . London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-50940-0 . Cox, David. The Henry Wood Proms . London: British Broadcasting Corporation. ISBN ISBN 0-563-17697-0 . Haltrecht, Montague (1975). The Quiet Showman: Sir David Webster and the Royal Opera House . London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-211163-2 . Horowitz, Joseph (1997). Understanding Toscanini . Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08542-6 . Kennedy, Michael (1987). Adrian Boult . London: Papermac. ISBN 0-333-48752-4 . Kennedy, Michael (1971). Barbirolli, Conductor Laureate: The Authorised Biography . London: MacGibbon and Key. ISBN 0-261-63336-8 . Kennedy, Michael (1982). The Hallé, 1858–1983: A History of the Orchestra . London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-7190-0921-9 . Kennedy, Michael (1989). William Walton . Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315418-8 . Lindsay, Maurice (1951). "Northern Diary". In Ralph Hill (ed). Music 1951 . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. OCLC 26147349 . Osborne, Richard (1998). Herbert von Karajan: A Life in Music . London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 1-85619-763-8 . Previn, André (1979). Orchestra . London: Macdonald and Jane's. ISBN 0-354-04420-6 . Reid, Charles (1957). "John Barbirolli". In Milein Cosman (ed). Musical Sketchbook . Oxford: Bruno Cassirer. OCLC 3225493 . Reid, Charles (1971). John Barbirolli – A Biography . London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-01819-6 . Reid, Charles (1968). Malcolm Sargent . London: Hamish Hamilton. OCLC 500687986 . Rennison, Nick (2003). The London Blue Plaque Guide . Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3388-7 . Rigby, Charles (1948). John Barbirolli . Altrincham: John Sherratt and Son. OCLC 500687986 . Rothwell, Evelyn (2002). Life with Glorious John . London: Robson Books. ISBN 1-86105-474-2 . [ edit ] External links John Barbirolli at Allmusic Article on Barbirolli's 1962 recording of English string music Portraits of Barbirolli at the National Portrait Gallery, London Photos of Barbirolli throughout his career František Sláma , "Czech Philharmonic Conductors and a few more recollections besides" v t e Royal Scottish National Orchestra Principal Conductors George Henschel (1893) Willem Kes (1895) Max Bruch (1898) Frederic Cowen (1900) Emil Młynarski (1910) Landon Ronald (1916) Václav Talich (1926) Vladimir Golschmann (1928) John Barbirolli (1933) George Szell (1937) Warwick Braithwaite (1940) Walter Susskind (1946) Karl Rankl (1952) Hans Swarowsky (1957) Alexander Gibson (1959) Neeme Järvi (1984) Bryden Thomson (1988) Walter Weller (1991) Alexander Lazarev (1997) Stéphane Denève (2005) v t e New York Philharmonic Music Directors Ureli Corelli Hill (1842) Theodore Eisfeld (1848) Carl Bergmann (1855) Leopold Damrosch (1876) Theodore Thomas (1877) Adolf Neuendorff (1878) Anton Seidl (1891) Emil Paur (1898) Walter Damrosch (1902) Vasily Safonov (1906) Gustav Mahler (1909) Josef Stránský (1911) Willem Mengelberg (1922) Arturo Toscanini (1928) John Barbirolli (1936) Artur Rodziński (1943) Bruno Walter (1947) Leopold Stokowski (1949) Dimitri Mitropoulos (1949) Leonard Bernstein (1958) George Szell (1969) Pierre Boulez (1971) Zubin Mehta (1978) Kurt Masur (1991) Lorin Maazel (2002) Alan Gilbert (2009) v t e Hallé Principal Conductors Charles Hallé (1858–1895) Frederic Cowen † (1896–1899) Hans Richter (1899–1911) Michael Balling (1912–1914) Thomas Beecham ¶ (1914–1920; 1933–1939) Hamilton Harty (1920–1933) Malcolm Sargent ‡ (1933–1942) John Barbirolli (1943–1970) James Loughran (1971–1983) Stanisław Skrowaczewski (1982–1992) Kent Nagano (1992–2000) Mark Elder (since 2000) †Appointed annually ¶Musical adviser ‡Guest conductor Source: Principal conductors of the Hallé , Hallé Concerts Society v t e Houston Symphony Music Directors Julien Paul Blitz (1913) Paul Bergé (1916) Uriel Nespoli (1931) Frank St. Leger (1932) Ernst Hoffmann (1936) Efrem Kurtz (1948) Ferenc Fricsay (1954) Thomas Beecham (1954) Leopold Stokowski (1955) John Barbirolli (1961) André Previn (1967) Lawrence Foster (1970) Sergiu Comissiona (1980) Christoph Eschenbach (1988) Hans Graf (2001) Authority control : LCCN : n81023033 | WorldCat Persondata Name Barbirolli, John, Sir Alternative names Short description English conductor and cellist Date of birth 2 December 1899 Place of birth Southampton Row , Holborn Date of death 29 July 1970 Place of death
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Norwich City Full name Norwich City Football Club Nickname(s) The Canaries Founded 17 June 1902 ; 109 years ago ( 1902-06-17 ) [ 1 ] Ground Carrow Road , Norwich (Capacity: 27,033) Chairman Alan Bowkett Manager Paul Lambert League Premier League 2010–11 Championship , 2nd (promoted) Home colours Away colours Current season Norwich City Football Club is an English professional football club based in Norwich , Norfolk . As of the 2011–12 season, Norwich City are again playing in the Premier League after a six-year absence, having finished as runner up in the Championship in 2010–11 and winning automatic promotion. [ 2 ] The club was founded in 1902 . They first won promotion to the Football League First Division in 1972, and have played a total of 21 seasons in the top flight, with a longest continuous spell of nine seasons. Norwich have won the League Cup twice, in 1962 and 1985 . They were founder members of the Premier League in 1992–93 , finishing third in the inaugural season and played in its first three seasons, reaching the UEFA Cup 3rd Round, returning for one season in 2004–05 . Since 1935 , Norwich have played their home games at Carrow Road and have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with East Anglian neighbours Ipswich Town , with whom they have contested the East Anglian derby 138 times. The fans' song " On The Ball, City " is regarded as being the oldest football song in the world. Contents 1 History 2 Colours and crest 3 Stadium 4 Supporters 5 Ownership 6 Board members 7 Statistics and records 8 Club sponsors 9 Players 9.1 Current squad 9.2 Out on loan 9.3 Notable players 9.4 Players of the Year 9.5 Captains 10 Coaching staff 11 Managers 12 Honours 12.1 League 12.2 Cup 13 In popular culture 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links [ edit ] History Main article: History of Norwich City F.C. Carrow Road towards City Norwich City F.C. was formed following a meeting at the Criterion Cafe in Norwich on 17 June 1902 and then a sub meeting occurred on 2 July 1902 by a group of friends led by three former Norwich CEYMS players, Robert Webster, Joseph Cowper and Brad Skelly, [ 1 ] [ 3 ] and played their first competitive match against Harwich & Parkeston , at Newmarket Road on 6 September 1902. [ 4 ] Following a FA Commission, the club was ousted from the amateur game in 1905, deemed a professional organisation. Later that year Norwich were elected to play in the Southern League and with increasing crowds, they were forced to leave Newmarket Road in 1908, moving to The Nest, a disused chalk pit. The club's original nickname was the Citizens, although this was superseded by 1907 by the more familiar Canaries.This was because the breeding and keeping of the birds was popular at this time. During the First World War, with football suspended and facing spiralling debts, City went into voluntary liquidation on 10 December 1917. [ 5 ] The club was officially reformed on 15 February 1919 – a key figure in the events was a Mr C Watling, father of future club Chairman, Geoffrey Watling . [ 6 ] and when, in May 1920, The Football League formed a third Division, Norwich joined the Third Division for the following season. [ 7 ] Their first league fixture, against Plymouth Argyle , on 28 August 1920, ended in a 1–1 draw. The club went on to endure a mediocre decade, finishing no higher than eighth but no lower than 18th. [ 5 ] The following decade proved more successful for the club with a club-record victory, 10–2, over Coventry City and promotion as champions to the Second Division in the 1933–34 season under the management of Tom Parker . [ 8 ] With crowds continuing to rise, and with the Football Association raising concerns over the suitability of The Nest, the club considered renovation of the ground, but ultimately decided on a move to Carrow Road . The inaugural match, held on 31 August 1935, against West Ham United , ended in a 4–3 victory to the home team and set a new record attendance of 29,779. The biggest highlight of the following four seasons was the visit of King George VI to Carrow Road on 29 October 1938. However, the club was relegated to the Third Division at the end of the season. [ 9 ] The league was suspended the following season as a result of the outbreak of the Second World War and did not resume until the 1946–47 season. [ 5 ] City finished this and the following season in 21st place, [ 10 ] [ 11 ] the poor results forcing the club to apply for re-election to the league. [ 12 ] The club narrowly missed out on promotion under the guidance of manager Norman Low in the early 1950s, but following the return of Tom Parker as manager, Norwich finished bottom of the football league in the 1956–57 season. [ 13 ] The 1958–59 season saw Norwich reach the semi-final of the FA Cup as a Third Division side, defeating two First Division sides on the way: Tottenham Hotspur and Matt Busby 's Manchester United . [ 12 ] [ 14 ] In the 1959–60 season, Norwich were promoted to the Second Division after finishing second to Southampton , and achieved a fourth place finish in the 1960–61 season. [ 12 ] In 1962 Ron Ashman guided Norwich to their first trophy, defeating Rochdale 4–0 on aggregate in a two-legged final to win the League Cup . [ 15 ] Sixth place in the league was the closest the club came to promotion to the First Division during the 1960s, but after winning the division in the 1971–72 season under manager Ron Saunders , Norwich City reached the highest level of English football for the first time. [ 16 ] They made their first appearance at Wembley Stadium in 1973, losing the League Cup final 1–0 to Tottenham Hotspur . [ 17 ] Relegation to the Second Division in 1974 resulted in the resignation of Saunders and the appointment of John Bond . [ 16 ] A highly successful first season saw promotion back to the First Division and another visit to Wembley, again in the League Cup final, this time losing 1–0 to Aston Villa . [ 18 ] Bond resigned during the 1980–81 season and the club were relegated, but bounced back the following season after finishing third. [ 19 ] The 1984–85 season was of mixed fortunes for the club; under Ken Brown 's guidance, they reached the final of the Milk Cup at Wembley Stadium , having defeated Ipswich Town in the semi-final. In the final, they beat Sunderland 1–0, but in the league both Norwich and Sunderland were relegated to the second tier of English football. This made Norwich the first English club to win a major trophy and suffer relegation in the same season; something which was not matched until Birmingham City also suffered relegation the season they won the League Cup 26 years later. Norwich were also denied their first foray into Europe with the ban on English clubs after the Heysel Stadium disaster . [ 20 ] [ 21 ] City bounced back to the top flight by winning the Second Division championship in the 1985–86 season. [ 22 ] High league placings in the First Division in 1986–87 and 1988–89 would have been enough for UEFA Cup qualification, but the ban on English clubs remained. [ 21 ] They also had good cup runs during his period, reaching the FA Cup semi-finals in 1989 and again in 1992. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] During 1992–93 , the inaugural season of the Premier League, Norwich City led the league for most of the season, [ 25 ] before faltering in the final weeks to finish third behind the champions, Manchester United , and Aston Villa . [ 26 ] The following season Norwich played in the UEFA Cup for the first time, losing in the third round to Inter Milan , but defeating Bayern Munich . Winning 2–1 , Norwich are the only British team to beat Bayern Munich in the Olympic Stadium . [ 27 ] Mike Walker quit as Norwich City manager in January 1994, [ 28 ] to take charge of Everton and was replaced by 36-year-old first team coach John Deehan who led the club to 12th place in the 1993–94 season in the Premier League. [ 29 ] The club were relegated to the First Division the following season . [ 30 ] Shortly before relegation, Deehan resigned as manager and his assistant Gary Megson took over until the end of the season. [ 31 ] Martin O'Neill , who had taken Wycombe Wanderers from the Conference to the Second Division with successive promotions, was appointed as Norwich City manager in the summer of 1995. [ 32 ] He lasted just six months in the job before resigning after a dispute with chairman Robert Chase over money to strengthen the squad. [ 33 ] Soon after, Chase stepped down after protests from supporters, who complained that he kept selling the club's best players and was to blame for their relegation. [ 34 ] Chase's majority stakeholding was bought by Geoffrey Watling. [ 35 ] English television cook Delia Smith and husband Michael Wynn-Jones took over the majority of Norwich City's shares from Watling in 1996, [ 35 ] and Mike Walker was re-appointed as the club's manager. [ 36 ] He was unable to repeat the success achieved during his first spell and was sacked two seasons later with Norwich mid-table in the First Division. [ 37 ] Nigel Worthington took over as Norwich City manager in December 2000 following an unsuccessful two years for the club under Bruce Rioch and then Bryan Hamilton . He had been on the coaching staff under Hamilton who resigned with the club 20th in the First Division and in real danger of relegation to the third tier of English football for the first time since the 1960s. [ 38 ] Worthington avoided the threat of relegation and, the following season, led City to a playoff final at the Millennium Stadium , which Norwich lost against Birmingham City on penalties . [ 39 ] City players celebrate winning the First Division Championship, 2004 The 2003–04 campaign saw the club win the First Division title, finishing eight points clear of second-placed West Bromwich Albion and returned to the top flight for the first time since 1995. [ 40 ] For much of the 2004–05 season however, the club struggled and, despite beating Manchester United 2–0 and Newcastle United 2–1 towards the end of the season, [ 41 ] a last day 6–0 defeat away to Fulham condemned them to relegation. [ 42 ] A mediocre season followed in The Championship as the club finished in ninth despite hopes of bouncing straight back up to the top flight, [ 43 ] and as results in the 2006–07 season went against City, the pressure mounted on manager Nigel Worthington , culminating with his sacking on 1 October 2006, directly after a 4–1 defeat at the hands of Championship rivals Burnley . [ 44 ] On 16 October 2006, Norwich held a press conference to reveal that former City player Peter Grant had left West Ham United to become the new manager, [ 45 ] and in February 2007, Grant replaced assistant Doug Livermore with his fellow Scot , Jim Duffy . [ 46 ] Grant's side struggled for most of the season and worse was to follow. Norwich made a terrible start to the 2007–08 season , with only two wins by mid October; following a 1–0 defeat at fellow-strugglers Queens Park Rangers , Peter Grant left the club by "mutual consent" on 9 October 2007. [ 47 ] On 30 October 2007, former Newcastle United manager Glenn Roeder was confirmed as Grant's replacement. [ 48 ] Roeder, hired with the goal to keep Norwich in the Championship, managed to do so with a 3–0 win over Queens Park Rangers, Norwich's penultimate game of the season. In the early afternoon of 14 January 2009 it was announced that Roeder had been relieved of his first team duties after 60 games in charge, and just 20 victories. [ 49 ] A week later, Bryan Gunn was appointed as manager until the end of the season, [ 50 ] but he was unable to prevent the club from being relegated on 3 May 2009, after a 4–2 defeat away at already relegated, Charlton Athletic . [ 51 ] Following their relegation, their first game of the season resulted in a shock 7–1 home defeat against East Anglian rivals Colchester United . This was the club's heaviest ever home defeat, succeeding a record that had stood since 1946. Two fans entered the pitch and ripped up their season tickets after just 22 minutes when the team were already 4–0 down, [ 52 ] and Gunn was sacked six days later. [ 53 ] On 18 August 2009 Paul Lambert was announced as the new manager, leaving his post at Colchester, and nine months later led Norwich to promotion back to the Championship as League One Champions, after a single season in League One. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] The following season saw Norwich promoted to the Premier League, finishing second in the table behind QPR and completing the first back-to-back promotions from the 3rd tier to the 1st since Manchester City in 2000. [ 56 ] [ edit ] Colours and crest Norwich City's nickname, "The Canaries", has long influenced the team's colours and crest. Originally, the club was nicknamed the Citizens ("Cits" for short), and played in light blue and white halved shirts, [ 5 ] although the halves were inconsistent; "the blue was sometimes on the left hand side of the shirt and sometimes on the right." [ 57 ] The earliest known recorded link between the club and canaries, comes in an interview recorded in the Eastern Daily Press with newly appointed manager, John Bowman in April 1905. The paper quotes him saying "Well I knew of the City's existence... I have... heard of the canaries." [ 58 ] "This as far as we can tell is the first time that the popular pastime of the day ie... rearing... canaries was linked with Norwich City FC... the club still played in blue and white, and would continue to do so for another two seasons." [ 58 ] But the city of Norwich had long connections with canaries owing to its 15th and 16th century links to Flemish weavers who had imported the birds to the Low Countries from the Dutch colonies in the Caribbean. By February 1907, the nickname Canaries had come more into vogue; thoughts that an FA Cup tie against West Bromwich Albion (nicknamed "Throstles" after a bird) was "a bird -singing contest" were dismissed by the polymath C.B. Fry as "humbug" but Bowman and Fry's colleagues in the national press increasingly referred to the team as Canaries. [ 59 ] City of Norwich Coat of Arms The following season, to match the nickname, City played for the first time in Canary livery; "yellow shirts with green collars and cuffs. One paper produced the quote 'The Cits are dead but the Canaries are very much alive'." [ 60 ] Apart from the obvious colour link, a canary may seem an odd choice; however, many English football clubs have adopted small birds as emblems that symbolise agility and deftness around the field. [ 61 ] While the home colours of yellow and green remain to this day, the away colours have varied since introduction; the away kit is currently green shirts, white shorts and green socks. [ 62 ] A simple canary badge was first adopted in 1922. [ 63 ] The current club badge consists of a canary resting on a football with a stylised version of the City of Norwich arms in the top left corner. [ 64 ] A competition was held to select the badge, with the winning entry designed by local architect Andrew Anderson. For the club's centenary celebrations in 2002, a special crest was designed. It featured two canaries looking left and right, and a ribbon noting the centenary. [ 65 ] The French Ligue 1 team FC Nantes which was founded 41 years after Norwich City is also nicknamed The Canaries (Les Canaris) and again, like the Norfolk team, also sports a green and yellow home strip. Turkish Süper Lig club Fenerbahçe are also known as The Canaries; they wear a yellow and blue home strip. Japanese J. League club Shonan Bellmare also wore a similar kit in the 1980s, when it was corporate team . Fujita Kogyo S.C. Modena F.C. of Serie B also nicknamed "Canaries". [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Stadium Main article: Carrow Road View of the "River End" of Carrow Road , decorated by fans holding fliers distributed by a local newspaper. Norwich City F.C. played at Newmarket Road from 1902 to 1908, with a record attendance of 10,366 against Sheffield Wednesday in a second round FA Cup match in 1908. [ 66 ] Following a dispute over the conditions of renting the Newmarket Road ground, in 1908, the club moved to a new home, in a converted disused chalk pit in Rosary Road which became known as " The Nest ". [ 67 ] By the 1930s, the ground capacity was proving insufficient for the growing crowds and in 1935 the club moved to its current home in Carrow Road. [ 68 ] The original stadium, "the largest construction job in the city since the building of Norwich Castle... was "miraculously" built in just 82 days... it was referred to [by club officials] as 'The eighth wonder of the world'" [ 69 ] [ 70 ] An aerial photograph from August 1935 shows three sides of open terracing and a covered stand, with a Colman's Mustard advertisement painted on its roof, visible only from the air. [ 71 ] Floodlights were erected at the ground in 1956 whose £9,000 costs nearly sent the club into bankruptcy but the success in the 1959 FA Cup secured the financial status of the club and allowed for a cover to be built over the South Stand, which was itself replaced in 2003 when a new 7,000 seat South stand, subsequently renamed the Jarrold Stand was built in its place. [ 68 ] 1963 saw the record attendance for Carrow Road, with a crowd of 43,984 for a 6th round FA Cup match against Leicester City , but in the wake of the Ibrox stadium disaster in 1971 , safety licences were required by clubs which resulted in the capacity being drastically reduced to around 20,000. A two-tier terrace was built at the River End and soon after seats began to replace the terraces. By 1979 the stadium had a capacity of 28,392 with seats for 12,675. A fire in 1984 partially destroyed one of the stands which eventually led to its complete demolition and replacement by 1987 of a new City Stand, which chairman Robert Chase described as "Coming to a football match within the City Stand is very much like going to the theatre – the only difference being that our stage is covered with grass". [ 68 ] After the Hillsborough disaster in 1989 and the subsequent outcome of the Taylor Report in 1990, the stadium was converted to all-seater with the corners being filled. Today, Carrow Road is an all-seater stadium, with a capacity of just over 27,000. [ 72 ] [ edit ] Supporters See also: On the Ball, City , Pride of Anglia , and East Anglian Derby While much of the support that the club enjoys is local, there are a number of exile fan clubs, notably in London and stretching from Scandinavia to countries further afield such as the United Arab Emirates and Hong Kong. [ 73 ] The fans' song, On the Ball, City , is the oldest football song in the world still in use today; the song is in fact older than the club itself having probably been penned for Norwich Teachers or Caley's FC in the 1890s and adapted for Norwich City. [ 58 ] Although the first use of the tune and song is disputed, it had been adopted by 1902 and it remains in use today in part if not the whole. [ 58 ] The chorus is: [ 74 ] “ Kick off, throw in, have a little scrimmage, Keep it low, a splendid rush, bravo, win or die; On the ball City, never mind the danger, Steady on, now’s your chance, Hurrah! We’ve scored a goal, City! City! City! ” Norwich City fans at the 2002 Play-Off final at Cardiff's Millennium Stadium Locally, much is made of the informal title " Pride of Anglia ". Fans variously claim the title for either winning the East Anglian Derby, finishing highest in the league, having the better current league position, having the more successful club history or for reasons without any apparent logical basis. The club's main local rival is Ipswich Town . When Norwich and Ipswich meet it is known as the ' East Anglian Derby ', or, informally, as the 'Old Farm Derby', a comic reference to the ' Old Firm Derby' played between Scottish teams Celtic and Rangers . [ 75 ] Over the 134 matches played against Ipswich since 1902, Ipswich boasts the better record, having won 45% of the matches to Norwich's 37%. [ 76 ] [i] Another commonly employed measure for "Pride of Anglia", and one that encompasses all of the East Anglian teams is to dub the side finishing as the highest placed East Anglian team in the Football League as the Pride of Anglia. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] The club is also blessed with a healthy celebrity support with celebrity cook, Delia Smith and comedian Stephen Fry both having moved from fans of the club to running it. Actor Hugh Jackman is also a fan of the club, having been taken to Carrow Road as a child by his English mother, though he turned down an opportunity to become an investor in the club in 2010. [ 79 ] BBC Sports Presenter Jake Humphrey , who was born in Peterborough but moved to Norwich with his family at the age of nine, is another celebrity supporter, along with Sky Sports Presenter Simon Thomas , who is Vice-President of the Norwich City Supporters Trust. [ 80 ] [ edit ] Ownership Norwich City FC is a public limited company that, in 2003, comprised approximately 8,000 individual shareholdings. [ 81 ] Since purchasing their shares from Geoffrey Watling, Delia Smith and husband Michael Wynn-Jones have been joint majority shareholders. [ 35 ] Michael Wynn-Jones and Delia Smith at a fans' event At the 2006–07 Norwich City FC Annual General Meeting (on 18 January 2007) Smith and Wynn-Jones announced that they would be open to offers to buy their majority stake-holding in the club. However, they made clear that any prospective buyer would have to invest heavily in the squad, with regards to team improving. [ 82 ] “ The only way we would relinquish our shares is if somebody is going to put money into the football ... Only if they put money into the squad – not if they buy our shares, we don't want money. It has to be that there is money for the squad, serious money for the squad. ” On 8 May 2007 the football club announced that Andrew and Sharon Turner had bought out all 5,000 shares belonging to former Board member, Barry Skipper and had given the club an interest-free loan of £2m. Mr and Mrs Turner are owners and directors of personal finance company Central Trust. During July 2008 Peter Cullum declared that he was interested in a takeover of the club, and pledged that he would invest £20m for enhancement of the playing squad. On 8 July the EDP reported that Delia Smith and the board had invited Peter Cullum for talks. Reports later stated that the talks had been terminated with immediate effect, and no deal was to be reached. On 2 September 2008, Andrew and Sharon Turner announced that they were leaving the football club's board of directors. This left a £2 million hole in Norwich City's budget. On 4 September 2008, Delia Smith and Michael Wynn-Jones announced that they would be injecting £2 million, avoiding financial problems for the club. The 2011 Annual General Meeting, attended by over 500 shareholders, [ 83 ] saw joint majority shareholder Delia Smith and Stephan Phillips re-elected as directors and new director Stephen Fry formally re-elected having joined the Board the previous August. [ 83 ] [ edit ] Board members Position Staff Chairman Alan Bowkett Deputy Chairman Michael Foulger Joint Majority Shareholder Delia Smith Joint Majority Shareholder Michael Wynn-Jones Director Stephen Fry Director Stephan Phillips Director (and Chief Executive) David McNally Last updated: 17 January 2011 Source: Norwich FC [ edit ] Statistics and records Main article: List of Norwich City F.C. club records Ron Ashman holds the record for Norwich appearances, having played 592 first-team matches between 1947 and 1964. Ralph Hunt holds the record for the most goals scored in a season, 31 in the 1955–56 season in Division Three (South) , with Johnny Gavin the top scorer over a career – 122 between 1948 and 1955. Mark Bowen holds the club record for most international caps, with 35 for Wales. [ 84 ] The club's widest victory margin in the league was their 10–2 win against Coventry City in the Division Three (South) in 1930. Their heaviest defeat in the league was 10–2 against Swindon Town in 1908 in the Southern Football League . Norwich's record home attendance is 43,984 for a sixth round FA Cup match against Leicester City on 30 March 1963. With the introduction of regulations enforcing all-seater stadiums, it is unlikely that this record will be beaten in the foreseeable future. The highest transfer fee received for an Norwich player is £7.25 million, from West Ham United for Dean Ashton in January 2006, while the most spent by the club on a player was £3.5 million for Robert Earnshaw from West Bromwich Albion in the same month. [ 85 ] The club's highest league finish was third in the FA Premier League in 1992–93. [ 72 ] The club has won the League Cup twice (most recently in 1985) and reached the FA Cup semi-final three times, most recently in 1992. [ 72 ] Norwich have taken part in European competition just once, reaching the third round of the UEFA Cup in 1993–94 and are the only British side to beat Bayern Munich in the Olympic Stadium . [ 25 ] [ edit ] Club sponsors Seasons Sponsor [ 86 ] Kit Manufacturers 1975–1976 None Umbro 1976–1981 None Admiral 1981–1983 None Adidas 1983–1986 Poll Withey Windows/ Poll Withey Adidas till 1984, Hummel from 1984 1986–1989 Foster's Lager Hummel (till 1987), Scoreline (till 1989) 1989–1992 Asics Asics 1992–1997 Norwich and Peterborough Building Society Ribero till 1994, Mitre 1997–2001 Colman's Pony (1997–1998), Alexandra Plc (1998–2001) 2001–2003 Digital Phone Company Xara 2003–2006 Proton Cars / Lotus Cars Xara 2006–2008 Flybe.com Xara 2008– Norwich Union / Aviva Xara (2008–2011), Erreà (2011–) Between 2006 and 2008 the club were sponsored by airline Flybe but on 26 April 2008, it was announced that they were stepping down as the main sponsors. [ 87 ] On 29 April 2008 it was announced that Aviva , the parent company of Norwich Union , would be the new shirt sponsors having signed a three year contract. [ 88 ] In 2009 this deal was extended until the end of the 2011–12 season. [ 89 ] [ edit ] Players [ edit ] Current squad As of 31 January 2012. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules . Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No. Position Player 1 GK John Ruddy 2 DF Russell Martin ( second vice-captain ) 3 DF Adam Drury 4 MF Bradley Johnson 5 MF Steve Morison 6 DF Zak Whitbread 7 MF Andrew Crofts 8 FW James Vaughan 9 FW Grant Holt ( club captain ) 10 FW Simeon Jackson 11 MF Andrew Surman 12 FW Anthony Pilkington 13 GK Declan Rudd No. Position Player 14 MF Wes Hoolahan ( vice-captain ) 15 MF David Fox 17 MF Elliott Bennett 19 MF Simon Lappin 20 DF Leon Barnett 21 FW Aaron Wilbraham 22 DF Elliott Ward 23 DF Marc Tierney 24 MF Jonny Howson 25 DF Kyle Naughton (on loan from Tottenham Hotspur ) 26 DF Daniel Ayala 31 GK Jed Steer 33 DF Ryan Bennett [ edit ] Out on loan Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules . Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No. Position Player 16 FW Chris Martin (at Crystal Palace until 1 June 2012) 18 MF Korey Smith (at Barnsley until 1 June 2012) 27 MF Tom Adeyemi (at Oldham Athletic until 10 March 2012) No. Position Player 28 DF George Francomb (at Hibernian until 1 June 2012) 29 MF Josh Dawkin (at Kettering Town until 1 June 2012) 30 MF Matt Ball (at Macclesfield Town until 15 April 2012) [ edit ] Notable players Past (and present) players who are the subjects of Wikipedia articles can be found here During the club's centenary season, a " Hall of Fame " was created, honouring 100 former players chosen by fan vote and a further 10 players were inducted into the Norwich City Hall of Fame in 2006. [ edit ] Players of the Year For a more detailed list of these winners of the Barry Butler trophy, see Norwich City Players of the Year . Year Winner 1967 Terry Allcock 1968 Hugh Curran 1969 Ken Foggo 1970 Duncan Forbes 1971 Ken Foggo 1972 Dave Stringer 1973 Kevin Keelan 1974 Kevin Keelan 1975 Colin Suggett 1976 Martin Peters 1977 Martin Peters 1978 John Ryan Year Winner 1979 Tony Powell 1980 Kevin Bond 1981 Joe Royle 1982 Greg Downs 1983 Dave Watson 1984 Chris Woods 1985 Steve Bruce 1986 Kevin Drinkell 1987 Kevin Drinkell 1988 Bryan Gunn 1989 Dale Gordon 1990 Mark Bowen Year Winner 1991 Ian Culverhouse 1992 Robert Fleck 1993 Bryan Gunn 1994 Chris Sutton 1995 Jon Newsome 1996 Spencer Prior 1997 Darren Eadie 1998 Matt Jackson 1999 Iwan Roberts 2000 Iwan Roberts 2001 Andy Marshall 2002 Gary Holt Year Winner 2003 Adam Drury 2004 Craig Fleming 2005 Darren Huckerby 2006 Gary Doherty 2007 Darren Huckerby 2008 Dion Dublin 2009 Lee Croft 2010 Grant Holt 2011 Grant Holt [ edit ] Captains For a list of Norwich City captains, see Norwich City captains [ edit ] Coaching staff Position Staff Manager Paul Lambert Assistant manager Ian Culverhouse First Team coach Reserve Team manager Vacant Head of Football Operations Gary Karsa Goalkeeping Coach Jeff Wood Head of Strength and Conditioning Mike Watts Academy Sports Scientist Chris Lorkin Academy Manager Ricky Martin Assistant Academy Manager Gary Holt Assistant Youth Team Coach Neil Adams Performance and Team Analyst Gareth Payne Head of Physiotherapy Neal Reynolds Assistant Physio Stuart Wardle Club Doctor Dr Nick Wilford Chief Scout Colin Jackson Last updated: 27 November 2011 Source: Norwich FC [ edit ] Managers See also: List of Norwich City F.C. managers Former manager, Bryan Gunn As of 17 February 2011. Only professional, competitive matches are counted. [ 92 ] Name Nat From To G W D L %W John Bowman 1 August 1905 31 July 1907 &10000000000000078000000 78 &10000000000000031000000 31 &10000000000000023000000 23 &10000000000000024000000 24 &10000000000000039700000 39.7 James McEwen 1 August 1907 31 May 1908 &10000000000000043000000 43 &10000000000000013000000 13 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000020000000 20 &10000000000000030199999 30.2 Arthur Turner 1 August 1909 31 May 1910 &10000000000000086000000 86 &10000000000000027000000 27 &10000000000000022000000 22 &10000000000000037000000 37 &10000000000000031399999 31.4 Bert Stansfield 1 August 1910 31 May 1915 &10000000000000248000000 248 &10000000000000078000000 78 &10000000000000075000000 75 &10000000000000095000000 95 &10000000000000031500000 31.5 Major Frank Buckley 1 August 1919 1 July 1920 &10000000000000043000000 43 &10000000000000015000000 15 &10000000000000011000000 11 &10000000000000017000000 17 &10000000000000034899999 34.9 Charles O'Hagan 1 July 1920 1 January 1921 &10000000000000021000000 21 &10000000000000004000000 4 &10000000000000009000000 9 &10000000000000008000000 8 &10000000000000019000000 19.0 Albert Gosnell 1 January 1921 28 February 1926 &10000000000000233000000 233 &10000000000000059000000 59 &10000000000000079000000 79 &10000000000000095000000 95 &10000000000000025300000 25.3 Bert Stansfield 1 March 1926 1 November 1926 Cecil Potter 1 November 1926 1 January 1929 &10000000000000101000000 101 &10000000000000030000000 30 &10000000000000026000000 26 &10000000000000045000000 45 &10000000000000029699999 29.7 James Kerr 1 April 1929 28 February 1933 &10000000000000168000000 168 &10000000000000065000000 65 &10000000000000043000000 43 &10000000000000060000000 60 &10000000000000038700000 38.7 Tom Parker 1 March 1933 1 May 1955 1 February 1937 31 March 1957 &10000000000000271000000 271 &10000000000000104000000 104 &10000000000000069000000 69 &10000000000000098000000 98 &10000000000000038399999 38.4 Bob Young 1 February 1937 1 September 1939 31 December 1938 31 May 1946 &10000000000000078000000 78 &10000000000000026000000 26 &10000000000000014000000 14 &10000000000000038000000 38 &10000000000000033299999 33.3 Jimmy Jewell 1 January 1939 1 September 1939 &10000000000000020000000 20 &10000000000000006000000 6 &10000000000000004000000 4 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000030000000 30.0 Duggie Lochhead 1 December 1945 1 March 1950 &10000000000000104000000 104 &10000000000000042000000 42 &10000000000000028000000 28 &10000000000000034000000 34 &10000000000000040399999 40.4 Cyril Spiers 1 June 1946 1 December 1947 &10000000000000065000000 65 &10000000000000015000000 15 &10000000000000012000000 12 &10000000000000038000000 38 &10000000000000023100000 23.1 Norman Low 1 May 1950 30 April 1955 &10000000000000258000000 258 &10000000000000129000000 129 &10000000000000056000000 56 &10000000000000073000000 73 &10000000000000050000000 50.0 Archie Macaulay 1 April 1957 1 October 1961 &10000000000000224000000 224 &10000000000000105000000 105 &10000000000000060000000 60 &10000000000000059000000 59 &10000000000000046899999 46.9 Willie Reid 1 December 1961 1 May 1962 &10000000000000031000000 31 &10000000000000013000000 13 &10000000000000006000000 6 &10000000000000012000000 12 &10000000000000041899999 41.9 George Swindin 1 May 1962 30 November 1962 &10000000000000020000000 20 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000005000000 5 &10000000000000005000000 5 &10000000000000050000000 50.0 Ron Ashman 1 December 1962 31 May 1966 &10000000000000162000000 162 &10000000000000059000000 59 &10000000000000039000000 39 &10000000000000064000000 64 &10000000000000036399999 36.4 Lol Morgan 1 June 1966 1 May 1969 &10000000000000127000000 127 &10000000000000045000000 45 &10000000000000047000000 47 &10000000000000035000000 35 &10000000000000035399999 35.4 Ron Saunders 1 July 1969 16 November 1973 &10000000000000221000000 221 &10000000000000084000000 84 &10000000000000061000000 61 &10000000000000076000000 76 &10000000000000038000000 38.0 John Bond 27 November 1973 31 October 1980 &10000000000000340000000 340 &10000000000000105000000 105 &10000000000000114000000 114 &10000000000000121000000 121 &10000000000000030899999 30.9 Ken Brown 1 November 1980 9 November 1987 &10000000000000367000000 367 &10000000000000150000000 150 &10000000000000093000000 93 &10000000000000124000000 124 &10000000000000040899999 40.9 Dave Stringer 9 November 1987 1 May 1992 &10000000000000229000000 229 &10000000000000089000000 89 &10000000000000058000000 58 &10000000000000082000000 82 &10000000000000038899999 38.9 Mike Walker 1 June 1992 21 June 1996 6 January 1994 30 April 1998 &10000000000000179000000 179 &10000000000000069000000 69 &10000000000000046000000 46 &10000000000000064000000 64 &10000000000000038500000 38.5 John Deehan 12 January 1994 31 July 1995 &10000000000000058000000 58 &10000000000000013000000 13 &10000000000000022000000 22 &10000000000000023000000 23 &10000000000000022399999 22.4 Martin O'Neill August 1995 December 1995 &10000000000000026000000 26 &10000000000000012000000 12 &10000000000000009000000 9 &10000000000000005000000 5 &10000000000000046200000 46.2 Gary Megson December 1995 21 June 1996 &10000000000000032000000 32 &10000000000000005000000 5 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000017000000 17 &10000000000000015599999 15.6 Bruce Rioch 12 June 1998 13 March 2000 &10000000000000093000000 93 &10000000000000030000000 30 &10000000000000031000000 31 &10000000000000032000000 32 &10000000000000032299999 32.3 Bryan Hamilton 5 April 2000 4 December 2000 &10000000000000035000000 35 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000015000000 15 &10000000000000028600000 28.6 Nigel Worthington 4 December 2000 2 October 2006 &10000000000000280000000 280 &10000000000000114000000 114 &10000000000000104000000 104 &10000000000000062000000 62 &10000000000000040700000 40.7 Peter Grant 13 October 2006 9 October 2007 &10000000000000054000000 54 &10000000000000018000000 18 &10000000000000012000000 12 &10000000000000024000000 24 &10000000000000033299999 33.3 Glenn Roeder 30 October 2007 14 January 2009 &10000000000000065000000 65 &10000000000000020000000 20 &10000000000000015000000 15 &10000000000000030000000 30 &10000000000000030800000 30.8 Bryan Gunn 16 January 2009 13 August 2009 &10000000000000021000000 21 &10000000000000006000000 6 &10000000000000005000000 5 &10000000000000010000000 10 &10000000000000028600000 28.6 Paul Lambert 18 August 2009 Present &10000000000000128000000 128 &10000000000000067000000 67 &10000000000000032000000 32 &10000000000000020000000 20 &10000000000000052299999 52.3 [ edit ] Honours Norwich City have won a number of honours, including the following: [ 93 ] [ edit ] League Football League First Division (level 1) 3rd placed (1) (1992–93) Football League Second Division (Level 2) Winners (3) : 1971–72 , 1985–86 , 2003–04 Runners-up (1): 2010–11 (and promoted to Level 1) Football League Third Division (Level 3) Winners (2) : 1933–34 , 2009–10 Runners-up (1): 1959–60 [ edit ] Cup League Cup Winners (2) : 1962 , 1985 Runners-up (2): 1973 , 1975 Friendship Trophy Each time they meet, Norwich and Sunderland contest the Friendship Trophy, an honour dating back to the camaraderie forged between fans of the two clubs at the time of the 1985 League Cup final that they contested. [ 94 ] Sunderland are the current holders of the cup, having defeated Norwich 3–0 on 1st February 2012, in the Premier League . [ edit ] In popular culture Making of Mike Bassett: England Manager In the 2001 film Mike Bassett: England Manager , [ 95 ] the eponymous hero, played by Ricky Tomlinson , rises to prominence as a result of success as manager of Norwich City, having won the 'Mr Clutch Cup'. The celebratory scenes of the open-top bus ride around the city (right) were actually shot in St Albans , Hertfordshire, rather than Norwich. In 1972 the Children's Film Foundation released a movie called " The Boy Who Turned Yellow ", about a boy living in London who supports Norwich City. In the film, he and everyone and everything else on his tube train are turned yellow. That night he is visited by a yellow alien called Nick, short for electronic, who teaches him all about electricity. The link to the football club is used to explain why the boy already has so many yellow things in his bedroom. [ 96 ] In 1997, the film version of Nick Hornby 's book Fever Pitch told of the 1988–89 season, in which Norwich City, still in contention for the league title on 1 May, when games were resumed following the Hillsborough disaster , played at Arsenal , the favourite club of the film's protagonist, Paul Ashworth ( Colin Firth ). Notoriously pessimistic about Arsenal's chances despite their current first-place status, Paul says, "I want us to win. And I think we will." His friend Steve ( Mark Strong ) says, "Well, that's new. Home to Norwich, you'd usually be predicting, what, a 2–0 defeat? Nil–nil, maybe, if you was really on top of the world?" But, buoyed by several strokes of good luck (and by Hornby, also the film's scriptwriter, having the benefit of hindsight), Paul predicts a 5–0 victory, which turns to be the exact score, knocking Norwich out of the race, in which they finished fourth, their best first-division finish until the 1992–93 season. On 28 February 2005, majority shareholder Delia Smith put Norwich into the limelight at half-time during a televised home match against Manchester City. With relegation from the Premier League looking likely, Delia took hold of the microphone and in an effort to rally the crowd, shouted “A message for the best football supporters in the world: We need a 12th man here. Where are you? Where are you? Let’s be having you! Come on!” [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] [ 100 ] and clips of the Sky Sports coverage were hosted by YouTube. [ 101 ] [ edit ] Notes i ^ : This includes matches played at an amateur level. [ edit ] References ^ a b "Norwich City History" . 4thegame.com . http://www.4thegame.com/club/norwich-city-fc/history/ . Retrieved 10 June 2007 . ^ Portsmouth 0–1 Norwich , BBC Sport website. Retrieved 2 May 2011. ^ Club history 1902 to 1940 Norwich City FC ^ Eastwood, John; Mike Davage (1986). Canary Citizens . Almeida Books. pp. 1, p19. ISBN 0-7117-2020-7 . ^ a b c d "History – 1902/1940" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/History/0,,10355~1023784,00.html . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 46. ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 47. ^ "Final 1933/1934 English Division 3 South Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=63 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1938/1939 English Division 2 (old) Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=68 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1946/1947 English Division 3 South Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=76 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1947/1948 English Division 3 South Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=77 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ a b c "History – 1941/1969" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/History/0,,10355~1025325,00.html . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1956/1957 English Division 3 South Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=76 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "English FA Cup 1958/1959" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/cup2.sd?competitionid=58&seasonid=88 . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ "English League Cup 1961/1962" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/cup2.sd?competitionid=60&seasonid=91 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ a b "History – 1970/1985" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/History/0,,10355~1025326,00.html . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "English League Cup Final 1972–73" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/results3.sd?gameid=259796 . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ "English League Cup Final 1974–75" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/results3.sd?gameid=259933 . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1981/1982 English Division 2 (old) Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=111 . Retrieved 29 March 2007 . ^ "English League Cup 1984–85" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/cup2.sd?competitionid=60&seasonid=114 . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ a b "History 1986/95" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/History/0,,10355~1025327,00.html . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1985/1986 English Division 2 (old) Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?competitionid=6&seasonid=115 . Retrieved 26 March 2007 . ^ "English FA Cup 1988/1989" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/cup2.sd?competitionid=58&seasonid=118 . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "English FA Cup 1991/1992" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/cup2.sd?competitionid=58&seasonid=121 . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ a b "History 1986/1995" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/History/0,,10355~1025327,00.html . Retrieved 25 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1992/1993 English Premier Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=122 . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "UEFA Cup 1993/1994" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/cup2.sd?competitionid=64&seasonid=123 . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Walker leaves Norwich City" . BBC Sport. 30 April 1998 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/86316.stm . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1993/1994 English Premier Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=123 . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1994/1995 English Premier Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=124 . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Gary Megson Factfile" . BBC Birmingham. 27 October 2004 . http://www.bbc.co.uk/birmingham/sport/2004/10/megson_factfile.shtml . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Profile: Martin O'Neill" . BBC Sport. 1 May 2002 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/scottish_cup/1961921.stm . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Martin O'Neill" . BBC Sport. 14 May 2002 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport3/worldcup2002/hi/tv_radio_coverage/newsid_1987000/1987736.stm . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Canary Centenary" . Eastern Daily Press. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070403191310/http://www.edp24.co.uk/Content/Sport/CanaryCentenary/1990_2000.asp . Retrieved 23 April 2007 . ^ a b c "Norwich legend Watling has died" . BBC Sport. 17 November 2004 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/4020587.stm . Retrieved 27 March 2007 . ^ "Mike Walker's managerial career" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=972 . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Final 1997/1998 Football League Championship Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=127 . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Worthington handed Norwich chance" . BBC Sport. 2 January 2001 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/1097980.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Birmingham reach Premiership" . BBC Sport. 12 May 2002 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/eng_div_1/1979806.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Norwich City win Premiership promotion" . BBC Norfolk . http://www.bbc.co.uk/norfolk/funstuff/galleries/norwich_city_promotion/norwich_city_promotion_01.shtml . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Norwich 2004/2005 results and fixtures" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/results2.sd?teamid=1855&seasonid=134 . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Fulham 6–0 Norwich" . BBC Sport. 15 May 2005 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/eng_prem/4525103.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Final 2005/2006 Football League Championship Table" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/league2.sd?competitionid=2&seasonid=135 . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Norwich sack manager Worthington" . BBC Sport. 1 October 2006 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/5397320.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Grant appointed as Norwich boss" . BBC Sport. 16 October 2006 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/6049534.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Grant adds to backroom staff" . BBC Sport. 12 February 2007 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/6342553.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Grant parts company with Canaries" . BBC Sport. 9 October 2007 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/7035042.stm . Retrieved 30 October 2007 . ^ "Norwich name Roeder as new boss" . BBC Sport. 30 October 2007 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/7068855.stm . Retrieved 30 October 2007 . ^ "Roeder sacked as Norwich manager" . BBC Sport. 14 January 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/7828617.stm . Retrieved 14 January 2009 . ^ "Norwich name Gunn boss for season" . BBC Sport. 21 January 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/7841754.stm . Retrieved 3 May 2009 . ^ "Norwich drop down to League One" . BBC Sport. 3 May 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_div_1/8015098.stm . Retrieved 3 May 2009 . ^ "Norwich 1 – 7 Colchester" . BBC Sport. 8 August 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_div_2/8186227.stm . Retrieved 9 August 2009 . ^ "Manager Gunn sacked by Canaries" . BBC Sport. 13 August 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/8202278.stm . Retrieved 13 August 2009 . ^ "Charlton 0–1 Norwich" . BBC Sport. 17 April 2010 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_div_2/8617895.stm . Retrieved 17 April 2010 . ^ "Norwich 2–0 Gillingham" . BBC Sport. 24 April 2010 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_div_2/8620715.stm . Retrieved 24 April 2010 . ^ Portsmouth 0–1 Norwich BBC Sport, 2 May 2011 ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 18. ^ a b c d Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 24. ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . pp. 28–29. ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 29. ^ Morris, Desmond (1981). The Soccer Tribe . London: Jonathan Cape. p. 210. ISBN 0-224-01935-X . ^ "New away kit 2011–12" . Norwich City FC. 25 July 2011 . http://www.canaries.talent-sport.co.uk/PagesPublic/ProductBrowse/browse03.aspx?group1=R&group2=A11 . Retrieved 25 July 2011 . ^ "Bridewell trail" (PDF). Norfolk Museums. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009 . http://web.archive.org/web/20090326062551/http://www.museums.norfolk.gov.uk/img/Bridewell%20web%20Trail.pdf . Retrieved 20 April 2007 . ^ Smith, Roger (2004). The Canary Companion . RJS Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 0-9548287-0-4 . ^ Richard Moss (20 December 2002). "ON THE BALL CITY – 100 YEARS OF NORWICH CITY FOOTBALL CLUB" . http://www.culture24.org.uk/places+to+go/east+of+england/norwich/art14471 . Retrieved 20 April 2007 . ^ "Norwich City grounds – 1. Newmarket Road" . Eastern Daily Press. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070505133045/http://www.edp24.co.uk/Content/Sport/CanaryCentenary/Newmarket.asp . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Norwich City grounds – 2. The Nest" . Eastern Daily Press. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070505092150/http://www.edp24.co.uk/Content/Sport/CanaryCentenary/Nest.asp . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ a b c "Norwich City grounds – 3. Carrow Road" . Eastern Daily Press. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070505125111/http://www.edp24.co.uk/Content/Sport/CanaryCentenary/Carrow.asp . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 63. ^ "The highs and lows of City’s rich past" . Norwich Evening News. 10 May 2004. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070930015607/http://new.eveningnews24.co.uk/content/sport/features/Promotion2004/040510Past.aspx . Retrieved 23 April 2007 . ^ Eastwood. Canary Citizens . p. 65. ^ a b c "Carrow Road" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/CarrowRoad/0,,10355,00.html . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Supporter Groups" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/SupporterGroupsIndex/0,,10355,00.html . Retrieved 23 April 2007 . ^ "Learn to sing like a canary" . BBC. 10 March 2004 . http://www.bbc.co.uk/norfolk/sport/norwich_city/song_sheets_words.shtml . Retrieved 23 April 2007 . ^ Ronald Atkin (19 November 2006). "East Anglia Derby: Grant ready with his shark riposte" . The Independent (UK) . http://sport.independent.co.uk/football/coca_cola/article1996290.ece . Retrieved 19 March 2007 . ^ "East Anglian Derby" . Ipswich Town FC . http://www.itfc.co.uk/page/ClubHistory/0,,10272~1027174,00.html . Retrieved 16 March 2007 . ^ Chris Lakey (1 April 2007). "England 2004–05" . RSSSF.com . http://www.rsssf.com/engpaul/FLA/2004-05.html . Retrieved 20 April 2007 . ^ "England 2005–06" . RSSSF.com . http://www.rsssf.com/engpaul/FLA/2005-06.html . Retrieved 20 April 2007 . ^ [1] Jackman on Boxing and why he turned down Norwich ^ [2] Norwich City Supporters Trust ^ "The Ownership Structure of Nationwide League Football Clubs 2002–03" . football-research.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080319025644/http://www.football-research.org/hope/hope-appendix1tables.htm . Retrieved 23 April 2007 . ^ Smith, Delia (19 January 2007). "Delia Smith open to Canaries offers" . TEAMtalk.com . http://www.teamtalk.com/football/story/0,16368,1781_1856316,00.html . Retrieved 20 January 2007 . ^ a b Club holds Annual General Meeting , Norwich City FC, 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2012-01-14. ^ "Norwich City all time records" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/team_records.sd?teamid=1855 . Retrieved 25 April 2007 . ^ "Norwich City all time records" . Soccerbase . http://www.soccerbase.com/team_records.sd?teamid=1855 . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ "Historical Football Kits – Norwich City" . http://www.historicalkits.co.uk/Norwich_City/Norwich_City.htm . Retrieved 17 February 2009 . ^ "Flybe step downs main sponsor" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/NewsDetails/0,,10355~1297089,00.html . Retrieved 28 April 2007 . ^ "Aviva to sponsor Norwich City FC" . Aviva . https://www.aviva.co.uk/media-centre/story/4032/aviva-to-sponsor-norwich-city-fc/ . Retrieved 21 March 2012 . ^ "Aviva extend Canaries sponsorship" . BBC Sport . http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/n/norwich/8129106.stm . Retrieved 21 March 2012 . ^ "First Team Profiles" . Norwich City F.C. . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/ProfilesDetail/0,,10355,00.html . Retrieved 27 May 2011 . ^ "2011–12 Squad Numbers Confirmed" . Norwich City F.C. . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/NewsDetails/0,,10355~2416960,00.html . Retrieved 12 August 2011 . ^ "So just who was City's top boss?" . Eastern Daily Press . Archived from the original on 4 May 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080504204315/http://www.edp24.co.uk/Content/Sport/CanaryCentenary/Managers.asp . Retrieved 13 February 2010 . ^ "Norwich City F.C. History" . Norwich City FC . http://www.canaries.co.uk/page/CarrowRoad/0,,10355,00.html . Retrieved 24 April 2007 . ^ "Up for the cups" . Norwich Evening News. 10 May 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070928000835/http://www.eveningnews24.co.uk/content/sport/features/Promotion2004/040510Trophies.aspx . Retrieved 13 April 2007 . ^ "Football film kicks off" . BBC News. 26 September 2001 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/1564112.stm . Retrieved 28 March 2007 . ^ Fascinating trivia (and any goofs) connected with the film ^ 'Delia's outburst talk of the game' BBC News , 1 March 2005] ^ Andrew Levy: 'Had a tad too much cooking sherry, have we, Delia?' Daily Mail , 2 March 2005 ^ Patrick Barkham. 'The Guardian profile: Delia Smith'. The Guardian . 4 March 2005. ^ Brian Viner: 'Delia Smith: Cooking up a storm' The Independent , 5 March 2005 ^ 'Delia Smith – Where are ya!' www.youtube.com (7 October 2006) [ edit ] Further reading Canary Citizens by Mike Davage, John Eastwood, Kevin Platt, published by Jarrold Publishing, (2001), ISBN 0-7117-2020-7 Norfolk 'n' Good: A Supporter's View of Norwich City's Best-ever Season by Kevin Baldwin, published by Yellow Bird Publishing, (1993), ISBN 0-9522074-0-0 Second Coming: Supporter's View of the New Era at Norwich City by Kevin Baldwin, published by Yellow Bird Publishing, (1997), ISBN 0-9522074-1-9 Norwich City Miscellany by Edward Couzens-Lake, published by Pitch Publishing, (2010), ISBN 1-905411-70-7 [ edit ] External links Listen to this article ( info/dl ) This audio file was created from a revision of the " Norwich City F.C. " article dated 16 June 2007, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ( Audio help ) More spoken articles Norwich City F.C. on BBC Sport : Club News – Recent results – Upcoming fixtures – Club stats NCFC Official Site The Pink 'Un BBC Norfolk's Norwich City Page v t e Norwich City Football Club Club History · Seasons · Current Season · Managers Records Records · Hall of Fame · Players of the Year Players Current squad · Players · Captains Grounds Carrow Road · The Nest · Newmarket Road Matches Bayern Munich · 1962 League Cup Final · 1973 League Cup Final · 1975 League Cup Final · 1985 League Cup Final · 2002 Play-off Final Other East Anglian derby · Pride of Anglia · On the Ball, City v t e Premier League 2011–12 clubs Arsenal · Aston Villa · Blackburn Rovers · Bolton Wanderers · Chelsea · Everton · Fulham · Liverpool · Manchester City · Manchester United · Newcastle United · Norwich City · Queens Park Rangers · Stoke City · Sunderland · Swansea City · Tottenham Hotspur · West Bromwich Albion · Wigan Athletic · Wolverhampton Wanderers Former clubs Barnsley · Birmingham City · Blackpool · Bradford City · Burnley · Charlton Athletic · Coventry City · Crystal Palace · Derby County · Hull City · Ipswich Town · Leeds United · Leicester City · Middlesbrough · Nottingham Forest · Oldham Athletic · Portsmouth · Reading · Sheffield United · Sheffield Wednesday · Southampton · Swindon Town · Watford · West Ham United · Wimbledon Competition Seasons · Teams ( winners ) · Players ( foreign ) ( winners ) · Managers ( current ) · Stadia · Founding · Broadcasters · Referees Statistics and awards Records · All-time table · Hat-tricks · Highest scores · Golden Boot · Golden Glove · Manager of the Season · Manager of the Month · Player of the Month · Players with 100+ goals · 10 Seasons Awards Finances Richest clubs: ( Deloitte list ) ( Forbes' list ) · Team owners · Average attendances · Transfer records · Game 39 · Premier League–Football League gulf · Relegated teams (2005–present) Associated competitions Asia Trophy · FA Community Shield · FA Cup · Football League Cup · UEFA Champions League · UEFA Europa League · Women's League · Reserve League · Academy League Seasons Football League · 1992–93 · 1993–94 · 1994–95 · 1995–96 · 1996–97 · 1997–98 · 1998–99 · 1999–2000 · 2000–01 · 2001–02 · 2002–03 · 2003–04 · 2004–05 · 2005–06 · 2006–07 · 2007–08 · 2008–09 · 2009–10 · 2010–11 · 2011–12 · 2012–13 v t e Premier Reserve League South 2011–12 teams Arsenal Reserves · Aston Villa Reserves · Chelsea Reserves · Fulham Reserves · Norwich City Reserves · Swansea City Reserves · West Bromwich Albion Reserves · Wolverhampton Wanderers Reserves · v t e Original Premier League clubs, 1992–93 Arsenal · Aston Villa · Blackburn Rovers · Chelsea · Coventry City · Crystal Palace · Everton · Ipswich Town · Leeds United · Liverpool · Manchester City · Manchester United · Middlesbrough · Norwich City · Nottingham Forest · Oldham Athletic · Queens Park Rangers · Sheffield United · Sheffield Wednesday · Southampton · Tottenham Hotspur · Wimbledon v t e Football League Championship 2011–12 teams Barnsley · Birmingham City · Blackpool · Brighton & Hove Albion · Bristol City · Burnley · Cardiff City · Coventry City · Crystal Palace · Derby County · Doncaster Rovers · Hull City · Ipswich Town · Leeds United · Leicester City · Middlesbrough · Milwall · Nottingham Forest · Peterborough United · Portsmouth · Reading · Southampton · Watford · West Ham United Competition Seasons · Teams ( winners ) · Players ( foreign ) ( winners ) ( International Caps ) · Managers ( current ) · Stadia · Referees Statistics and awards Record · All-time table · Football League Awards · Golden Boot · Macron Golden Glove · Manager of the Month · Player of the Month · Hat-tricks · Football League Precision Goalkeeping Golden Glove · Young Player of the Month Finances Club Owners · Premier League–Football League gulf · Average attendances Sponsors Coca-Cola (2004–10) · Npower (2010–13) Associated competitions FA Cup · Football League Cup · Play-offs Seasons 2004–05 · 2005–06 · 2006–07 · 2007–08 · 2008–09 · 2009–10 · 2010–11 · 2011–12 Prospects Promotion to FA Premier League ; Relegation to Football League One
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales (centre), and John Harington, later 2nd Lord Harington of Exton, by Robert Peake the Elder, 1603 Robert Peake the Elder (c. 1551–1619) was an English painter active in the later part of Elizabeth I's reign and for most of the reign of James I . In 1604, he was appointed picture maker to the heir to the throne, Prince Henry ; and in 1607, serjeant-painter to King James I – a post he shared with John De Critz . [ 1 ] Peake is often called "the elder", to distinguish him from his son, the painter and print seller William Peake (c. 1580–1639) and from his grandson, Sir Robert Peake (c. 1605–67), who followed his father into the family print-selling business. [ 2 ] Peake was the only English-born painter of a group of four artists whose workshops were closely connected. The others were De Critz, Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger , and the miniature painter Isaac Oliver . Between 1590 and about 1625, they specialised in brilliantly coloured, full-length "costume pieces" that are unique to England at this time. [ 3 ] It is not always possible to attribute authorship between Peake, De Critz, Gheeraerts and their assistants with certainty. [ 4 ] Contents 1 Career 1.1 Early life and work 1.2 Painter to Prince Henry 1.3 Death 2 Paintings 2.1 Procession Picture 2.2 Full-length portraits 2.3 Lady Elizabeth Pope 2.4 Assessment 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links [ edit ] Career [ edit ] Early life and work The Procession Picture , c. 1600, a well-known work showing Elizabeth I borne along by her courtiers (see below under Paintings ) Peake was born to a Lincolnshire family in about 1551. [ 5 ] He began his training on 30 April 1565 under Laurence Woodham, [ 6 ] who lived at the sign of “The Key” in Goldsmith’s Row, Westcheap [ 7 ] . He was apprenticed, three years after the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard , to the Goldsmiths’ Company in London. [ 8 ] He became a freeman of the company on 20 May 1576. His son William later followed in his father's footsteps as a freeman of the Goldsmiths' Company and a portrait painter. [ 9 ] Peake’s training would have been similar to that of John de Critz and Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger , who may have been pupils of the Flemish artist Lucas de Heere . [ 10 ] Peake is first heard of professionally in 1576 in the pay of the Office of the Revels , the department that oversaw court festivities for Elizabeth I. When Peake began practising as a portrait painter is uncertain [ 11 ] . According to art historian Roy Strong , he was "well established" in London by the late 1580s, with a "fashionable clientele". [ 12 ] Payments made to him for portraits are recorded in the Rutland accounts at Belvoir in the 1590s. [ 13 ] A signed portrait from 1593, known as the “Military Commander”, shows Peake’s early style. Other portraits have been grouped with it on the basis of similar lettering. [ 10 ] Its three-quarter-length portrait format is typical of the time. [ edit ] Painter to Prince Henry In 1607, after the death of Leonard Fryer, [ 14 ] Peake was appointed serjeant-painter to King James I; sharing the office with John De Critz, who had held the post since 1603. The role entailed the painting of original portraits and their reproduction as new versions, to be given as gifts or sent to foreign courts, as well as the copying and restoring of portraits by other painters in the royal collection . The serjeant-painters also undertook decorative tasks, such as the painting of banners and stage scenery. [ 15 ] Parchment rolls of the Office of the Works record that De Critz oversaw the decorating of royal houses and palaces. Since Peake’s work is not recorded there, it seems as if De Critz took responsibility for the more decorative tasks, while Peake continued his work as a royal portrait painter. [ 6 ] Prince Henry , c. 1610. His foot rests on a shield bearing the device of the Prince of Wales, a title conferred on him the same year. In 1610, Peake was described as "painter to Prince Henry", [ 10 ] the sixteen-year-old prince who was gathering around him a significant cultural salon . Peake commissioned a translation of Books I-V of Sebastiano Serlio’s Architettura , which he dedicated to the prince in 1611. [ 5 ] Scholars have deduced from payments made to Peake that his position as painter to Prince Henry led to his appointment as serjeant-painter to the king. [ 10 ] The payments are listed by Sir David Murray as disbursements to Prince Henry from the Privy Purse , to pay "Mr Peck". On 14 October 1608, Peake was paid £7 (£880 in 2012) for "pictures made by His Highness’ command"; and on 14 July 1609, he was paid £3 (£410 in 2012) "for a picture of His Highness which was given in exchange for the King’s picture". At about the same time, Isaac Oliver was paid £5.10s.0d. (£689 in 2012) for each of three miniatures of the prince. Murray’s accounts reveal, however, that the prince was paying more for tennis balls than for any picture. [ 16 ] Peake is also listed in Sir David Murray's accounts for the period between 1 October 1610 and 6 November 1612; drawn up to the day on which Henry, Prince of Wales, died, possibly of typhoid fever, [ 17 ] at the age of eighteen: "To Mr Peake for pictures and frames £12; two great pictures of the Prince in arms at length sent beyond the seas £50; and to him for washing, scouring and dressing of pictures and making of frames £20.4s.0d" [ 18 ] (£1,820, £7,590 and £3,080 respectively in 2012). Peake is listed in the accounts for Henry’s funeral under "Artificers and officers of the Works" as "Mr Peake the elder painter". For the occasion, he was allotted seven yards of mourning cloth, plus four for a servant. Also listed is "Mr Peake the younger painter", meaning Robert's son William, who was allotted four yards of mourning cloth. [ 19 ] After the prince's death, Peake moved on to the household of Henry's brother, Charles, Duke of York, the future Charles I of England . The accounts for 1616, which call Peake the prince’s painter, record that he was paid £35 (£4,750 in 2012) for "three several pictures of his Highness". [ 20 ] On 10 July 1613, he was paid £13.6s.8d. (£1,880 in 2012) by the vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge , "in full satisfaction for Prince Charles his picture", for a full-length portrait which is still in the Cambridge University Library . [ 21 ] [ edit ] Death Peake died in 1619, probably in mid-October. Until relatively recently, it was believed that Peake died later. Erna Auerbach, Tudor Artists , London, 1954, p. 148, put his death at around 1625, for example. The catalogue for The Age of Charles I exhibition at the Tate Gallery in 1972, p. 89, suggested Peake was active as late as 1635. His will was made on 10 October 1619 and proved on the 16th. [ 22 ] The date of his burial is unknown because the Great Fire of London later destroyed the registers of his parish church, St Sepulchre-without-Newgate . [ 23 ] This was a time of several deaths in the artistic community. Nicholas Hilliard had died in January; Queen Anne , who had done so much to patronise the arts, in March; and the painter William Larkin , Peake’s neighbour, in April or May. [ 24 ] Though James I reigned until 1625, art historian Roy Strong considers that the year 1619 "can satisfactorily be accepted as the terminal date of Jacobean painting". [ 25 ] [ edit ] Paintings Inscription on the portrait of Anne Knollys It is difficult to attribute and date portraits of this period because painters rarely signed their work, and their workshops produced portraits en masse , often sharing standard portrait patterns. Some paintings, however, have been attributed to Peake on the basis of the method of inscribing the year and the sitter's age on his documented portrait of a "military commander" (1592), which reads: "M.BY.RO.| PEAKE" ("made by Robert Peake"). [ 26 ] Art historian Ellis Waterhouse , however, suspected that the letterer may have worked for more than one studio. [ 27 ] [ edit ] Procession Picture The Procession Picture (detail), c. 1600 The painting known as Queen Elizabeth going in procession to Blackfriars in 1601 , or simply The Procession Picture (see illustration), is now often accepted as the work of Peake. The attribution was made by Roy Strong, who called it "one of the great visual mysteries of the Elizabethan age". [ 28 ] It is an example of the convention, prevalent in the later part of her reign, of painting Elizabeth as an icon , portraying her as much younger and more triumphant than she was. As Strong puts it, "[t]his is Gloriana in her sunset glory, the mistress of the set piece, of the calculated spectacular presentation of herself to her adoring subjects". [ 28 ] George Vertue , the eighteenth-century antiquarian , called the painting "not well nor ill done". [ 29 ] Strong reveals that the procession was connected to the marriage of Henry Somerset, Lord Herbert , and Lady Anne Russell, one of the queen’s six maids of honour, on 16 June 1600. [ 30 ] He identifies many of the individuals portrayed in the procession and shows that instead of a litter , as was previously assumed, Queen Elizabeth is sitting on a wheeled cart or chariot. Strong also suggests that the landscape and castles in the background are not intended to be realistic. In accordance with Elizabethan stylistic conventions, they are emblematic, here representing the Welsh properties of Edward Somerset, Earl of Worcester , to which his son Lord Herbert was the heir. [ 31 ] The earl may have commissioned the picture to celebrate his appointment as Master of the Queen’s Horse in 1601. [ 32 ] Peake clearly did not paint the queen, or indeed the courtiers, from life but from the "types" or standard portraits used by the workshops of the day. Portraits of the queen were subject to restrictions, and from about 1594 there seems to have been an official policy that she always be depicted as youthful. In 1594, the Privy council ordered that unseemly portraits of the queen be found and destroyed, since they caused Elizabeth "great offence". [ 33 ] The famous Ditchley portrait (c. 1592), by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger , was used as a type, sometimes called the "Mask of Youth" face-pattern, for the remainder of the reign. It is clear that Gheeraerts' portrait provided the pattern for the queen’s image in the procession picture. [ 34 ] Other figures also show signs of being traced from patterns, leading to infelicities of perspective and proportion. [ 35 ] Princess Elizabeth , later Queen of Bohemia , 1606; her grandson inherited the English throne as George I . [ edit ] Full-length portraits At the beginning of the 1590s, the full-length portrait came into vogue and artistic patrons among the nobles began to add galleries of such paintings to their homes as a form of cultural ostentation. [ 36 ] Peake was one of those who met the demand. He was also among the earliest English painters to explore the full-length individual or group portrait with active figures placed in a natural landscape, a style of painting that became fashionable in England. As principal painter to Prince Henry, Peake seems to have been charged with showing his patron as a dashing young warrior. [ 37 ] In 1603, he painted a double portrait, now in the Metropolitan Museum, New York , of the prince and his boyhood friend John Harington, son of Lord Harington of Exton (see above) . The double portrait is set outdoors, a style introduced by Gheeraerts in the 1590s, and Peake's combination of figures with animals and landscape also foreshadows the genre of the sporting picture. [ 15 ] The country location and recreational subject lend the painting an air of informality. The action is natural to the setting, a fenced deer-park with a castle and town in the distance. Harington holds a wounded stag by the antlers as Henry draws his sword to deliver the coup de grâce . The prince wears at his belt a jewel of St George slaying the dragon, an allusion to his role as defender of the realm. His sword is an attribute of kingship, and the young noble kneels in his service. [ 38 ] The stag is a fallow deer , a non-native species kept at that time in royal parks for hunting. A variant of this painting in the Royal Collection , painted c. 1605, features Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex , in the place of John Harington and displays the Devereux arms. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] In the same year, Peake also painted his first portrait of James I's only surviving daughter, Elizabeth . This work, like the double portrait, for which it might be a companion piece, appears to have been painted for the Harington family, who acted as Elizabeth's guardians from 1603 to 1608. [ 41 ] In the background of Elizabeth's portrait is a hunting scene echoing that of the double portrait, and two ladies sit on an artificial mound of a type fashionable in garden design at the time. [ 42 ] Peake again painted Henry outdoors in about 1610. In this portrait, now at the Royal Palace of Turin , the prince looks hardly older than in the 1603 double portrait; but his left foot rests on a shield bearing the three-feathers device of the Prince of Wales , a title he did not hold until 1610. Henry is portrayed as a young man of action, about to draw a jewel-encrusted sword from its scabbard. The portrait was almost certainly sent to Savoy in connection with a marriage proposed in January 1611 between Henry and the Infanta Maria, daughter of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy . [ 43 ] James I's daughter Elizabeth was also a valuable marriage pawn. She too was offered to Savoy, as a bride for the Prince of Piedmont , the heir of Charles Emanuel. The exchange of portraits as part of royal marriage proposals was the practice of the day and provided regular work for the royal painters and their workshops. Prince Henry commissioned portraits from Peake to send them to the various foreign courts with which marriage negotiations were underway. The prince’s accounts show, for example, that the two portraits Peake painted of him in arms in 1611–12 were "sent beyond the seas". [ 44 ] Henry, Prince of Wales, on Horseback , c. 1611. The winged figure of Time was revealed after cleaning. [ 45 ] A surviving portrait from this time shows the prince in armour, mounted on a white horse and pulling the winged figure of Father Time by the forelock. [ 45 ] Art historian John Sheeran suggests this is a classical allusion that signifies opportunity. [ 37 ] The old man carries Henry's lance and plumed helmet; and scholar Chris Caple points out that his pose is similar to that of Albrecht Dürer 's figure of death in Knight, Death and the Devil (1513). [ 46 ] He also observes that the old man was painted later than other components of the painting, since the bricks of the wall show through his wings. When the painting was restored in 1985, the wall and the figure of time were revealed to modern eyes for the first time, having been painted over at some point in the seventeenth century by other hands than Peake's. The painting has also been cut down, the only original canvas edge being that on the left. [ 47 ] [ edit ] Lady Elizabeth Pope Lady Elizabeth Pope, wearing a draped mantle and matching turban, c. 1615 Peake's portrait of Lady Elizabeth Pope may have been commissioned by her husband, Sir William Pope, to commemorate their marriage in 1615. Lady Elizabeth is portrayed with her hair loose, a symbol of bridal virginity. [ 48 ] She wears a draped mantle—embroidered with seed pearls in a pattern of ostrich plumes—and a matching turban . The mantle knotted on one shoulder was worn in Jacobean court masques , as the costume designs of Inigo Jones indicate. The painting’s near-nudity, however, makes the depiction of an actual masque costume unlikely. [ 49 ] Loose hair and the classical draped mantle also figure in contemporary personifications of abstract concepts in masques and paintings. Yale art historian Ellen Chirelstein argues that Peake is portraying Lady Elizabeth as a personification of America, since her father, Sir Thomas Watson, was a major shareholder in the Virginia Company . [ 50 ] [ 49 ] [ edit ] Assessment Prince Charles, as Duke of York , commissioned for the University of Cambridge, 1613 In 1598, Francis Meres , in his Palladis Tamia , included Peake on a list of the best English artists. [ 13 ] In 1612, Henry Peacham wrote in The Gentleman's Exercise that his "good friend Mr Peake", along with Marcus Gheeraerts, was outstanding "for oil colours". [ 51 ] Ellis Waterhouse suggested that the genre of elaborate costume pieces was as much a decorative as a plastic art. He notes that these works, the "enamelled brilliance" of which has become apparent through cleaning, are unique in European art and deserve respect. They were produced chiefly by the workshops of Peake, Gheeraerts the Younger, and De Critz. [ 4 ] Sheeran detects the influence of Hilliard’s brightly patterned and coloured miniatures in Peake’s work and places Peake firmly in the "iconic tradition of late Elizabethan painting". [ 37 ] Sheeran believes that Peake's creativity waned into conservatism, his talent "dampened by mass production". He describes Peake's Cambridge portrait, Prince Charles, as Duke of York as poorly drawn, with a lifeless pose, in a stereotyped composition that "confirms the artist's reliance on a much repeated formula in his later years". [ 37 ] Art historian and curator Karen Hearn, on the other hand, praises the work as "magnificent" and draws attention to the naturalistically rendered note pinned to the curtain. [ 45 ] Peake painted the portrait to mark Charles’s visit to Cambridge on 3 and 4 March 1613, during which he was awarded an M.A.—four months after the death of his brother. [ 52 ] Depicting Prince Charles wearing the Garter and Lesser George, Peake here reverts to a more formal, traditional style of portraiture. [ 53 ] The note pinned to a curtain of cloth of gold , painted in trompe-l'œil fashion, commemorates Charles’s visit in Latin. [ 54 ] X-rays of the portrait reveal that Peake painted it over another portrait. Pentimenti , or signs of alteration, can be detected: for example, Charles’s right hand originally rested on his waist. [ 21 ] [ edit ] Gallery Portrait of Anne Knollys , 1582. Attributed to Robert Peake by the Berger Collection, Denver Art Museum Unknown Gentleman, c. 1585–90. Inscribed with the Lumley cartellino, centre left [ 55 ] Portrait of a Man (Unknown Military Commander, Aged 60), 1593. Paul Mellon Center for British Art, Yale Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex , and her son Robert, later 3rd Earl of Essex , 1594 [ 56 ] Portrait of a Woman, 1600. Paul Mellon Center for British Art, Yale The first known portrait of Princess Elizabeth, 1603—possibly a companion piece to Peake's double portrait of the same year [ 57 ] After Prince Henry's death in 1612, Peake moved on to the household of his brother, the future Charles I of England, portrayed here in the robes of the Order of the Garter , c. 1611–12. Lady Anne Pope, sister-in-law of Elizabeth Pope, 1615. Her dress is patterned with carnations, roses and strawberries; the cherries on the tree symbolise virtue. [ 58 ] Elizabeth Poulett, 1616. The sitter wears a jewelled and feathered caul , a type of indoor headdress. The spot on her face is a fashionable patch of velvet or silk, glued to her skin. [ 59 ] [ edit ] See also Artists of the Tudor court [ edit ] References ^ Strong, Roy C. "Elizabethan Painting: An Approach Through Inscriptions, 1: Robert Peake the Elder", The Burlington Magazine , Vol. 105, No. 719 (February 1963), 53–57 (retrieved 12 January 2008). ^ In the accounts for Prince Henry's funeral, Robert Peake is called "Mr Peake the elder painter" and William Peake "Mr Peake the younger painter". Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver , 155. • Peake’s grandson Sir Robert Peake (sometimes wrongly called his son) was knighted by King Charles I during the English Civil War . The Parliamentarians captured him after their siege of Basing House , which was under his command. Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting , 221. ^ "There is nothing like them in contemporary European painting". Waterhouse, Painting in Britain , 41. ^ a b Waterhouse, Painting in Britain , 41. ^ a b Hearn, Dynasties , 186. ^ a b Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver , 153. ^ "The Key" would have been a sign, identifying Woodham's shop and house, as was usual before street-numbering. ^ It was once assumed that Peake was much younger than Hilliard: in 1969, art historian Roy Strong called him Hilliard’s “most important follower among the younger generation” ( The English Icon, 19). Edmond, "New Light on Jacobean Painters", 74. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver, 153. ^ a b c d Waterhouse, Painting in Britain , 43. ^ Weiss (2001 and 2006) judges Peake's earliest attributed works to be the portraits of Arthur, Lord Grey de Wilton , and Humphrey Wingfield, dated 1587, following Strong's English Icon of 1969. The portrait of Anne Knollys attributed to Peake in the Berger Collection at the Denver Art Museum , however, bears Peake's characteristic inscription and is dated 1582. ^ Strong, English Icon , 225. ^ a b Strong, "An Approach Through Inscriptions", 53. ^ Fryer had been serjeant-painter since 1595. ^ a b Gaunt, Court Painting in England , 53. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver, 153. In April 1509, the prince paid £8 for tennis balls (£4,150 in 2012), in May £7.10s.0d. (£3,891 in 2012), and in June £8.14s.0d (£3,994 in 2012). ^ Letter writer John Chamberlain (1553–1628) recorded: "It was verily thought that the disease was no other than the ordinary ague that had reigned and raged all over England. . . . The extremity of the disease seemed to lie in his head, for remedy whereof they shaved him and applied warm cocks and pigeons newly killed, but with no success". Letter to Dudley Carleton , 12 November 1612. Chamberlain Letters , 67–68. • Historian Alan Stewart notes that latter-day experts have suggested enteric fever , typhoid fever, or porphyria , but that poison was the most popular explanation at the time. Stewart, Cradle King , 248. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver , 154. The relatively high price for the two pictures of the prince in arms (armour) may have been due to the use of gold or silver on the details. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver, 155. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver, 174. ^ a b Hearn, Dynasties , 189. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver , 170, 212. ^ Edmond, “New Light on Jacobean Painters”, 74. Artist William Larkin’s records were burned at the same time. ^ Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver, 170. ^ Quoted by Edmond, “New Light on Jacobean Painters”, 74. ^ See Strong, “An Approach Through Inscriptions”, 53–7, and The English Icon , 225–54. ^ Waterhouse, Painting in Britain , 42–3. ^ a b Strong, Cult of Elizabeth, 17. ^ Vertue's Notebooks , quoted by Strong, Cult of Elizabeth, 20. ^ Strong, Cult of Elizabeth, 23–30. ^ Strong, Cult of Elizabeth , 41. The castles alluded to are Chepstow and Raglan on the Welsh borders. ^ For a detailed analysis, see Strong, “The Queen: Eliza Triumphans ”, in The Cult of Elizabeth, 17–55. ^ Strong, Gloriana, 147. • Haigh, Elizabeth I , 153–54. ^ Strong, Gloriana, 148. ^ Strong, Gloriana, 155. ^ Christopher Brown, “The Turn of the Sixteenth Century”, in Hearn, Dynasties , 171. ^ a b c d John Sheeran, Biography of Robert Peake at the Tate Collection (retrieved 1 January 2008).] ^ Kitson, British Painting, 1600–1800 , 13. • Strong English Icon , 234. ^ Strong, English Icon , 246. ^ The coats-of-arms of the principals shown hanging from branches may reflect knowledge of the work of Lucas Cranach the Elder , who frequently used this motif, and painted portraits of Saxon and Habsburg princes hunting. ^ Hearn, Dynasties , 185. It was the custom for royal children to be raised in the homes of noble families. Elizabeth lived with the Harington family at Coombe Abbey , near Coventry. Lord Harington died at Worms in 1613 on his way back from escorting her to Heidelberg with her new husband Frederick V, Elector Palatine . Lady Harington attended Elizabeth at Heidelberg from 1616 almost until her own death in 1618. ^ Hearn, Dynasties , 185. ^ Hearn, Dynasties , 187–88. Maria never married; she entered a Franciscan convent in 1629. ^ Hearn, Dynasties , 188. • Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver, 154. ^ a b c Hearn, Dynasties , 188. ^ Caple, Objects , 88–91. • Knight, Death and the Devil , by Albrecht Dürer, 1513 ^ Caple, Objects , 88–91. • Unrestored version of Henry, Prince of Wales, on Horseback ^ Brides of the time are often described as appearing "in their hair". For example, John Chamberlain wrote to Alice Carleton that Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset , was "married in her hair" to her second husband Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset , having recently divorced her first husband, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex , on the grounds of his impotence. Letter to Alice Carleton, 13 December 1613. Chamberlain Letters , 116. • See also Stewart, Cradle King , 113. ^ a b Chirelstein, "Lady Elizabeth Pope: The Heraldic Body", in Renaissance Bodies , 36–59. • Ribeiro, Fashion and Fiction , 89. ^ Chirelstein, "Lady Elizabeth Pope: The Heraldic Body", in Renaissance Bodies , 36–59. ^ He also judged that Nicholas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver were "inferior to none in Christendom for the countenance in small" (miniature portraits). Edmond, Hilliard & Oliver , 168. ^ Edmond, “New Light on Jacobean Painters”, 74. ^ Hearn calls it "a return to the frozen grandeur of mainstream continental court portraiture". Hearn, Dynasties , 188. ^ The Latin inscription translates: "Charles, we the Muses, since you deigned to agree to both, have both welcomed you as our guest and painted you in humble duty. Visiting the University in the tenth year of his father's reign over England, on 4 March, he was enrolled in the ranks of the Masters and admitted in this Senate House by Valentine Carey Vice-Chancellor". Hearn, Dynasties , 188. ^ For attribution history, see discussion in A Noble Visage: a Catalogue of Early Portraiture 1545–1660 , Weiss Gallery, 2001. ^ Recorded in Strong, English Icon , 1969, as "Unknown Woman and Child". Auctioned in 1990 as "Portrait of Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex and her son, 1594" (retrieved 8 February 2009). ^ Hearn, Dynasties , 185. The portrait was probably commissioned by Elizabeth's guardian, Lord Harington of Exton , as a pendent to Peake's double portrait of her brother, Prince Henry, with Lord Harington's son John. ^ Gallery notes, Tate Britain (retrieved 29 January 2008). ^ Gallery notes, Berger Collection (retrieved 29 January 2008). [ dead link ] [ edit ] Bibliography Auerbach, Erna. Tudor artists; a study of painters in the royal service and of portraiture on illuminated documents from the accession of Henry VIII to the death of Elizabeth I. London: University of London, Athlone Press, 1954. OCLC 1293216. Caple, Chris. Objects . London: Routledge, 2006. ISBN 0-415-30589-6 . Chamberlain, John. The Chamberlain Letters. Edited by Elizabeth Thomson. New York: Capricorn, 1966. OCLC 37697217. Chirelstein, Ellen. "Lady Elizabeth Pope: The Heraldic Body." In Renaissance Bodies: The Human Figure in English Culture, c. 1540–1660 , edited by Lucy Gent and Nigel Llewellyn, 36–59. London: Reaktion Books, 1990. ISBN 0-948462-08-6 . Edmond, Mary. Hilliard and Oliver: The Lives and Works of Two Great Miniaturists. London: Robert Hale, 1983. ISBN 0-7090-0927-5 . Edmond, Mary. "New Light on Jacobean Painters". The Burlington Magazine 118 (February 1976): 74–83. Gaunt, William. Court Painting in England from Tudor to Victorian Times. London: Constable, 1980. ISBN 0-09-461870-4 . Haigh, Christopher. Elizabeth I. London: Pearson Longman, 1999. ISBN 0-582-43754-7 . Hearn, Karen. Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England, 1530–1630. London: Tate Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1-85437-157-6 . Kitson, Michael. British Painting, 1600–1800 . Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 1977. ISBN 0-7241-0043-1 . Ribeiro, Aileen. Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-300-10999-7 . Stewart, Alan. The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & I. London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0-7011-6984-2 . Strong, Roy. The Cult of Elizabeth: Elizabethan Portraiture and Pageantry. London: Pimlico, 1999. ISBN 0-7126-6481-5 . Strong, Roy. “Elizabethan Painting: An Approach Through Inscriptions. 1: Robert Peake the Elder." The Burlington Magazine 105 (February 1963): 53–57. Strong, Roy. The English Icon: Elizabethan and Jacobean Portraiture. London: Paul Mellon Foundation for British Art; New York: Pantheon Books, 1969. OCLC 78970800. Strong, Roy. Gloriana. London: Pimlico, 2003. ISBN 0-7126-0944-X . Walpole, Horace . Anecdotes of Painting in England: With Some Account of the Principal Artists, and Notes on other Arts, Collected by the Late George Vertue . Vol II. London: Henry. G. Bohn, 1849. Full view from Google Books . Retrieved on 1 January 2008. Waterhouse, Ellis. Painting in Britain, 1530–1790. 3rd ed. London: Penguin, 1978. ISBN 0-14-056101-3 . Weiss Gallery. A Fashionable Likeness: Early Portraiture, 1550–1710 . London: Weiss Gallery, 2006. OCLC 75489656. Weiss Gallery. A Noble Visage: a Catalogue of Early Portraiture, 1545–1660 . London: Weiss Gallery, 2001. OCLC 80022178. [ edit ] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Robert Peake the Elder Peake at the National Portrait Gallery Two important Peakes in the Metropolitan, New York
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent This article is about the historical figure. For other uses, see Guy Fawkes (disambiguation) . Gunpowder Plot Guy Fawkes George Cruikshank 's illustration of Guy Fawkes, published in William Harrison Ainsworth 's 1840 novel Details Parents Edward Fawkes, Edith ( née Blake or Jackson) Born 13 April 1570 ( 1570-04-13 ) (presumed) York , England Alias(es) Guido Fawkes, John Johnson Occupation Soldier; Alférez Plot Role Explosives Enlisted 20 May 1604 Captured 5 November 1605 Conviction(s) High treason Penalty Hanged, drawn and quartered Died 31 January 1606 ( 1606-01-31 ) (aged 35) Westminster , London, England Cause Hanged Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes , the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish in the Low Countries , belonged to a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Fawkes was born and educated in York . His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. Fawkes later converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years' War on the side of Catholic Spain against Protestant Dutch reformers . He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England but was unsuccessful. He later met Thomas Wintour , with whom he returned to England. Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby , who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plotters secured the lease to an undercroft beneath the House of Lords , and Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder they stockpiled there. Prompted by the receipt of an anonymous letter, the authorities searched Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, and found Fawkes guarding the explosives. Over the next few days, he was questioned and tortured, and eventually he broke. Immediately before his execution on 31 January, Fawkes jumped from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck, thus avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed. Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of which has been commemorated in England since 5 November 1605. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, commonly accompanied by a firework display. Contents 1 Early life 1.1 Childhood 1.2 Military career 2 Gunpowder Plot 2.1 Overseas 2.2 Discovery 2.3 Torture 2.4 Trial and execution 3 Legacy 4 References 5 External links [ edit ] Early life [ edit ] Childhood Fawkes was baptised at the church of St. Michael le Belfrey Guy Fawkes was born in 1570 in Stonegate, York . He was the second of four children born to Edward Fawkes, a proctor and an advocate of the consistory court at York, [ nb 1 ] and his wife, Edith. [ nb 2 ] Guy's parents were regular communicants of the Church of England , as were his paternal grandparents; his grandmother, born Ellen Harrington, was the daughter of a prominent merchant, who served as Lord Mayor of York in 1536. [ 4 ] However, Guy's mother's family were recusant Catholics , and his cousin, Richard Cowling, became a Jesuit priest. [ 5 ] Guy was an uncommon name in England, but may have been popular in York on account of a local notable, Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton. [ 6 ] The date of Fawkes' birth is unknown, but he was baptised in the church of St. Michael le Belfrey on 16 April. As the customary gap between birth and baptism was three days, he was probably born about 13 April. [ 5 ] In 1568, Edith had given birth to a daughter named Anne, but the child died aged about seven weeks, in November that year. She bore two more children after Guy: Anne (b. 1572), and Elizabeth (b. 1575). Both were married, in 1599 and 1594 respectively. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] In 1579, when Guy was eight years old, his father died. His mother remarried several years later, to the Catholic Dionis Baynbrigge (or Denis Bainbridge) of Scotton, Harrogate . Fawkes may have become a Catholic through the Baynbrigge family's recusant tendencies, and also the Catholic branches of the Pulleyn and Percy families of Scotton, [ 8 ] but also from his time at St. Peter's School in York. A governor of the school had spent about 20 years in prison for recusancy, and its headmaster, John Pulleyn, came from a family of noted Yorkshire recusants, the Pulleyns of Blubberhouses . In her 1915 work The Pulleynes of Yorkshire , author Catharine Pullein suggested that Fawkes's Catholic education came from his Harrington relatives, who were known for harbouring priests, one of whom later accompanied Fawkes to Flanders in 1592–1593. [ 9 ] Fawkes's fellow students included John Wright and his brother Christopher (both later involved with Fawkes in the Gunpowder plot ) and Oswald Tesimond , Edward Oldcorne and Robert Middleton, who became priests (the latter executed in 1601). [ 10 ] After leaving school Fawkes entered the service of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu . The Viscount took a dislike to Fawkes and after a short time dismissed him; he was subsequently employed by Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu , who succeeded his grandfather at the age of 18. [ 11 ] At least one source claims that Fawkes married and had a son, but no known contemporary accounts confirm this. [ 12 ] [ nb 3 ] [ edit ] Military career In October 1591 Fawkes sold the estate in Clifton that he had inherited from his father. [ nb 4 ] He travelled to the continent to fight in the Eighty Years War for Catholic Spain against the new Dutch Republic and, from 1595 until the Peace of Vervins in 1598, France. Although England was not by then engaged in land operations against Spain, the two countries were still at war , and the Spanish Armada of 1588 was only five years in the past. He joined Sir William Stanley , an English Catholic and veteran commander in his mid-fifties who had raised an army in Ireland to fight in Leicester's expedition to the Netherlands . Stanley had been held in high regard by Elizabeth I , but following his surrender of Deventer to the Spanish in 1587 he, and most of his troops, had switched sides to serve Spain. Fawkes became an alférez or junior officer, fought well at the siege of Calais in 1596, and by 1603 had been recommended for a captaincy . [ 3 ] That year, he travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England. He used the occasion to adopt the Italian version of his name, Guido, and in his memorandum described James I as "a heretic", who intended "to have all of the Papist sect driven out of England." He denounced Scotland, and the King's favourites among the Scottish nobles, writing "it will not be possible to reconcile these two nations, as they are, for very long". [ 13 ] Although he was received politely, the court of Philip III was unwilling to offer him any support. [ 14 ] [ edit ] Gunpowder Plot Main article: Gunpowder Plot A contemporary engraving of eight of the thirteen conspirators, by Crispijn van de Passe . Fawkes is third from the right. In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a small group of English Catholics, led by Robert Catesby , who planned to assassinate the Protestant King James and replace him with his daughter, third in the line of succession, Princess Elizabeth . [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Fawkes was described by the Jesuit priest and former school friend Oswald Tesimond as "pleasant of approach and cheerful of manner, opposed to quarrels and strife ... loyal to his friends". Tesimond also claimed Fawkes was "a man highly skilled in matters of war", and that it was this mixture of piety and professionalism which endeared him to his fellow conspirators. [ 3 ] The author Antonia Fraser describes Fawkes as "a tall, powerfully built man, with thick reddish-brown hair, a flowing moustache in the tradition of the time, and a bushy reddish-brown beard", and that he was "a man of action ... capable of intelligent argument as well as physical endurance, somewhat to the surprise of his enemies." [ 5 ] The first meeting of the five central conspirators took place on Sunday 20 May 1604, at an inn called the Duck and Drake, in the fashionable Strand district of London. [ nb 5 ] Catesby had already proposed at an earlier meeting with Thomas Wintour and John Wright to kill the King and his government by blowing up "the Parliament House with gunpowder". Wintour, who at first objected to the plan, was convinced by Catesby to travel to the continent to seek help. Wintour met with the Constable of Castile, the exiled Welsh spy Hugh Owen, [ 18 ] and Sir William Stanley, who said that Catesby would receive no support from Spain. Owen did, however, introduce Wintour to Fawkes, who had by then been away from England for many years, and thus was largely unknown in the country. Wintour and Fawkes were contemporaries; each was militant, and had first-hand experience of the unwillingness of the Spaniards to help. Wintour told Fawkes of their plan to "doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott", [ 3 ] and thus in April 1604 the two men returned to England. [ 17 ] Wintour's news did not surprise Catesby; despite positive noises from the Spanish authorities, he feared that "the deeds would nott answere". [ nb 6 ] One of the conspirators, Thomas Percy was promoted in June 1604, gaining access to a house in London which belonged to John Whynniard, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe. Fawkes was installed as a caretaker and began using the pseudonym John Johnson, servant to Percy. [ 20 ] The contemporaneous account of the prosecution (taken from Thomas Wintour's confession) [ 21 ] claimed that the conspirators attempted to dig a tunnel from beneath Whynniard's house to Parliament, although this story may have been a government fabrication; no evidence for the existence of a tunnel was presented by the prosecution, and no trace of one has ever been found; Fawkes himself did not admit the existence of such a scheme until his fifth interrogation, but even then he could not locate the tunnel. [ 22 ] If the story is true, however, by December 1604 the conspirators were busy tunnelling from their rented house to the House of Lords. They ceased their efforts when, during tunnelling, they heard a noise from above. Fawkes was sent out to investigate, and returned with the news that the tenant's widow was clearing out a nearby undercroft , directly beneath the House of Lords. [ 3 ] [ 23 ] The plotters purchased the lease to the room, which also belonged to John Whynniard. Unused and filthy, it was considered an ideal hiding place for the gunpowder the plotters planned to store. [ 24 ] According to Fawkes, 20 barrels of gunpowder were brought in at first, followed by 16 more on 20 July. [ 25 ] On 28 July however, the ever-present threat of the plague delayed the opening of Parliament until Tuesday, 5 November. [ 26 ] [ edit ] Overseas In an attempt to gain foreign support, in May 1605 Fawkes travelled overseas and informed Hugh Owen of the plotters' plan. [ 27 ] At some point during this trip his name made its way into the files of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury , who employed a network of spies across Europe. One of these spies, Captain William Turner, may have been responsible. Although the information he provided to Salisbury usually amounted to no more than a vague pattern of invasion reports, and included nothing which regarded the Gunpowder Plot, on 21 April he told how Fawkes was to be brought by Tesimond to England. Fawkes was a well known Flemish mercenary, and would be introduced to "Mr Catesby" and "honourable friends of the nobility and others who would have arms and horses in readiness". [ 28 ] Turner's report did not, however, mention Fawkes's pseudonym in England, John Johnson, and did not reach Cecil until late in November, well after the plot had been discovered. [ 3 ] [ 29 ] It is uncertain when Fawkes returned to England, but he was back in London by late August 1605, when he and Wintour discovered that the gunpowder stored in the undercroft had decayed. More gunpowder was brought into the room, along with firewood to conceal it. [ 30 ] Fawkes's final role in the plot was settled during a series of meetings in October. He was to light the fuse and then escape across the Thames. Simultaneously, a revolt in the Midlands would help to ensure the capture of Princess Elizabeth. Acts of regicide were frowned upon, and Fawkes would therefore head to the continent, where he would explain to the Catholic powers his holy duty to kill the King and his retinue. [ 31 ] [ edit ] Discovery Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot (c. 1823), Henry Perronet Briggs A few of the conspirators were concerned about fellow Catholics who would be present at Parliament during the opening. [ 32 ] On the evening of 26 October, Lord Monteagle received an anonymous letter warning him to stay away, and to "retyre youre self into yowre contee whence yow maye expect the event in safti for ... they shall receyve a terrible blowe this parleament". [ 33 ] Despite quickly becoming aware of the letter – informed by one of Monteagle's servants – the conspirators resolved to continue with their plans, as it appeared that it "was clearly thought to be a hoax". [ 34 ] Fawkes checked the undercroft on 30 October, and reported that nothing had been disturbed. [ 35 ] Monteagle's suspicions had been aroused however, and the letter was shown to King James. The King ordered Sir Thomas Knyvet to conduct a search of the cellars underneath Parliament, which he did in the early hours of 5 November. Fawkes had taken up his station late on the previous night, armed with a slow match and a watch given to him by Percy "becaus he should knowe howe the time went away". [ 3 ] He was found leaving the cellar, shortly after midnight, and arrested. Inside, the barrels of gunpowder were discovered hidden under piles of firewood and coal. [ 36 ] [ edit ] Torture Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson and was first interrogated by members of the King's Privy Chamber, where he remained defiant. When asked by one of the lords what he was doing in possession of so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered that his intention was "to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains." [ 37 ] He identified himself as a 36-year-old Catholic from Netherdale in Yorkshire, and gave his father's name as Thomas and his mother's as Edith Jackson. Wounds on his body noted by his questioners he explained as the effects of pleurisy . Fawkes admitted his intention to blow up the House of Lords, and expressed regret at his failure to do so. His steadfast manner earned him the admiration of King James, who described Fawkes as possessing "a Roman resolution". [ 38 ] James's admiration did not, however, prevent him from ordering on 6 November that "John Johnson" be tortured, to reveal the names of his co-conspirators. [ 39 ] He directed that the torture be light at first, referring to the use of manacles , but more severe if necessary, authorising the use of the rack : "the gentler Tortures are to be first used unto him et sic per gradus ad ima tenditur [and so by degrees proceeding to the worst]". [ 37 ] [ 40 ] Fawkes was transferred to the Tower of London . The King composed a list of questions to be put to "Johnson", such as " as to what he is , For I can never yet hear of any man that knows him", "When and where he learned to speak French?", and "If he was a Papist, who brought him up in it?" [ 41 ] The room in which Fawkes was interrogated subsequently became known as the Guy Fawkes Room. [ 42 ] Fawkes's signature of "Guido", made soon after his torture, is a barely evident scrawl compared to a later instance. Sir William Waad , Lieutenant of the Tower, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes's confession. [ 37 ] He searched his prisoner, and found a letter, addressed to Guy Fawkes. To Waad's surprise, "Johnson" remained silent, revealing nothing about the plot or its authors. [ 43 ] On the night of 6 November he spoke with Waad, who reported to Salisbury "He [Johnson] told us that since he undertook this action he did every day pray to God he might perform that which might be for the advancement of the Catholic Faith and saving his own soul". According to Waad, Fawkes managed to rest through the night, despite his being warned that he would be interrogated until "I had gotton the inwards secret of his thoughts and all his complices". [ 44 ] His composure was broken at some point during the following day. [ 45 ] The observer Sir Edward Hoby remarked "Since Johnson's being in the Tower, he beginneth to speak English". Fawkes revealed his true identity on 7 November, and told his interrogators that there were five people involved in the plot to kill the King. He began to reveal their names on 8 November, and told how they intended to place Princess Elizabeth on the throne. His third confession, on 9 November, implicated Francis Tresham . Following the Ridolfi plot of 1571 prisoners were made to dictate their confessions, before copying and signing them, if they still could. [ 46 ] Although it is uncertain if he was subjected to the horrors of the rack, Fawkes's signature, little more than a scrawl, bears testament to the suffering he endured at the hands of his interrogators. [ 47 ] [ edit ] Trial and execution The trial of eight of the plotters began on Monday 27 January 1606. Fawkes shared the barge from the Tower to Westminster Hall with seven of his co-conspirators. [ nb 7 ] They were kept in the Star Chamber before being taken to Westminster Hall, where they were displayed on a purpose-built scaffold. The King and his close family, watching in secret, were among the spectators as the Lords Commissioners read out the list of charges. Fawkes was identified as Guido Fawkes, "otherwise called Guido Johnson". He pleaded not guilty, despite his apparent acceptance of guilt from the moment he was captured. [ 49 ] A 1606 etching by Claes (Nicolaes) Jansz Visscher , depicting Fawkes's execution The outcome was never in doubt. The jury found all of the defendants guilty, and the Lord Chief Justice Sir John Popham proclaimed them guilty of high treason . [ 50 ] The Attorney General Sir Edward Coke told the court that each of the condemned would be drawn backwards to his death, by a horse, his head near the ground. They were to be "put to death halfway between heaven and earth as unworthy of both". Their genitals would be cut off and burnt before their eyes, and their bowels and hearts removed. They would then be decapitated, and the dismembered parts of their bodies displayed so that they might become "prey for the fowls of the air". [ 51 ] Fawkes's and Tresham's testimony regarding the Spanish treason was read aloud, as well as confessions related specifically to the Gunpowder Plot. The last piece of evidence offered was a conversation between Fawkes and Wintour, who had been kept in adjacent cells. The two men apparently thought they had been speaking in private, but their conversation was intercepted by a government spy. When the prisoners were allowed to speak, Fawkes explained his not guilty plea as ignorance of certain aspects of the indictment. [ 52 ] On 31 January 1606, Fawkes and three others — Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood , and Robert Keyes — were dragged (i.e. drawn) from the Tower on wattled hurdles to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had attempted to destroy. [ 53 ] His fellow plotters were then hanged and quartered . Fawkes was the last to stand on the scaffold. He asked for forgiveness of the King and state, while keeping up his "crosses and idle ceremonies", and aided by the hangman began to climb the ladder to the noose. Although weakened by torture, Fawkes managed to jump from the gallows, breaking his neck in the fall and thus avoiding the agony of the latter part of his execution. [ 37 ] [ 54 ] His lifeless body was nevertheless quartered, [ 55 ] and as was the custom, [ 56 ] his body parts were then distributed to "the four corners of the kingdom", to be displayed as a warning to other would-be traitors. [ 57 ] [ edit ] Legacy See also: Gunpowder Plot in popular culture and Guy Fawkes mask Procession of a Guy (1864) On 5 November 1605 Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King's escape from assassination by lighting bonfires, "always provided that 'this testemonye of joy be carefull done without any danger or disorder ' ". [ 3 ] An Act of Parliament [ nb 8 ] designated each 5 November as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance", and remained in force until 1859. [ 58 ] Although he was only one of 13 conspirators, Fawkes is today the individual most associated with the failed Plot. [ 59 ] In Britain, 5 November has variously been called Guy Fawkes Night , Guy Fawkes Day, Plot Night [ 60 ] and Bonfire Night; the latter can be traced directly back to the original celebration of 5 November 1605. [ 61 ] Bonfires were accompanied by fireworks from the 1650s onwards, and it became the custom to burn an effigy (usually the Pope) after 1673, when the heir presumptive, James, Duke of York made his conversion to Catholicism public. [ 3 ] Effigies of other notable figures who have become targets for the public's ire, such as Paul Kruger and Margaret Thatcher , have also found their way onto the bonfires, [ 62 ] although most modern effigies are of Fawkes. [ 58 ] The "guy" is normally created by children, from old clothes, newspapers, and a mask. [ 58 ] During the 19th century, "guy" came to mean an oddly dressed person, but in American English it lost any pejorative connotation, and was used to refer to any male person. [ 58 ] [ 63 ] William Harrison Ainsworth 's 1841 historical romance Guy Fawkes; or, The Gunpowder Treason , portrays Fawkes in a generally sympathetic light, [ 64 ] and transformed him in the public perception into an "acceptable fictional character". Fawkes subsequently appeared as "essentially an action hero" in children's books and penny dreadfuls such as The Boyhood Days of Guy Fawkes; or, The Conspirators of Old London , published in about 1905. [ 65 ] Fawkes is sometimes referred to as "the only man ever to enter Parliament with honest intentions". [ 66 ] [ edit ] References Notes ^ According to one source, he may have been Registrar of the Exchequer Court of the Archbishop. [ 1 ] ^ Fawkes's mother's maiden name is alternatively given as Edith Blake, [ 2 ] or Edith Jackson. [ 3 ] ^ According to the International Genealogical Index , compiled by the LDS Church , Fawkes married Maria Pulleyn (b. 1569) in Scotton in 1590, and had a son, Thomas, on 6 February 1591. [ 9 ] These entries, however, appear to derive from a secondary source and not from actual parish entries. [ 12 ] ^ Although the Oxford Database of National Biography claims 1592, multiple alternative sources give 1591 as the date. Peter Beal, A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology, 1450 to 2000 , includes a signed indenture of the sale of the estate dated 14 October 1591. (pp. 198–199) ^ Also present were fellow conspirators John Wright, Thomas Percy , and Thomas Wintour (with whom he was already acquainted). [ 17 ] ^ Philip III made peace with England in August 1604. [ 19 ] ^ The eighth, Thomas Bates, was considered inferior by virtue of his status, and was held instead at Gatehouse Prison. [ 48 ] ^ 3 James I, cap 1 Footnotes ^ Haynes 2005 , pp. 28–29 ^ Guy Fawkes , The Gunpowder Plot Society , http://www.gunpowder-plot.org/fawkes.asp , retrieved 19 May 2010 ^ a b c d e f g h i Nicholls, Mark (May 2009), "Fawkes, Guy (bap. 1570, d. 1606) (Subscription required) " , Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.), oxforddnb.com, doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/9230 , http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/9230 , retrieved 6 May 2010 ^ "Fawkes, Guy" in The Dictionary of National Biography , Leslie Stephen , ed., Oxford University Press, London (1921-1922). ^ a b c Fraser 2005 , p. 84 ^ a b Sharpe 2005 , p. 48 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 86 (note) ^ Sharpe 2005 , p. 49 ^ a b Herber, David (April 1998), "The Marriage of Guy Fawkes and Maria Pulleyn" , The Gunpowder Plot Society Newsletter , The Gunpowder Plot Society, archived from the original on 17 June 2011 , http://web.archive.org/web/20110617064347/http://www.gunpowder-plot.org/news/1998_04/gfmp.htm , retrieved 16 February 2010 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 84–85 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 85–86 ^ a b Fraser 2005 , p. 86 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 89 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 87–90 ^ Northcote Parkinson 1976 , p. 46 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 140–142 ^ a b Fraser 2005 , pp. 117–119 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 87 ^ Nicholls, Mark (2008-05), "Catesby, Robert (b. in or after 1572, d. 1605) (Subscription required) " , Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/4883 , http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/4883/ , retrieved 12 May 2010 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 122–123 ^ Nicholls, Mark (2004), "Winter, Thomas (c. 1571–1606) (Subscription required) " , Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/29767 , http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/29767 , retrieved 16 November 2009 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 133–134 ^ Haynes 2005 , pp. 55–59 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 144–145 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 146–147 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 159–162 ^ Bengsten 2005 , p. 50 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 150 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 148–150 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 170 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 178–179 ^ Northcote Parkinson 1976 , pp. 62–63 ^ Northcote Parkinson 1976 , pp. 68–69 ^ Northcote Parkinson 1976 , p. 72 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 189 ^ Northcote Parkinson 1976 , p. 73 ^ a b c d Northcote Parkinson 1976 , pp. 91–92 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 208–209 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 211 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 215 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 212 ^ Younghusband 2008 , p. 46 ^ Bengsten 2005 , p. 58 ^ Bengsten 2005 , p. 59 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 216–217 ^ Bengsten 2005 , p. 60 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 215–216, 228–229 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 263 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 263–266 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 273 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 266–269 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 269–271 ^ Haynes 2005 , pp. 115–116 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 283 ^ Allen 1973 , p. 37 ^ Thompson 2008 , p. 102 ^ Guy Fawkes , York Museums Trust , http://www.historyofyork.org.uk//themes/tudor-stuart/guy-fawkes , retrieved 16 May 2010 ^ a b c d House of Commons Information Office (2006-09), The Gunpowder Plot , parliament.uk at web.archive.org , http://web.archive.org/web/20050215195506/http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/g08.pdf , retrieved 15 February 2011 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 349 ^ Fox; Woolf 2002 , p. 269 ^ Fraser 2005 , pp. 351–352 ^ Fraser 2005 , p. 356 ^ Merriam-Webster (1991), The Merriam-Webster new book of word histories , Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, p. 208, ISBN 0-87779-603-3 , http://books.google.com/books?id=IrcZEZ1bOJsC&pg=PA208 , entry "guy" ^ Harrison Ainsworth, William (1841), Guy Fawkes; or, The Gunpowder Treason , Nottingham Society , http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=YvcOOnJWc3gC&dq=william+harrison+ainsworth+fawkes&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=eDgfrpTV3h&sig=Wvzti1wdj7OSYbKLCi08P83pAQ0 ^ Sharpe 2005 , p. 128 ^ Sharpe 2005 , p. 6 Bibliography Allen, Kenneth (1973), The Story of Gunpowder , Wayland, ISBN 978-0-85340-188-9 Bengsten, Fiona (2005), Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, and the Gunpowder Plot (illustrated ed.), Trafford Publishing, ISBN 1-4120-5541-5 , http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=89NarZPrQ7sC Fox, Adam; Woolf, Daniel R (2002), The spoken word: oral culture in Britain, 1500–1850 , Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-5747-7 Fraser, Antonia (2005) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot , Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1401-3 Haynes, Alan (2005) [1994], The Gunpowder Plot: Faith in Rebellion , Hayes and Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-4215-0 Northcote Parkinson, C. (1976), Gunpowder Treason and Plot , Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-77224-4 Sharpe, J. A. (2005), Remember, Remember: A Cultural History of Guy Fawkes Day (illustrated ed.), Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01935-0 Thompson, Irene (2008), The A to Z of Punishment and Torture: From Amputations to Zero Tolerance , Book Guild Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84624-203-8 Younghusband, George (2008), A Short History of the Tower of London , Boucher Press, ISBN 978-1-4437-0485-4 [ edit ] External links Media related to Guy Fawkes at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Guy Fawkes at Wikiquote Guy Fawkes story from the BBC, including archive video clips v t e The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 The original five plotters: Robert Catesby • John Wright • Thomas Wintour • Thomas Percy • Guy Fawkes Recruited: Robert Keyes • Thomas Bates • Christopher Wright • John Grant • Robert Wintour • Ambrose Rokewood • Francis Tresham • Everard Digby See also: Gunpowder Plot in popular culture • Bonfire Night • English Reformation ( Timeline ) • Catholic Emancipation • King James VI and I • Houses of Parliament Authority control : LCCN : n83212084 | WorldCat Persondata Name Fawkes, Guy Alternative names Fawkes, Guido Short description Soldier Date of birth 13 April 1570 Place of birth York , Yorkshire , England Date of death 31 January 1606 Place of death Westminster , England
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Livid entoloma E. sinuatum Piacenza's Appennino, Italy Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Agaricales Family: Entolomataceae Genus: Entoloma Species: E. sinuatum Binomial name Entoloma sinuatum ( Pers. ) P.Kumm. (1871) Synonyms [ 1 ] Agaricus sinuatus Pers. (1801) Entoloma lividum (Bull.) Quél. (1872) Rhodophyllus lividus (Bull.) Quél. (1886) Rhodophyllus sinuatus (Bull.) Quél. (1888) Entoloma eulividum Noordel. (1985) Entoloma sinuatum Mycological characteristics gills on hymenium cap is convex hymenium is adnate stipe is bare spore print is pink ecology is mycorrhizal edibility: poisonous Entoloma sinuatum ( commonly known as the livid entoloma , livid agaric , livid pinkgill , leaden entoloma , and lead poisoner ) is a poisonous mushroom found across Europe and North America. Some guidebooks refer to it by its older scientific names of Entoloma lividum or Rhodophyllus sinuatus . The largest mushroom of the genus of pink- spored fungi known as Entoloma , it is also the type species . Appearing in late summer and autumn, fruit bodies are found in deciduous woodlands on clay or chalky soils, or nearby parklands, sometimes in the form of fairy rings . Solid in shape, they resemble members of the genus Tricholoma . The ivory to light grey-brown cap is up to 20 cm (8 in) across with a margin that is rolled inward. The sinuate gills are pale and often yellowish, becoming pink as the spores develop. The thick whitish stem has no ring . When young, it may be mistaken for the edible St George's mushroom ( Calocybe gambosa ) or the miller ( Clitopilus prunulus ). It has been responsible for many cases of mushroom poisoning in Europe. E. sinuatum causes primarily gastrointestinal problems that, though not generally life-threatening, have been described as highly unpleasant. Delirium and depression are uncommon sequelae . It is generally not considered to be lethal, although one source has reported deaths from the consumption of this mushroom. Contents 1 Name and relationships 2 Description 2.1 Similar species 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Toxicity 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 7.1 Cited texts [ edit ] Name and relationships Bulliard's original illustration of Agaricus lividus from his 1788 Champignon de la France , which has been found to be a depiction of Pluteus cervinus . [ 2 ] The saga of this species' name begins in 1788 with the publication of part 8 of Jean Baptiste Bulliard 's Herbier de la France . In it was plate 382, representing a mushroom which he called Agaricus lividus . [ 3 ] In 1872, Lucien Quélet took up a species which he called " Entoloma lividus Bull."; [ 4 ] [ 5 ] although all subsequent agree that this is a fairly clear reference to Bulliard's name, Quélet gave a description that is generally considered to be that of a different species from Bulliard's. [ 5 ] [ 2 ] In the meantime, 1801 had seen the description of Agaricus sinuatus by Christian Persoon in his Synopsis Methodica Fungorum . [ 6 ] He based that name on another plate (number 579) published in the last part of Bulliard's work, and which the latter had labelled "agaric sinué". [ note 1 ] German mycologist Paul Kummer reclassified it as Entoloma sinuatum in 1871. [ 7 ] For many years Quélet's name and description were treated as valid because Bulliard's name antedated Persoon's. However in 1950, a change in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (termed the Stockholm Code, after the city where the International Botanical Congress was being held) caused only names on fungi published after 1801 or 1821 (depending on their type) to be valid. [ 8 ] This meant that suddenly Bulliard's name was no longer a valid name, and now it was Persoon's name that had priority. Nonetheless it was a well-known name, and the already chaotic situation caused by a change to a famous Latin name was further complicated by another of Quélet's suggestions. He had in 1886 proposed a new, broader genus that included all pink-gilled fungi with adnate or sinuate gills and angular spores: Rhodophyllus . [ 9 ] These two approach to genus placement, using either Rhodophyllus or Entoloma , coexisted for many decades, with mycologists and guidebooks following either; [ 10 ] Henri Romagnesi , who studied the genus for over forty years, favoured Rhodophyllus , as initially did Rolf Singer . [ 10 ] However, most other authorities have tended to favour Entoloma , [ 11 ] and Singer conceded the name was far more widely used and adopted it for his Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy text in 1986. [ 12 ] In the meantime, it had been widely accepted that the 1950 change to the Stockholm Code caused more problems than they solved, and in 1981, the Sydney Code reinstated the validity of pre-1801 names, but created the status of sanctioned name for those used in the foundational works of Persoon and Elias Magnus Fries . [ 8 ] Thus Entoloma sinuatum , which Fries had sanctioned, [ 13 ] still had to be used for the species described by Quélet even though Bulliard's name was the older one. At about the same time, Machiel Noordeloos re-examined Bulliard's name in more details, and discovered that not only was it illegitimate (and thus not available for use) because William Hudson had already used it ten years earlier for a different species, but Bulliard's illustration was clearly not an Entoloma , but a species of Pluteus , [ note 2 ] a genus that is only distantly related to Entoloma . [ 5 ] As this made Quélet's name definitely unusable for the Entoloma , and because at the time he and Romagnesi [ 14 ] believed there were ground to treat Quélet's " E. lividum " and Persoon's E. sinuatum as separate species, he had to coin a third name for Quélet's species: Entoloma eulividum . [ 5 ] [ 15 ] He however later changed his mind on this issue, combining again his own Entoloma eulividum and E. sinuatum , so that Persoon's name is now universally recognised. [ 11 ] [ 16 ] Because it was previously widely used and Quélet had provided a good description and illustration (which, the proposer argued, was better considered as a new species rather than a mere placement of Bulliard's name in another genus), [ 5 ] a proposal was made in 1999 to conserve Entoloma lividum and thus restore its use. [ 2 ] However, it failed because E. sinuatum had already been in use (if not universally) for many years and was thus a well-known name for the species. [ 17 ] E. sinuatum E. sp. 1 [ note 3 ] E. sordidulum E. politum E. rhodopolium E. caccabus E. sericatum E. myrmecophilum Cladogram showing the phylogenetic relationships of E. sinuatum and closely related fungi in the Rhodopolioid clade. [ 18 ] The specific epithet sinuatum is the Latin for "wavy", referring to the shape of the cap, while the generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek words entos/ἐντός "inner" and lóma/λῶμα "fringe" or "hem" from the inrolled margin. [ 19 ] The specific epithet lividum was derived from the Latin word lǐvīdus "lead-coloured". [ 20 ] The various common names include livid entoloma, livid agaric, livid pinkgill, leaden entoloma, lead poisoner, [ 21 ] and grey pinkgill. [ 22 ] In the Dijon region of France it was known as le grand empoisonneur de la Côte-d'Or ("the great poisoner of Côte d'Or "). [ 23 ] Quélet himself, who was poisoned by the fungus, called it the miller's purge , akin to another common name of false miller. [ 24 ] Within the large genus Entoloma , which contains around 1500 species, E. sinuatum has been classically placed in the section Entoloma within the subgenus Entoloma , [ 25 ] as it is the type species of the genus. [ 12 ] A 2009 study analysing DNA sequences and spore morphology found it to lie in a rhodopolioid clade with (among other species) E. sordidulum , E. politum and E. rhodopolium , and most closely related to E. sp. 1. [ note 3 ] This rhodopolioid clade lay within a crown Entoloma clade. [ 18 ] [ edit ] Description The gills of mature mushrooms darken to pink and then red. The largest member of its genus, [ 19 ] Entoloma sinuatum has an imposing epigeous (aboveground) fruiting body (basidiocarp), bearing a cap 6–15 cm (2½–6 in) wide, though diameters of 25 cm (10 in) have been recorded. [ 26 ] It is convex to flat, often with a blunt umbo in its centre and wavy margins, ivory white to light grey-brown in colour, and darkening with age. The distant gills are sinuate (notched at their point of attachment to the stipe ) to almost free, generally (but not always) yellowish white before darkening to pink and then red. Interspersed between the gills are lamellulae (short gills that do not extend completely from the cap margin to the stipe). [ 27 ] When viewed from beneath, a characteristic groove colloquially known as a "moat" can be seen in the gill pattern circumnavigating the stalk. [ 26 ] The form lacking yellow colour on the gills is rare but widespread, and has been recorded from Austria, France and Holland. [ 28 ] The stout white stipe lacks a ring and is anywhere from 4 to 15 cm (1.6–6 in) high, and 0.5–3.5 cm (0.2–1.6 in) in diameter. It may be bulbous at the base. The taste is mild, although it may be unpleasant. The mushroom's strong and unusual odour can be hard to describe; it may smell of flour, though is often unpleasant and rancid . The spore print is reddish-brown, with angular spores 8–11 × 7–9.5 μm , roughly six-sided and globular in shape. The basidia are four-spored and clamped. The gill edge is fertile, and cystidia are absent. [ 29 ] [ edit ] Similar species Lookalike species include Clitopilus prunulus (right) and Calocybe gambosa (left) Confusion with the highly regarded miller or sweetbread mushroom ( Clitopilus prunulus ) is a common cause of poisoning in France; the latter fungus has a greyish-white downy cap and whitish decurrent gills which turn pink with maturity. [ 24 ] Young fruit bodies of Entoloma sinuatum can also be confused with St George's mushroom ( Calocybe gambosa ), [ 19 ] although the gills of the latter are crowded and cream in colour, and the clouded agaric ( Clitocybe nebularis ), which has whitish decurrent gills and an unusual odour. [ 26 ] To complicate matters, it often grows near these edible species. [ 30 ] Its overall size and shape resemble members of the genus Tricholoma , although the spore colour (white in Tricholoma , pinkish in Entoloma ) and shape (angular in Entoloma ) help distinguish it. [ 31 ] The rare and edible all-white dovelike tricholoma ( T. columbetta ) has a satiny cap and stem and a faint, not mealy, odour. [ 24 ] E. sinuatum may be confused with Clitocybe multiceps in the Pacific Northwest of North America, although the latter has white spores and generally grows in clumps. [ 31 ] A casual observer may mistake it for an edible field mushroom ( Agaricus campestris ), [ 23 ] but this species has a ring on the stipe, pink gills that become chocolate-brown in maturity, and a dark brown spore print. [ 32 ] The poorly known North American species E. albidum resembles E. sinuatum but is likewise poisonous. [ 31 ] [ edit ] Distribution and habitat Entoloma sinuatum is fairly common and widespread across North America [ 31 ] as far south as Arizona . [ 33 ] It also occurs throughout Europe and the British Isles including Ireland, [ 34 ] though it is more common in southern and central parts of Europe than the northwest. [ 29 ] In Asia, it has been recorded in the Black Sea region, [ 35 ] and Adıyaman Province in Turkey, [ 36 ] Iran, [ 37 ] and northern Yunnan in China. [ 38 ] The fruit bodies of E. sinuatum grow solitarily or in groups, [ 31 ] and have been found forming fairy rings . [ 30 ] Fruit bodies appear mainly in autumn, and also in summer in North America, [ 31 ] while in Europe the season is reported as late summer and autumn. [ 29 ] They are found in deciduous woodlands under oak , beech , and less commonly birch , often on clay or calcareous (chalky) soils, [ 29 ] but they may spread to in parks, fields and grassy areas nearby. [ 30 ] Most members of the genus are saprotrophic , [ 39 ] although this species has been recorded as forming an ectomycorrhizal relationship with willow ( Salix ). [ 40 ] [ edit ] Toxicity This fungus has been cited as being responsible for 10% of all mushroom poisonings in Europe. [ 41 ] For example, 70 people required hospital treatment in Geneva alone in 1983, [ 42 ] and the fungus accounted for 33 of 145 cases of mushroom poisoning in a five-year period at a single hospital in Parma . [ 43 ] Poisoning is said to be mainly gastrointestinal in nature; symptoms of diarrhoea , vomiting and headache occur 30 minutes to 2 hours after consumption and last for up to 48 hours. Acute liver toxicity and psychiatric symptoms like mood disturbance or delirium may occur. Rarely, symptoms of depression may last for months. [ 44 ] At least one source reports there have been fatalities in adults and children. [ 45 ] Hospital treatment of poisoning by this mushroom is usually supportive ; antispasmodic medicines may lessen colicky abdominal cramps and activated charcoal may be administered early on to bind residual toxin. Intravenous fluids may be required if dehydration has been extensive, especially with children and the elderly. [ 46 ] Metoclopramide may be used in cases of recurrent vomiting once gastric contents are emptied. [ 47 ] The identity of the toxin(s) is unknown, but chemical analysis has established that there are alkaloids present in the mushroom. [ 48 ] A study of trace elements in mushrooms in the eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey found E. sinuatum to have the highest levels of copper (64.8 ± 5.9 μg/g dried material —insufficient to be toxic) and zinc (198 μg/g) recorded. [ 49 ] Caps and stalks tested in an area with high levels of mercury in southeastern Poland showed it to bioaccumulate much higher levels of mercury than other fungi. The element was also found in high levels in the humus -rich substrate. [ 50 ] Entoloma sinuatum also accumulates arsenic -containing compounds. Of the roughly 40 μg of arsenic present per gram of fresh mushroom tissue, about 8% was arsenite and the other 92% was arsenate . [ 51 ] [ edit ] See also Fungi portal List of deadly fungi List of Entoloma species [ edit ] Footnotes ^ Which means that under the modern principles of nomenclature, Persoon, not Bulliard, is the first to have used the name, since only names in Latin can be considered. ^ It is now generally accepted the species in question is Pluteus cervinus . ^ a b Initially presumed to be Entoloma prunuloides but later found to be distinct from that taxon. [ 18 ] [ edit ] References ^ " Entoloma sinuatum (Bull.) P. Kumm." . Species Fungorum . CAB International . http://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/SynSpecies.asp?RecordID=224074 . Retrieved 2010-12-18 . ^ a b c Redeuilh, Guy (1999). "Proposal to conserve the name Entoloma lividum (Fungi, Agaricales) against three earlier synonyms". Taxon 48 (1): 145–46. doi : 10.2307/1224635 . ^ (French) Bulliard, Pierre (1782). Herbier de la France . 8 . Paris: Chez l'auteur, Didot, Debure, Belin. p. plate 382 . http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4309225 . ^ (Latin) (French) Quélet, Lucien (1872). "Les Champignons du Jura et des Vosges". Mémoires de la Société d'Émulation de Montbéliard . 2 5 : 116. ^ a b c d e (French) Redeuilh, Guy (1995). "Etude préliminaire en vue de la conservation d ' Entoloma lividum Quél.". Bulletin de la Société mycologique de France 111 (3): 155–68. ^ (Latin) Persoon, Christian H. (1801). Synopsis Methodica Fungorum . Gottingen, Sweden: Apud H. Dieterich. p. 329 . http://books.google.ca/books?id=UugVAAAAYAAJ&dq=Synopsis%20methodica%20fungorum&pg=RA2-PA329 . ^ (German) Kummer, Paul (1871). Der Führer in die Pilzkunde (1 ed.). Zerbst, Germany: Luppe. p. 98. ^ a b Korf, Richard P. (1981). "Citation of Authors' Names and the Typification of Names of Fungal Taxa Published between 1753 and 1832 under the Changes in the Code of Nomenclature Enacted in 1981" . Mycologia 74 (2): 250–5. doi : 10.2307/3792891 . http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/cyberliber/59350/0074/002/0250.htm . Retrieved February 9, 2011 . ^ Quélet L. (1886). Enchiridion Fungorum in Europa media et praesertim in Gallia Vigentium . p. 57 . http://books.google.ca/books?id=k2EVAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA57 . ^ a b Singer, Rolf (1975). Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy . Vaduz: AR Gantner Verlag KG. pp. 672–73. ISBN 3-7682-0143-0 . ^ a b Noordeloos, Fungi Europaei , p. 13. ^ a b Singer, Rolf (1986). Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy . Vaduz: Koeltz. p. 705. ISBN 3-87429-254-1 . ^ Fries, Elias Magnus (1821). Systema Mycologicum , volume 1 . Lund: Officina Berlingiana. p. 197 . ^ (French) Romagnesi, H (1978). "Quelques Espèces Méconnues ou Nouvelles de Macromycètes. IV". Bulletin de la Société mycologique de France 94 (2): 97–108. ^ (English) Noordeloos, Machiel E. (1985). "Notulae ad floram Agaricinam Neerlandicam X-XI. Entoloma ". Persoonia 12 (4): 457–62. ^ Breitenbach, Joseph; Kränzlin, Fred. (1991). Fungi of Switzerland 4: Agarics, 2nd Part . Lucerne: Verlag Mykologia Lucerne. p. 104. ISBN 3-85604-240-7 . ^ Gams, Walter (2001). "Report of the Committee for Fungi: 9". Taxon 50 (1): 269–72. doi : 10.2307/1224527 . ^ a b c Co-David, Delia; Langeveld, Dorien; Noordeloos, Machiel E., D; Langeveld, D; Noordeloos, ME (2009). "Molecular phylogeny and spore evolution of Entolomataceae" (PDF). Persoonia 23 : 147–76. doi : 10.3767/003158509X480944 . PMC 2802732 . PMID 20198166 . http://www.entoloma.nl/pdf/Co-David_et_al_entolomataceae.pdf . ^ a b c Nilson, Sven; Persson, Olle (1977). Fungi of Northern Europe 2: Gill-Fungi . Penguin. p. 98. ISBN 0-14-063006-6 . ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 349. ISBN 0-304-52257-0 . ^ Foster, Steven; Caras, Roger A. (1994). A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants, North America . Houghton Mifflin Field Guides. p. 212. ISBN 0-395-93608-X . ^ McKnight, Vera B.; McKnight, Kent H. (1987). A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America . Peterson Field Guides. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. p. 311. ISBN 0-395-91090-0 . ^ a b Ramsbottom, John (1953). Mushrooms & Toadstools . London: Collins. p. 53. ISBN 1-870630-09-2 . ^ a b c (English) Lamaison, Jean-Louis; Polese, Jean-Marie (2005). The Great Encyclopedia of Mushrooms . Königswinter, Germany: Könemann. p. 116. ISBN 3-8331-1239-5 . ^ Noordeloos, Fungi Europaei , p. 72. ^ a b c Haas, Hans (1969). The Young Specialist looks at Fungi . London: Burke. p. 126. ISBN 0-222-79409-7 . ^ Bresinsky, Andreas; Besl, Helmut (1989). A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Fungi: a Handbook for Pharmacists, Doctors, and Biologists . London: Manson Publishing Ltd. pp. 138–39. ISBN 0-7234-1576-5 . http://books.google.com/books?id=EIcQGsZ2kksC&lpg=PA139 . ^ Noordeloos, Fungi Europaei , p. 114. ^ a b c d Noordeloos, Fungi Europaei , pp. 111–13. ^ a b c Zeitlmayr, Linus (1976). Wild Mushrooms: An Illustrated Handbook . Hertfordshire: Garden City Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-584-10324-7 . ^ a b c d e f Ammirati, Joseph F.; Traquair, James A.; Horgen, Paul A. (1985). Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada . Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 313–15. ISBN 0-8166-1407-5 . http://books.google.com/?id=nhWbsGB7z4cC&pg=PA312&lpg=PA312&dq=%22Entoloma+sinuatum%22+compound#v=onepage&q&f=false . ^ Miller, Hope H.; Miller, Orson K. (2006). North American Mushrooms: a Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi . Guilford, Connecticut: Falcon Guide. p. 283. ISBN 0-7627-3109-5 . ^ Bates, Scott T. (2006). "A preliminary checklist of Arizona macrofungi" (fulltext). Canotia 2 (2): 47–78 . http://www.canotia.org/volumes/CANOTIA_2006_Vol2_2_Bates.pdf . Retrieved 2008-02-01 . ^ "Northern Ireland's Herbarium Specimens" . Northern Ireland Fungus Group. 2007 . http://www.nifg.org.uk/herbarium.htm . Retrieved 2008-02-01 . ^ Sesli, Ertugrul (2007). "Preliminary checklist of macromycetes of the East and Middle Black Sea Regions of Turkey" (PDF). Mycotaxon 99 : 71–74 . http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/checklists/sesli-v99-checklist.pdf . ^ Kaya, Abdullah (2010). "Macrofungal diversity of Adıyaman Province (Turkey)" (PDF). Mycotaxon 110 : 43–46 . http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/checklists/kaya-v110-checklist.pdf . ^ (Persian) Asef Shayan, M.R. (2010). قارچهای سمی ایران (Qarch-ha-ye Sammi-ye Iran) [Poisonous mushrooms of Iran] . Iranshenasi. p. 214. ISBN 978-964-2725-29-8 . ^ Horak, Egon (1987). "Agaricales from Yunnan China I". Nippon Kingakukai Kaiho 28 (2): 171–88. ISSN 0029-0289 . ^ Noordeloos, Fungi Europaei , p. 38. ^ Agerer, Reinhard (2002). Colour Atlas of Ectomycorrhizae . Schwäbisch Gmünd: Einhorn-Verlag. pp. 116–17. ISBN 3-921703-77-8 . ^ (German) Alder, A.E. (1961). "Erkennung und Behandlung der Pilzvergiftung [Recognition and treatment of mushroom poisoning]". Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 86 (23): 1121–27. doi : 10.1055/s-0028-1112908 . PMID 13682210 . ^ (German) Chapuis, J.-R. (1984). "Jahresbericht des Verbandstoxikologen für das Jahr 1983 [Annual Report of the SUSM Toxicologist for 1983]". Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 62 : 196–97. ^ (Italian) Bocchi, A.; Bracchi, P. G.; Delbono, G.; Cadonici, O. (1995). "Segnalazioni di intossicazioni da funghi nel Parmense [Report on mushroom poisoning in the Parma area]". Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria, Universita di Parma 15 : 251–56. ISSN 0393-4802 . ^ Benjamin, pp. 361–62. ^ Benedict, Robert G. (1972). "Mushroom toxins other than Amanita ". In Kadis, S.; Ciegler, Alex; Ajl, S.J. (eds). Microbial Toxins: A Comprehensive Treatise. Volume VIII. Fungal Toxins . New York, New York: Academic Press. pp. 281–320. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas , pp. 354–55. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas , p. 188. ^ Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Fransesc; Llabrés, Jose M.; Codina, Carles (1987). "Screening of higher fungi from Catalonia for alkaloids-II". International Journal of Crude Drug Research 25 (3): 129–32. doi : 10.3109/13880208709060915 . ^ Tuzen, Mustafa; Sesli, Ertugrul; Soylak, Mustafa (2007). "Trace element levels of mushroom species from East Black Sea region of Turkey". Food Control 18 (7): 806–10. doi : 10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.04.003 . ^ Falandysz, Jerzy (2002). "Mercury in mushrooms and soil of the Tarnobrzeska Plain, south-eastern Poland". Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 37 (3): 343–52. doi : 10.1081/ESE-120002833 . ^ Byrne, A.R.; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Stijve, Tjakko; Fay, L.; Gössler, Walter; Gailer, Jürgen; Irgolic, Kurt J. (1995). "Arsenobetaine and other arsenic species in mushrooms". Applied Organometallic Chemistry 9 (4): 305–13. doi : 10.1002/aoc.590090403 . [ edit ] Cited texts Benjamin, Denis R. (1995). Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas—A Handbook for Naturalists, Mycologists and Physicians . New York, New York: WH Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-2600-9 . (Italian) Noordeloos, Machiel E. (1992). Entoloma s.l. . Fungi Europaei , 5 . Saronno, Italy: Giovanna Biella. OCLC 27190030 .
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Hurricane Isis Category 1 hurricane ( SSHS ) Isis shortly after becoming a hurricane Formed September 1, 1998 Dissipated September 3, 1998 Highest winds 1-minute sustained : 75 mph (120 km/h) Lowest pressure 988 mbar ( hPa ); 29.18 inHg Fatalities 14 direct Damage $10 million (1998 USD ) Areas affected Baja California peninsula , Northern Pacific coast of Mexico , southwestern United States Part of the 1998 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane Isis was the deadliest tropical cyclone and only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season . The ninth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isis developed on September 1 from the interaction between a tropical wave and a large surface circulation to the southwest of Mexico . It moved northward, striking the extreme southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California . Isis made landfall at Topolobampo in the Mexican state of Sinaloa on September 3, and quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted for several days before dissipating in the U.S. state of Idaho . In Mexico, Isis destroyed over 700 houses and killed 14 people; this is primarily due to its heavy rainfall which peaked at over 20 inches (500 mm) in southern Baja California Sur . The rainfall caused widespread damage to roads and railways, stranding thousands of people. Moisture from the remnants of Isis extended into the southwestern United States , resulting in light rainfall, dozens of traffic accidents, and power outages to thousands of residents in San Diego County, California . Contents 1 Meteorological history 2 Preparations 3 Impact 3.1 Mexico 3.2 United States 4 Aftermath 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [ edit ] Meteorological history Storm path A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 14, 1998. It traveled westward, and on August 19 spawned the tropical depression that eventually became Hurricane Bonnie . [ 1 ] The wave continued westward across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea , and crossed Central America into the eastern Pacific Ocean on August 25. The wave decreased its forward speed while approaching a large low-level circulation over southern Mexico . A broad area of disturbed weather formed in association with the wave and the low-level circulation, and after persisting for several days developed a smaller low-level circulation on August 29 about 575 miles (925 km) south-southeast of Cabo San Lucas . On August 31, the two primary areas of convection were well-removed from the center. By early on September 1, despite a lack of convective organization, the low-cloud circulation was sufficiently well-defined that the National Hurricane Center designated it as Tropical Depression Ten-E, or the tenth tropical depression of the season, about 350 miles (565 km) south of Cabo San Lucas. [ 2 ] In real time, the National Hurricane Center first upgraded the system 21 hours later. [ 3 ] The depression initially tracked slowly north-northwestward and gradually strengthened. Late on September 1 it intensified into Tropical Storm Isis while located about 200 miles (320 km) south of Cabo San Lucas. [ 2 ] Upon becoming a tropical storm, the deep convection was not organized, causing one forecaster to describe Isis as a large monsoon -like system. [ 3 ] A mid-level trough extending southward from the Arizona / California border caused the storm to accelerate northward. The storm quickly strengthened; six hours after Isis became a tropical storm it reached winds of 70 mph (115 km/h). [ 2 ] Very deep, symmetrical convection developed over the poorly defined center of circulation while banding features began to form, although ill-defined outflow and land interaction with the Baja California Peninsula initially prevented further strengthening. [ 4 ] At 1200 UTC on September 2, Isis made landfall on extreme southeastern Baja California Sur as a strong tropical storm, and subsequently turned to the north-northeast. [ 2 ] After entering the Gulf of California , an eye began to become apparent on visible satellite imagery, and it is estimated Isis attained hurricane status late on September 2. Continuing northward, it struck Topolobampo in the state of Sinaloa early on September 3 as a minimal hurricane. Isis weakened to a tropical storm a few hours after landfall, and subsequent to turning to the north-northwest the low-level circulation dissipated over Sierra Madre Occidental . [ 2 ] The remnants entered southern Arizona on September 4 and tracked around an upper-level low. After entering Nevada on September 5, the remnants of Isis passed into Oregon before dissipating in Idaho on September 8. [ 5 ] [ edit ] Preparations Coinciding with the National Hurricane Center's first advisory on Isis, the government of Mexico issued a tropical storm warning from Dolores to Puerto Cortés along the Baja California Peninsula . This helped some of the residents get an early start.Early on September 2, the warning was extended from Santa Rosalía to Punta Abreojos , while an additional tropical storm warning was issued from El Dorado to Guaymas . After Isis became a hurricane, officials issued a hurricane warning from Dolores to Punta San Gabriel on the Baja California Peninsula and from El Dorado to Bahía Kino on the mainland. [ 2 ] In Baja California Sur , 2,500 residents were evacuated to emergency shelters. Officials closed the port at Mazatlán and recommended fisherman along the coast of the Gulf of California to remain at port. [ 6 ] Officials set up 49 shelters on the mainland to provide evacuees with food, clothing and medical attention. [ 7 ] The Mexican Army assisted residents in evacuation, and the Navy provided medical aid and assistance to boat owners. More than 24,000 people were sheltered during the storm. [ 8 ] [ edit ] Impact [ edit ] Mexico Rainfall Summary for Hurricane Isis Isis first affected Baja California Sur on September 2 as a tropical storm. Shortly after making landfall, a weather reporting station at San José del Cabo recorded sustained winds of 26 mph (42 km/h), and gusts reaching up to 46 mph (74 km/h). A station on the Islas Marías also reported sustained winds of 54 mph (87 km/h). [ 2 ] The winds left widespread areas without power or telephone. [ 6 ] The storm produced heavy rainfall in the southern portion of the peninsula, including a 24–hour total of 12.99 inches (330 mm) at Los Cabos [ 2 ] and a peak rainfall total of 24.02 inches (610 mm) at Santiago . [ 5 ] A married couple was killed after attempting to cross a flooded stream in Los Cabos. [ 6 ] [ 9 ] Initially, reports indicated a family was missing in La Paz , though they were later proven false. [ 6 ] Flooding from the storm closed all roads to the north of Los Cabos and caused damage to the roads in the area. Mudslides from the rain buried at least 120 cars in the area. [ 9 ] Rainfall reached over 10 inches (250 mm) in the coastal region of Jalisco , and lighter amounts of precipitation extended further to the southeast and northeast. [ 5 ] One person was reported missing in Jalisco. [ 7 ] The heaviest 24–hour rainfall total in the state of Sinaloa was 8.66 inches (220 mm), whereas in Sonora a maximum of 4.72 inches (120 mm) of rain were recorded. [ 2 ] Strong waves from the hurricane struck the Mexican mainland, with four people injured at Mazatlán when their boat washed onto rocks and was destroyed. [ 6 ] Rainfall from the storm flooded 15 communities in and around Mazatlán, and the Army assisted residents in emergency evacuations. [ 7 ] At Los Mochis , near the point where Isis made landfall, the hurricane resulted in the destruction of 300 homes, as well as in seven fatalities. [ 10 ] Throughout the city, strong winds from the hurricane downed street posts, tree limbs, and power lines, with one person seriously injured from a downed power line. Additionally, the roof of a gas station collapsed from the winds. [ 7 ] More than 1,200 bus passengers in Sinaloa were stranded due to road closures from the hurricane, [ 10 ] including the closure of the coastal highway in the southern portion of Sinaloa as it had been washed out due to floodwaters. Rainfall from the storm caused severe river flooding in some locations, and authorities advised those living along the Fuerte River to be prepared for a possible evacuation. [ 11 ] The winds from Isis left about 120,000 people in the municipality of Ahome without power. [ 8 ] Throughout Mexico, the passage of Hurricane Isis resulted in 14 deaths and the loss of 769 homes, [ 2 ] with property damage estimates totaling over $5 million (1998 USD , 50 million 1998 MXN , $6.3 million 2007 USD). [ 12 ] According to a speech by President Ernesto Zedillo , Isis damaged the water systems in 173 localities ; it also damaged 154 primary schools and nine high schools, minor in most cases, causing most schools to be closed for around a week. A total of 730 miles (1175 km) of railroad track was damaged by mudslides or flooding, with one bridge entirely destroyed and another four damaged. [ 8 ] [ edit ] United States Thunderstorms from the remnants of Isis dropped more than two inches (50 mm) of rainfall across southern Arizona , resulting in some flash flood warnings and flooding on roadways. [ 13 ] The heaviest precipitation fell across the Santa Catalina and Rincon Mountains near Tucson , which saw precipitation amounts of up to three inches (75 mm). Otherwise, no flooding was reported in the Tucson area, and the Tucson International Airport reported only 1.1 inches (28 mm) as a result of the storm. [ 14 ] The moisture extended into southern California and produced moderate precipitation across the region. Bakersfield reported a one-day rainfall record on September 4 with 0.23 inches (5.8 mm) of precipitation, breaking the previous record of 0.17 inches (4.3 mm) set in 1963. Rainfall amounts at Frazier Park peaked at 1.53 inches (39 mm). Agricultural losses, primarily from vintners and raisin growers, rose up to $5 million in damage (1998 USD, $6.33 million 2007 USD), either directly due to rain or indirectly due to the additional steps to treat the increase in fungus activity on produce. [ 15 ] Slick roads from the rain resulted in nearly 80 traffic accidents in San Diego County , ranging from fender benders to moderate injuries. Thunderstorms from the remnants of Isis damaged a San Diego Gas & Electric substation at Kearny Mesa , leaving 10,000 customers without power; the outage was short lived and completely restored within two hours. About 1,000 homes and businesses were temporarily without power in Escondido , and another 2,700 customers lost electricity in Rancho Bernardo . Rainfall in and around San Diego reached a maximum of 0.5 inches (13 mm) at La Mesa . [ 16 ] Heavy clouds from Isis produced scattered rainfall and temporary relief to severe heat conditions in the Los Angeles area. [ 17 ] Moisture from the remnants of Isis spread across the southwestern United States, and rainfall reached over 0.75 inches (19 mm) in Nevada and Utah . Low-level moisture dissipated as it continued inland, due to dry air, although upper-level moisture produced light rain across the Northwestern United States ; Pocatello, Idaho recorded 0.59 inches (15 mm), while Missoula, Montana recorded 0.39 inches (10 mm). [ 18 ] [ edit ] Aftermath Aid programs began immediately after Isis moved ashore and dissipated to provided support to the affected population. The Comisión Nacional del Agua distributed 1.6 million U.S. gallons (1.3 million imp gal /6 million L ) of water and provided repair equipment to the 173 localities whose water systems were damaged. More than 650 health workers worked to combat the spread of diseases, including monitoring sanitary conditions of water and foods, and sprayed nearly 9,900 acres (40 km 2 ) of land to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes . The force also disinfected more than 6,600 latrines and removed more than 850 short tons (770 t ) of sewage to prevent the spread of epidemic. No medical-related deaths occurred as a result of this attention. [ 8 ] Twenty-four hours after the passage of the hurricane, workers had restored power to 70% of the affected residents in Sinaloa , and by six days after the storm, electrical service was completely restored. The damage to the federal highway between Culiacán and Los Mochis along the coastal region of Sinaloa was restored about 48 hours after the passage of the hurricane. The rehabilitation of the agricultural infrastructure began immediately, and most of the drainage networks were repaired by about two weeks after the hurricane. About half of the damaged railways were repaired by about a month after the storm. The total cost for reconstruction and aid amounted to about $18.5 million (1998 USD, 175 million 1998 MXN, $23.3 million 2007 USD), about 94% from federal funds and the rest from state funding. A portion of the funding was allocated to assist the reconstruction of destroyed houses. [ 8 ] Because the damage Isis caused was neither extreme nor exceptional, the name Isis was not retired by the World Meteorological Organization . It was re-used for a storm in the 2004 Pacific hurricane season , and continues to be on the list of tropical cyclone names for the 2010 season . [ edit ] See also Tropical cyclones portal List of Baja California Peninsula hurricanes Other tropical cyclones named Isis Tropical cyclone rainfall climatology [ edit ] References ^ Lixion Avila (1998). "Hurricane Bonnie Preliminary Report" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1998bonnie.html . Retrieved 2007-02-07 . ^ a b c d e f g h i j Richard Pasch (1999). "Hurricane Isis Preliminary Report" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1998isis.html . Retrieved 2007-02-07 . ^ a b Edward Rappaport (1998). "Tropical Storm Isis Discussion One" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/dis/NEP1098.001 . Retrieved 2007-02-07 . ^ John Guiney (1998). "Tropical Storm Isis Discussion Three" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/dis/NEP1098.003 . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ a b c David Roth (2003). "Rainfall Summary for Hurricane Isis" . Hydrometeorological Prediction Center . http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/isis1998.html . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ a b c d e CNN.com (1998). "Hurricane Isis heads toward Mexican mainland" . Archived from the original on 2002-09-11 . http://web.archive.org/web/20020911145010/http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9809/03/isis.01/index.html . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ a b c d Mark Stevenson (1998-09-03). "Isis blasts Mexican mainland before weakening". Associated Press. ^ a b c d e President Ernesto Zedillo (1998). "Versión estenográfica de las palabras del presidente Ernesto Zedillo, en la Reunión de Trabajo sobre la Reconstrucción de la Zona Afectada por el Huracán "Isis" en la sala del aeropuerto internacional de Los Mochis, de este municipio" (in Spanish). Government of Mexico . http://zedillo.presidencia.gob.mx/pages/disc/oct98/05oct98.html . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ a b Associated Press (1998-09-05). "At least 10 dead from Hurricane Isis". ^ a b Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (1998-09-05). "Hurricane Isis claims eight lives in Mexico". ^ Mark Stevenson (1998-09-03). "Hurricane Isis dissipates, but brings dangerous rains". Associated Press. ^ Centro Nacional para la Prevención de Desastres (2000). "Estadísticas Sobre los Riesgos a Atenuar de Fenómenos Perturbadores" (in Spanish) . http://www.cofemermir.gob.mx/uploadtests/4054.66.59.1.STAD%C3%8DSTICAS-RIESGOS-ATENUAR.DOC . Retrieved 2007-02-09 . ^ Associated Press (1998-09-05). "Isis fizzles but makes for a wet Arizona weekend". ^ Glueck (1998). "September 1998 climate report for Tucson" . Tucson, Arizona National Weather Service . http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/twc/climate/monthly/sep98.php . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ National Climatic Data Center (1998). "Event Report for California" . http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~312841 . Retrieved 2007-02-08 . ^ Wade Booth (1998-09-03). "Isis Brings Trouble to San Diego County". City News Service. ^ City News Service (1998-09-04). "Heat Wave Relief from Isis". ^ Kevin J. Schrab. "GOES-10 Used to Assess Moisture from Remnants of Isis" . NOAA . http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/wrh/LITETAs/9804/index.html . Retrieved 2007-07-05 . [ edit ] External links The NHC's archive on Hurricane Isis. v t e Tropical cyclones of the 1998 Pacific hurricane season A 2E B C D E F G 1C H I J 12E K L M Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Book · Category · Portal · WikiProject · Commons
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Chordata Edmontosaurus Temporal range: Late Cretaceous , 73.0–65.5 Ma PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N Mounted skeleton of E. regalis , Oxford University Museum of Natural History Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Node: Dinosauria Order: † Ornithischia Family: † Hadrosauridae Node: † Euhadrosauria Subfamily: † Saurolophinae Genus: † Edmontosaurus Lambe , 1917 Type species † Edmontosaurus regalis Lambe, 1917 Species † E. regalis Lambe, 1917 † E. annectens ( Marsh , 1892 [originally Claosaurus ]) Synonyms Anatosaurus Lull & Wright, 1942 Anatotitan Chapman & Brett-Surman , 1990 Edmontosaurus ( / ɛ d ˌ m ɒ n t ɵ ˈ s ɔr ə s / ed- MON -toh- SAWR -əs ) is a genus of crestless hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur . It contains two species : Edmontosaurus regalis and Edmontosaurus annectens . Fossils of E. regalis have been found in rocks of western North America that date from the late Campanian stage of the Cretaceous Period 73 million years ago, while those of E. annectens were found in the same geographic region but in rocks dated to the end of the Maastrichtian stage of the Cretaceous, 65.5 million years ago. E. annectens was one of the last non- avian dinosaurs, and lived alongside Triceratops horridus and Tyrannosaurus rex shortly before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event . Edmontosaurus included some of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring up to 13 meters (43 ft) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons). Several well-preserved specimens are known that include not only bones, but in some cases extensive skin impressions and possible gut contents. It is classified as a genus of saurolophine (or hadrosaurine ) hadrosaurid, a member of the group of hadrosaurids which lacked hollow crests. Edmontosaurus has a lengthy and complicated taxonomic history dating to the late 19th century. Specimens of Edmontosaurus have been classified with various genera including Anatosaurus , Anatotitan , Claosaurus , Diclonius , Hadrosaurus , Thespesius , and Trachodon , and the well-known but possibly synonymous Anatosaurus and Anatotitan are now generally regarded as synonyms of Edmontosaurus . The first fossils named Edmontosaurus were discovered in southern Alberta , Canada , in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (formerly called the lower Edmonton Formation). The type species , E. regalis , was named by Lawrence Lambe in 1917, although several other species that are now classified in Edmontosaurus were named earlier. The best known of these is E. annectens , originally named by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1892 as Claosaurus annectens and known for many years as Anatosaurus annectens . Edmontosaurus was widely distributed across western North America. The distribution of Edmontosaurus fossils suggests that it preferred coasts and coastal plains . It was a herbivore that could move on both two legs and four. Because it is known from several bone beds , Edmontosaurus is thought to have lived in groups, and may have been migratory as well. The wealth of fossils has allowed researchers to study its paleobiology in detail, including its brain, how it may have fed, and its injuries and pathologies , such as evidence for a tyrannosaur attack on one edmontosaur specimen. Contents 1 Description 1.1 Skull 1.2 Postcranial skeleton 1.3 Skin 2 Classification 3 Discovery and history 3.1 Claosaurus annectens and other early finds 3.2 Canadian discoveries 3.3 Anatosaurus to the present 4 Species and distribution 5 Paleoecology 5.1 Edmontonian paleoecology 5.2 Lancian paleoecology 6 Paleobiology 6.1 Growth 6.2 Brain and nervous system 6.3 Diet 6.3.1 Feeding adaptations 6.3.2 Gut contents 6.4 Isotopic studies 6.5 Pathologies and health 6.6 Locomotion 6.7 Interactions with theropods 6.8 Social behavior 7 References 8 External links [ edit ] Description Scale diagram comparing Edmontosaurus regalis and E. annectens to a human Edmontosaurus has been described in detail from several specimens. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Like other hadrosaurids, it was a bulky animal with a long, laterally flattened tail and a head with an expanded, duck-like beak. The skull had no hollow or solid crest, unlike many other hadrosaurids. The fore legs were not as heavily built as the hind legs, but were long enough to be used in standing or movement. Edmontosaurus was among the largest hadrosaurids: depending on the species, a fully grown adult could have been 9 meters (30 ft) long, and some of the larger specimens reached the range of 12 meters (39 ft) [ 5 ] to 13 meters (43 ft) long. [ 6 ] Its weight was on the order of 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons). [ 7 ] Traditionally, E. regalis has been regarded as the largest species, though this was challenged by the hypothesis that the larger hadrosaurid Anatotitan copei is a synonym of Edmontosaurus annectens , as put forward by Jack Horner and colleagues in 2004, [ 7 ] and supported in studies by Campione and Evens in 2009 and 2011. [ 8 ] The type specimen of E. regalis , NMC 2288, is estimated as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 39 ft) long. [ 9 ] E. annectens is often seen as smaller. Two well-known mounted skeletons, USNM 2414 and YPM 2182, measure 8.00 meters (26.25 ft) long and 8.92 meters (29.3 ft) long, respectively. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] However, these are probably subadult individuals, [ 8 ] and there is at least one report of a much larger potential E. annectens specimen, almost 12 meters (39 ft) long. [ 11 ] [ edit ] Skull Edmontosaurus annectens skull The skull of a fully grown Edmontosaurus could be over a meter (or yard) long. One skull of E. annectens (formerly Anatotitan ) measures 3.87 feet (1.18 m) long. [ 12 ] The skull was roughly triangular in profile, [ 1 ] with no bony cranial crest. [ 13 ] Viewed from above, the front and rear of the skull were expanded, with the broad front forming a duck-bill or spoon-bill shape. The beak was toothless, and both the upper and lower beaks were extended by keratinous material. [ 7 ] Substantial remains of the keratinous upper beak are known from the "mummy" kept at the Senckenberg Museum . [ 5 ] In this specimen, the preserved nonbony part of the beak extended for at least 8 centimeters (3.1 in) beyond the bone, projecting down vertically. [ 14 ] The nasal openings of Edmontosaurus were elongate and housed in deep depressions surrounded by distinct bony rims above, behind, and below. [ 15 ] In at least one case (the Senckenberg specimen), rarely preserved sclerotic rings were preserved in the eye sockets. [ 16 ] Another rarely seen bone, the stapes (the reptilian ear bone), has also been seen in a specimen of Edmontosaurus . [ 7 ] Teeth were present only in the maxillae (upper cheeks) and dentaries (main bone of the lower jaw). The teeth were continually replaced, taking about half a year to form. [ 17 ] They grew in columns, with an observed maximum of six in each, and the number of columns varied based on the animal's size. [ 4 ] Known column counts for the two species are: 51 to 53 columns per maxilla and 48 to 49 per dentary (teeth of the upper jaw being slightly narrower than those in the lower jaw) for E. regalis ; and 52 columns per maxilla and 44 per dentary for E. annectens (an "E. saskatchewanensis" specimen). [ 13 ] [ edit ] Postcranial skeleton Hip bones of Edmontosaurus , an ornithischian dinosaur. The number of vertebrae differs between specimens. E. regalis had thirteen neck vertebrae, eighteen back vertebrae, nine hip vertebrae, and an unknown number of tail vertebrae. [ 13 ] A specimen once identified as belonging to Anatosaurus edmontoni (now considered to be the same as E. regalis ) is reported as having an additional back vertebra and 85 tail vertebrae, with an undisclosed amount of restoration. [ 13 ] Other hadrosaurids are only reported as having 50 to 70 tail vertebrae, [ 7 ] so this appears to have been an overestimate. The anterior back was curved toward the ground, with the neck flexed upward and the rest of the back and tail held horizontally. [ 7 ] Most of the back and tail were lined by ossified tendons arranged in a latticework along the neural spines of the vertebrae. This condition has been described as making the back and at least part of the tail "ramrod" straight. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] The ossified tendons are interpreted as having strengthened the vertebral column against gravitational stress, incurred through being a large animal with a horizontal vertebral column otherwise supported mostly by the hind legs and hips. [ 18 ] The shoulder blades were long flat blade-like bones, held roughly parallel to the vertebral column. The hips were composed of three elements each: an elongate ilium above the articulation with the leg, an ischium below and behind with a long thin rod, and a pubis in front that flared into a plate-like structure. The structure of the hip hindered the animal from standing with its back erect, because in such a position the thigh bone would have pushed against the joint of the ilium and pubis, instead of pushing only against the solid ilium. The nine fused hip vertebrae provided support for the hip. [ 4 ] The fore legs were shorter and less heavily built than the hind legs. The upper arm had a large deltopectoral crest for muscle attachment, while the ulna and radius were slim. The upper arm and forearm were similar in length. The wrist was simple, with only two small bones. Each hand had four fingers, with no thumb (first finger). The index second, third, and fourth fingers were approximately the same length and were united in life within a fleshy covering. Although the second and third finger had hoof-like unguals , these bones were also within the skin and not apparent from the outside. The little finger diverged from the other three and was much shorter. The thigh bone was robust and straight, with a prominent flange about halfway down the posterior side. [ 4 ] This ridge was for the attachment of powerful muscles attached to the hips and tail that pulled the thighs (and thus the hind legs) backward and helped maintain the use of the tail as a balancing organ. [ 20 ] Each foot had three toes, with no big toe or little toe. The toes had hoof-like tips. [ 4 ] [ edit ] Skin AMNH 5060: a well preserved specimen of Edmontosaurus annectens Multiple specimens of Edmontosaurus have been found with preserved skin impressions. Several have been well-publicized, such as the " Trachodon mummy " of the early 20th century, [ 21 ] [ 22 ] and the specimen nicknamed " Dakota ", [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] the latter apparently including remnant organic compounds from the skin. [ 25 ] Because of these finds, the scalation of Edmontosaurus is known for most areas of the body. AMNH 5060, the "Trachodon mummy" (so-called because it appears to be a fossil of a natural mummy ), is now recognized as a specimen of E. annectens . It was found to have skin impressions over the snout, much of the neck and torso, and parts of the arms and legs. [ 14 ] The tail and part of the legs eroded before collection, so these areas are unknown for the specimen. [ 22 ] Additionally, some areas with skin impressions, such as sections associated with the neck ridge (see below) and hands, were accidentally removed during preparation of the specimen. [ 21 ] The specimen is thought to have desiccated in a dry stream bed, [ 22 ] probably on or near a point bar . The circumstances of the location and preservation of the body suggest that the animal died during a prolonged drought, perhaps from starvation. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] The desiccated carcass was eventually buried in a sudden flood, surrounded by sediment that had enough fine particles to make a cast of the epidermal structures. [ 22 ] Skin impression from the abdomen of Edmontosaurus annectens The epidermis was thin, and the scalation composed of small nonoverlapping scales, [ 21 ] as seen in the Gila monster . [ 14 ] Two general types of scales were present over most of the body: small pointed or convex tubercles , 1 to 3 millimeters (0.039 to 0.12 in) in diameter with no definite arrangement (ground tubercles); and larger, flat polygonal tubercles (pavement tubercles) typically less than 5 millimeters (0.20 in) in diameter, but up to 10 millimeters (0.39 in) over the forearm. The pavement tubercles were grouped into clusters separated by ground tubercles, with transitional scales between the two types. Over most of the body, the pavement tubercles were arranged in circular or oval clusters, while near the shoulder on the upper arm, they formed strips roughly parallel to each other and the shoulder blade. Generally, clusters were larger on the upper surfaces of the body and smaller on the underside. Clusters up to 50 centimeters (20 in) in length were present above the hips. [ 22 ] Recent picture of the AMNH mummy The only impressions from the head came from the large opening for the nostrils. Instead of tubercle impressions, there were impressions of folded soft tissue, with a deeper area at the anterior end of the opening that may have been the approximate location of the nostril itself. [ 14 ] The neck and back had a soft ridge or frill running down the midline, with a row of oval tubercle clusters arranged above the spines of the vertebrae. The total height of the ridge on AMNH 5060 is not known, nor the disposition of its upper border, as the upper extremity was prepared away. The ridge was at least 8 centimeters (3.1 in) tall, and was folded and creased to permit movement. Osborn proposed that it was tall enough for another row of clusters. [ 22 ] The forearms had the largest tubercles, arranged in single large clusters that covered the leading surfaces. The hands were covered in small pavement tubercles in a soft-tissue structure than enclosed the three central fingers; not even the tips were exposed. Osborn interpreted this as a paddle for swimming. [ 22 ] Robert T. Bakker later reinterpreted it as a soft-tissue pad for walking, analogous to that of a camel. [ 28 ] Like the forearm, the shin had large tubercles. The scalation of the rest of the leg is not presently known, although impressions on a specimen of the crested hadrosaurid Lambeosaurus suggest that the thighs were under the skin of the body, like modern birds. [ 14 ] The tail of AMNH 5060 was not present, but other specimens have filled in some details for that area. Skin impressions from a partial tail belonging to Edmontosaurus annectens , recovered from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana , show a segmented ridge above the vertebrae. The ridge was about 8.0 centimeters (3.1 in) tall, with the segments being about 5.0 centimeters (2.0 in) long and 4.5 centimeters (1.8 in) high, spaced 1.0 centimeter (0.39 in) apart, with one segment to a vertebra. [ 29 ] Another tail, this time pertaining to a juvenile E. annectens , had fossilized impressions including tubercles as well as previously unseen skin textures. These impressions included elliptical overlapping scales, grooved scales, and a "9 cm by 10 cm trapezoidal horn-like structure". [ 30 ] [ edit ] Classification Hadrosaurinae Lophorhothon unnamed unnamed Prosaurolophus unnamed Gryposaurus unnamed Edmontosaurus unnamed Brachylophosaurus Maiasaura unnamed "Kritosaurus" australis Naashoibitosaurus Saurolophus Hadrosaurinae Lophorhothon unnamed unnamed Edmontosaurus unnamed Prosaurolophus Saurolophus unnamed Naashoibitosaurus unnamed Gryposaurus unnamed Brachylophosaurus Maiasaura Upper cladogram per Horner et al. (2004), [ 7 ] lower cladogram per Gates and Sampson (2007). [ 31 ] Edmontosaurus was a hadrosaurid (a duck-billed dinosaur), a member of a family of dinosaurs which to date are known only from the Late Cretaceous . It is classified within the Saurolophinae (alternately Hadrosaurinae), a clade of hadrosaurids which lacked hollow crests. Other members of the group include Brachylophosaurus , Gryposaurus , Lophorhothon , Maiasaura , Naashoibitosaurus , Prosaurolophus , and Saurolophus . [ 7 ] It was either closely related to [ 32 ] or includes the species Anatosaurus annectens (alternately Edmontosaurus annectens ), [ 7 ] a large hadrosaurid from various latest Cretaceous formations of western North America. The giant Chinese hadrosaurine Shantungosaurus giganteus is also anatomically similar to Edmontosaurus ; M. K. Brett-Surman found the two to differ only in details related to the greater size of Shantungosaurus , based on what had been described of the latter genus. [ 33 ] While the status of Edmontosaurus as a saurolophine or (="hadrosaurine") has not been challenged, its exact placement within the clade is uncertain. Early phylogenies , such as that presented in R. S. Lull and Nelda Wright's influential 1942 monograph , had Edmontosaurus and various species of Anatosaurus (most of which would be later considered as additional species or specimens of Edmontosaurus ) as one lineage among several lineages of "flat-headed" hadrosaurs. [ 34 ] One of the first analyses using cladistic methods found it to be linked with Anatosaurus (= Anatotitan ) and Shantungosaurus in an informal "edmontosaur" clade, which was paired with the spike-crested "saurolophs" and more distantly related to the "brachylophosaurs" and arch-snouted "gryposaurs". [ 32 ] A 2007 study by Terry Gates and Scott Sampson found broadly similar results, in that Edmontosaurus remained close to Saurolophus and Prosaurolophus and distant from Gryposaurus , Brachylophosaurus , and Maiasaura . [ 31 ] However, the most recent review of Hadrosauridae, by Jack Horner and colleagues (2004), came to a noticeably different result: Edmontosaurus was nested between Gryposaurus and the "brachylophosaurs", and distant from Saurolophus . [ 7 ] The discrepancies are complicated by the relative lack of work on hadrosaurine evolutionary relationships. [ edit ] Discovery and history [ edit ] Claosaurus annectens and other early finds Edmontosaurus has had a long and complicated history in paleontology, having spent decades with various species classified in other genera. Its taxonomic history intertwines at various points with the genera Agathaumas , Anatosaurus , Anatotitan , Claosaurus , Hadrosaurus , Thespesius , and Trachodon , [ 7 ] [ 35 ] and references predating the 1980s typically use Anatosaurus , Claosaurus , Thespesius , or Trachodon for edmontosaur fossils (excluding those assigned to E. regalis ), depending on author and date. Although Edmontosaurus was only named in 1917, its oldest well-supported species ( E. annectens ) was named in 1892 as a species of Claosaurus , and scrappier fossils that may belong to it were described as long ago as 1871. [ 7 ] Skeletal restoration of the E. annectens (then Claosaurus ) holotype, by Othniel Charles Marsh . The first described remains that may belong to Edmontosaurus were named Trachodon atavus in 1871 by Edward Drinker Cope . [ 36 ] This species was assessed without comment as a synonym of Edmontosaurus regalis in two reviews, [ 7 ] [ 32 ] although atavus predates regalis by several decades. In 1874 Cope named but did not describe Agathaumas milo for a sacral vertebra and shin fragments from the late Maastrichtian -age Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation of Colorado . [ 5 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Later that same year, he described these bones under the name Hadrosaurus occidentalis . [ 5 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] The bones are now lost. [ 38 ] As with Trachodon atavus , Agathaumas milo has been assigned without comment to Edmontosaurus regalis in two reviews, [ 7 ] [ 32 ] although predating regalis by several decades. Neither species has attracted much attention; both are absent from Lull and Wright's 1942 monograph, for example. A third obscure early species, Trachodon selwyni , described by Lawrence Lambe in 1902 for a lower jaw from what is now known as the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta , [ 40 ] was erroneously described by Glut (1997) as having been assigned to Edmontosaurus regalis by Lull and Wright. [ 5 ] It was not, instead being designated "of very doubtful validity." [ 41 ] More recent reviews of hadrosaurids have concurred. [ 7 ] [ 32 ] E. annectens paratype YPM 2182 at the Yale University Museum, the first nearly complete dinosaur skeleton mounted in the United States. [ 10 ] The first well-supported species of Edmontosaurus was named in 1892 as Claosaurus annectens by Othniel Charles Marsh . This species is based on USNM 2414, a partial skull-roof and skeleton, with a second skull and skeleton, YPM 2182, designated the paratype . Both were collected in 1891 by John Bell Hatcher from the late Maastrichtian-age Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Niobrara County (then part of Converse County ), Wyoming . [ 42 ] This species has some historical footnotes attached: it is among the first dinosaurs to receive a skeletal restoration, and is the first hadrosaurid so restored; [ 35 ] [ 43 ] and YPM 2182 and UNSM 2414 are, respectively, the first and second essentially complete mounted dinosaur skeletons in the United States. [ 10 ] YPM 2182 was put on display in 1901, [ 35 ] and USNM 2414 in 1904. [ 10 ] Because of the incomplete understanding of hadrosaurids at the time, following Marsh's death in 1897 Claosaurus annectens was variously classified as a species of Claosaurus , Thespesius or Trachodon . Opinions varied greatly; textbooks and encyclopedias drew a distinction between the " Iguanodon -like" Claosaurus annectens and the "duck-billed" Hadrosaurus (based on remains now known as adult Edmontosaurus annectens ), while Hatcher explicitly identified C. annectens as synonymous with the hadrosaurid represented by those same duck-billed skulls. [ 35 ] Hatcher's revision, published in 1902, was sweeping: he considered almost all hadrosaurid genera then known as synonyms of Trachodon . This included Cionodon , Diclonius , Hadrosaurus , Ornithotarsus , Pteropelyx , and Thespesius , as well as Claorhynchus and Polyonax , fragmentary genera now thought to be horned dinosaurs . [ 44 ] Hatcher's work led to a brief consensus, until after 1910 new material from Canada and Montana showed a greater diversity of hadrosaurids than previously suspected. [ 35 ] Charles W. Gilmore in 1915 reassessed hadrosaurids and recommended that Thespesius be reintroduced for hadrosaurids from the Lance Formation and rock units of equivalent age, and that Trachodon , based on inadequate material, should be restricted to a hadrosaurid from the older Judith River Formation and its equivalents. In regards to Claosaurus annectens , he recommended that it be considered the same as Thespesius occidentalis . [ 45 ] His reinstatement of Thespesius for Lance-age hadrosaurids would have other consequences for the taxonomy of Edmontosaurus in the following decades. During this time frame (1902–1915), two additional important specimens of C. annectens were recovered. The first, the "Trachodon mummy" (AMNH 5060), was discovered in 1908 by Charles Hazelius Sternberg and his sons in Lance Formation rocks near Lusk , Wyoming. Sternberg was working for the British Museum of Natural History , but Henry Fairfield Osborn of the American Museum of Natural History was able to purchase the specimen for $2,000. [ 46 ] The Sternbergs recovered a second similar specimen from the same area in 1910, [ 47 ] not as well preserved but also found with skin impressions. They sold this specimen (SM 4036) to the Senckenberg Museum in Germany . [ 46 ] [ edit ] Canadian discoveries The Horseshoe Canyon Formation near Drumheller . The dark bands are coal seams. Edmontosaurus itself was coined in 1917 by Lawrence Lambe for two partial skeletons found in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (formerly the lower Edmonton Formation) along the Red Deer River of southern Alberta, Canada. [ 48 ] These rocks are older than the rocks in which Claosaurus annectens was found. [ 8 ] The Edmonton Formation lends Edmontosaurus its name. [ 35 ] The type species , E. regalis ("regal," or, more loosely, "king-sized"), [ 35 ] is based on NMC 2288, consisting of a skull, articulated vertebrae up to the sixth tail vertebra, ribs, partial hips, an upper arm bone, and most of a hind limb. It was discovered in 1912 by Levi Sternberg. The second specimen, paratype NMC 2289, consists of a skull and skeleton lacking the beak, most of the tail, and part of the feet. It was discovered in 1916 by George F. Sternberg . Lambe found that his new dinosaur compared best to Diclonius mirabilis (specimens now assigned to Edmontosaurus annectens ), and drew attention to the size and robustness of Edmontosaurus . [ 48 ] Initially, Lambe only described the skulls of the two skeletons, but returned to the genus in 1920 to describe the skeleton of NMC 2289. [ 1 ] The postcrania of the type specimen remains undescribed, still in its plaster jackets. [ 5 ] Specimen CMNFV 8399, holotype of E. edmontoni , now thought to be a young E. regalis Two more species that would come to be included with Edmontosaurus were named from Canadian remains in the 1920s, but both would initially be assigned to Thespesius . Gilmore named the first, Thespesius edmontoni , in 1924. T. edmontoni also came from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation. It was based on NMC 8399, another nearly complete skeleton lacking most of the tail. NMC 8399 was discovered on the Red Deer River in 1912 by a Sternberg party. [ 2 ] Its forelimbs, ossified tendons, and skin impressions were briefly described in 1913 and 1914 by Lambe, who at first thought it was an example of a species he'd named Trachodon marginatus , [ 49 ] but then changed his mind. [ 50 ] The specimen became the first dinosaur skeleton to be mounted for exhibition in a Canadian museum. Gilmore found that his new species compared closely to what he called Thespesius annectens , but left the two apart because of details of the arms and hands. He also noted that his species had more vertebrae than Marsh's in the back and neck, but proposed that Marsh was mistaken in assuming that the annectens specimens were complete in those regions. [ 2 ] In 1926, Charles Mortram Sternberg named Thespesius saskatchewanensis for NMC 8509, a skull and partial skeleton from the Wood Mountain plateau of southern Saskatchewan . He had collected this specimen in 1921, from rocks that were assigned to the Lance Formation, [ 3 ] now the Frenchman Formation . [ 7 ] NMC 8509 included an almost complete skull, numerous vertebrae, partial shoulder and hip girdles, and partial hind limbs, representing the first substantial dinosaur specimen recovered from Saskatchewan. Sternberg opted to assign it to Thespesius because that was the only hadrosaurid genus known from the Lance Formation at the time. [ 3 ] At the time, T. saskatchewanensis was unusual because of its small size, estimated at 7 to 7.3 meters (23 to 24.0 ft) in length. [ 13 ] [ edit ] Anatosaurus to the present In 1942, Lull and Wright attempted to resolve the complicated taxonomy of crestless hadrosaurids by naming a new genus, Anatosaurus , to take in several species that did not fit well under their previous genera. Anatosaurus , meaning "duck lizard", because of its wide, duck-like beak ( Latin anas = duck + Greek sauros = lizard), had as its type species Marsh's old Claosaurus annectens . Also assigned to this genus were Thespesius edmontoni , T. saskatchewanensis , a large lower jaw that Marsh had named Trachodon longiceps in 1890, and a new species, Anatosaurus copei , for two skeletons on display at the American Museum of Natural History that had long been known as Diclonius mirabilis (or variations thereof). Thus, the various species became Anatosaurus annectens , A. copei , A. edmontoni , A. longiceps , and A. saskatchewanensis . [ 13 ] Anatosaurus would come to be called the "classic duck-billed dinosaur." [ 51 ] Skin impression of the specimen nicknamed "Dakota", which was found in 1999 This state of affairs persisted for several decades, until Michael K. Brett-Surman reexamined the pertinent material for his graduate studies in the 1970s and 1980s. He concluded that the type species of Anatosaurus , A. annectens , was actually a species of Edmontosaurus and that A. copei was different enough to warrant its own genus. [ 33 ] [ 52 ] [ 53 ] Although theses and dissertations are not regarded as official publications by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature , which regulates the naming of organisms, his conclusions were known to other paleontologists, and were adopted by several popular works of the time. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] Brett-Surman and Ralph Chapman designated a new genus for A. copei ( Anatotitan ) in 1990. [ 56 ] Of the remaining species, A. saskatchewanensis and A. edmontoni were assigned to Edmontosaurus as well, [ 32 ] and A. longiceps went to Anatotitan , as either a second species [ 57 ] or as a synonym of A. copei . [ 32 ] Because the type species of Anatosaurus ( A. annectens ) was sunk into Edmontosaurus , the name Anatosaurus is abandoned as a junior synonym of Edmontosaurus . The conception of Edmontosaurus that emerged included three valid species: the type E. regalis , E. annectens (including Anatosaurus edmontoni , emended to edmontonensis ), and E. saskatchewanensis . [ 32 ] The debate about the proper taxonomy of the A. copei specimens continues to the present: returning to Hatcher's argument of 1902, Jack Horner, David B. Weishampel , and Catherine Forster regarded Anatotitan copei as representing specimens of Edmontosaurus annectens with crushed skulls. [ 7 ] In 2007 another "mummy" was announced; nicknamed " Dakota ", it was discovered in 1999 by Tyler Lyson , and came from the Hell Creek Formation of North Dakota . [ 23 ] [ 24 ] In a 2011 study by Nicolás Campione and David Evans, the authors conducted the first ever morphometric analysis to compare the various specimens assigned to Edmontosaurus . They concluded that only two species are valid: E. regalis , from the late Campanian, and E. annectens , from the late Maastrichtian. Their study provided further evidence that Anatotitan copei is a synonym of E. annectens ; specifically, that the long, low skull of A. copei is the result of ontogenetic change and represent mature E. annectens individuals. [ 8 ] [ edit ] Species and distribution Compilation of virtually all known complete Edmontosaurus skulls Edmontosaurus is currently regarded as having two valid species: type species E. regalis , and E. annectens . [ 7 ] [ 8 ] E. regalis is known only from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta, dating from the late Campanian stage of the late Cretaceous period. At least a dozen individuals are known, [ 8 ] including seven skulls with associated postcrania, and five to seven other skulls. [ 7 ] [ 32 ] The species formerly known as Thespesius edmontoni or Anatosaurus edmontoni represents immature individuals. [ 8 ] [ 15 ] [ 58 ] Trachodon atavus and Agathaumas milo are potential synonyms. [ 7 ] [ 32 ] E. annectens is known from the Frenchman Formation of Saskatchewan, the Hell Creek Formation of Montana, and the Lance Formation of South Dakota and Wyoming. It is limited to late Maastrichtian rocks, and is represented by at least twenty skulls, some with postcranial remains. [ 8 ] One author, Kraig Derstler, has described E. annectens as "perhaps the most perfectly-known dinosaur to date [1994]." [ 59 ] Anatosaurus copei and E. saskatchewanensis are now thought to be growth stages of E. annectens : A. copei as adults, and E. saskatchewanensis as juveniles. [ 8 ] Trachodon longiceps may be a synonym of E. annectens as well. [ 7 ] Anatosaurus edmontoni has sometimes been assigned to E. annectens , [ 7 ] [ 32 ] but this does not appear to be the case. [ 8 ] [ 58 ] E. annectens differed from E. regalis by having a longer, lower, less robust skull. [ 5 ] [ 8 ] Although Brett-Surman regarded E. regalis and E. annectens as potentially representing males and females of the same species, [ 33 ] all E. regalis specimens come from older formations than E. annectens specimens. [ 58 ] Additionally, there are many Edmontosaurus fossils that have not been identified to species. Remains that have not been assigned to a particular species (identified as E. sp.) may extend the range of the genus as far as the Prince Creek Formation of Alaska [ 60 ] and the Javelina Formation of Texas . [ 61 ] [ edit ] Paleoecology Edmontosaurus was a wide-ranging genus in both time and space. The rock units from which it is known can be divided into two groups by age: the older Horseshoe Canyon and St. Mary River formations, and the younger Frenchman, Hell Creek, and Lance formations. The time span covered by the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and equivalents is also known as Edmontonian, and the time span covered by the younger units is also known as Lancian. The Edmontonian and Lancian time intervals had distinct dinosaur faunas. [ 62 ] [ edit ] Edmontonian paleoecology The Edmontonian land vertebrate age is defined by the first appearance of Edmontosaurus regalis in the fossil record. [ 63 ] Although sometimes reported as of exclusively early Maastrichtian age, [ 61 ] the Horseshoe Canyon Formation was of somewhat longer duration. Deposition began approximately 73 million years ago, in the late Campanian , and ended between 68.0 and 67.6 million years ago. [ 64 ] Edmontosaurus regalis is known from the lowest of five units within the Horseshoe Canyon Formation, but is absent from at least the second to the top. [ 65 ] As many as three quarters of the dinosaur specimens from badlands near Drumheller , Alberta may pertain to Edmontosaurus . [ 66 ] The Horseshoe Canyon Formation is interpreted as having a significant marine influence, due to an encroaching Western Interior Seaway , the shallow sea that covered the midsection of North America through much of the Cretaceous . [ 62 ] E. regalis shared the setting with fellow hadrosaurids Hypacrosaurus and Saurolophus , hypsilophodont Parksosaurus , horned dinosaurs Montanoceratops , Anchiceratops , Arrhinoceratops , and Pachyrhinosaurus , pachycephalosaurid Stegoceras , ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus , nodosaurid Edmontonia , ostrich-mimics Ornithomimus and Struthiomimus , a variety of poorly known small theropods including troodontids and dromaeosaurids , and the tyrannosaurids Albertosaurus and Daspletosaurus . [ 61 ] Edmontosaurus is found in coastal, near-marine settings, while Hypacrosaurus and Saurolophus are found in more continental lowlands. [ 67 ] Edmontosaurus and Saurolophus are not usually found together. [ 68 ] The typical edmontosaur habitat of this formation has been described as the back regions of bald cypress swamps and peat bogs on delta coasts. Pachyrhinosaurus also preferred this habitat to the floodplains dominated by Hypacrosaurus , Saurolophus , Anchiceratops and Arrhinoceratops . [ 66 ] The Edmontonian-age coastal Pachyrhinosaurus - Edmontosaurus association is recognized as far north as Alaska. [ 69 ] [ edit ] Lancian paleoecology The Lancian time interval was the last interval before the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event that eliminated non- avian dinosaurs. Edmontosaurus was one of the more common dinosaurs of the interval. Robert Bakker reports that it made up one-seventh of the large dinosaur sample, with most of the rest (five-sixths) made up of the horned dinosaur Triceratops . [ 70 ] The coastal plain Triceratops – Edmontosaurus association, dominated by Triceratops , extended from Colorado to Saskatchewan. [ 69 ] Typical dinosaur faunas of the Lancian formations where Edmontosaurus annectens has been found also included the hypsilophodont Thescelosaurus , the rare ceratopsid Torosaurus , the pachycephalosaurid Pachycephalosaurus , the ankylosaurid Ankylosaurus , and the theropods Ornithomimus , Troodon , and Tyrannosaurus . [ 61 ] [ 71 ] The Hell Creek Formation is well exposed in the badlands in the vicinity of Fort Peck Reservoir. The Hell Creek Formation, as typified by exposures in the Fort Peck area of Montana, has been interpreted as a flat forested floodplain, with a relatively dry subtropical climate that supported a variety of plants ranging from angiosperm trees , to conifers such as bald cypress, to ferns and ginkgos . The coastline was hundreds of kilometers or miles to the east. Stream-dwelling turtles and tree-dwelling multituberculate mammals were diverse, and monitor lizards as large as the modern Komodo dragon hunted on the ground. Triceratops was the most abundant large dinosaur, and Thescelosaurus the most abundant small herbivorous dinosaur. Edmontosaur remains have been collected here from stream channel sands, and include fossils from individuals as young as a meter- or yard-long infant. The edmontosaur fossils probably represent accumulations from groups on the move. [ 72 ] The Lance Formation, as typified by exposures approximately 100 kilometers (62 mi) north of Fort Laramie in eastern Wyoming, has been interpreted as a bayou setting similar to the Louisiana coastal plain. It was closer to a large delta than the Hell Creek Formation depositional setting to the north and received much more sediment. Tropical araucarian conifers and palm trees dotted the hardwood forests, differentiating the flora from the northern coastal plain. [ 73 ] The climate was humid and subtropical, with conifers, palmettos , and ferns in the swamps, and conifers, ash , live oak , and shrubs in the forests. [ 59 ] Freshwater fish, salamanders, turtles, diverse lizards, snakes, shorebirds, and small mammals lived alongside the dinosaurs. Small dinosaurs are not known in as great of abundance here as in the Hell Creek rocks, but Thescelosaurus once again seems to have been relatively common. Triceratops is known from many skulls, which tend to be somewhat smaller than those of more northern individuals. The Lance Formation is the setting of two edmontosaur "mummies". [ 73 ] [ edit ] Paleobiology [ edit ] Growth In a 2011 study, Campione and Evans recorded data from all known "edmontosaur" skulls from the Campanian and Maastrichtian and used it to plot a morphometric graph, comparing variable features of the skull with skull size. Their results showed that within both recognized Edmontosaurus species, many features previously used to classify additional species or genera were directly correlated with skull size. Campione and Evans interpreted these results as strongly suggesting that the shape of Edmontosaurus skulls changed dramatically as they grew. This has led to several apparent mistakes in classification in the past. The Campanian species Thespesius edmontoni , previously considered a synonym of E. annectens due to its small size and skull shape, is morel likely a subadult specimen of the contemporary E. regalis . Similarly, the three previously recognized Maastrichtian edmontosaur species likely represent growth stages of a single species, with E. saskatchewanensis representing juveniles, E. annectens subadults, and Anatotian copei fully mature adults. The skulls became longer and flatter as the animals grew. [ 8 ] [ edit ] Brain and nervous system A 1905 chart showing the relatively small brains of a Triceratops (top) and Edmontosaurus The brain of Edmontosaurus has been described in several papers and abstracts through the use of endocasts of the cavity where the brain had been. E. annectens [ 74 ] [ 75 ] and E. regalis , [ 1 ] as well as specimens not identified to species, [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ] have been studied in this way. The brain was not particularly large for an animal the size of Edmontosaurus . The space holding it was only about a quarter of the length of the skull, [ 1 ] and various endocasts have been measured as displacing 374 milliliters (13 US fl oz) [ 78 ] to 450 milliliters (15 US fl oz), [ 77 ] which does not take into account that the brain may have occupied as little as 50% of the space of the endocast, the rest of the space being taken up by the dura mater surrounding the brain. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] For example, the brain of the specimen with the 374 millilitre endocast is estimated to have had a volume of 268 milliliters (9 US fl oz). [ 78 ] The brain was an elongate structure, [ 77 ] and as with other non-mammals, there would have been no neocortex . [ 78 ] Like Stegosaurus , the neural canal was expanded in the hips, but not to the same degree: the endosacral space of Stegosaurus had 20 times the volume of its endocranial cast, whereas the endosacral space of Edmontosaurus was only 2.59 times larger in volume. [ 77 ] [ edit ] Diet See also: Hadrosaur diet [ edit ] Feeding adaptations As a hadrosaurid, Edmontosaurus was a large terrestrial herbivore . Its teeth were continually replaced and packed into dental batteries that contained hundreds of teeth, only a relative handful of which were in use at any time. [ 7 ] It used its broad beak to cut loose food, perhaps by cropping, [ 7 ] or by closing the jaws in a clamshell-like manner over twigs and branches and then stripping off the more nutritious leaves and shoots. [ 18 ] Because the tooth rows are deeply indented from the outside of the jaws, and because of other anatomical details, it is inferred that Edmontosaurus and most other ornithischians had cheek-like structures, muscular or non-muscular. The function of the cheeks was to retain food in the mouth. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] The animal's feeding range would have been from ground level to around 4 meters (13 ft) above. [ 7 ] Before the 1960s and 1970s, the prevailing interpretation of hadrosaurids like Edmontosaurus was that they were aquatic and fed on aquatic plants. [ 81 ] An example of this is William Morris's 1970 interpretation of an edmontosaur skull with nonbony beak remnants. He proposed that the animal had a diet much like that of some modern ducks, filtering plants and aquatic invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans from the water and discharging water via V-shaped furrows along the inner face of the upper beak. [ 11 ] This interpretation of the beak has been rejected, as the furrows and ridges are more like those of herbivorous turtle beaks than the flexible structures seen in filter-feeding birds. [ 81 ] Skull of Edmontosaurus , showing duck-bill and dentition – Oxford University Museum of Natural History The prevailing model of how hadrosaurids fed was put forward in 1984 by David B. Weishampel. He proposed that the structure of the skull permitted motion between bones that led to backward and forward motion of the lower jaw, and outward bowing of the tooth-bearing bones of the upper jaw when the mouth was closed. The teeth of the upper jaw would grind against the teeth of the lower jaw like rasps , processing plant material trapped between them. [ 7 ] [ 82 ] Such a motion would parallel the effects of mastication in mammals, although accomplishing the effects in a completely different way. [ 83 ] An important piece of evidence for Weishampel's model is the orientation of scratches on the teeth, showing the direction of jaw action. Other movements could produce similar scratches, though, such as movement of the bones of the two halves of the lower jaw. Not all models have been scrutinized under present techniques. [ 84 ] Weishampel developed his model with the aid of a computer simulation. Natalia Rybczynski and colleagues have updated this work with a much more sophisticated three-dimensional animation model, scanning a skull of E. regalis with lasers. They were able to replicate the proposed motion with their model, although they found that additional secondary movements between other bones were required, with maximum separations of 1.3 to 1.4 centimeters (0.51 to 0.55 in) between some bones during the chewing cycle. Rybczynski and colleagues were not convinced that the Weishampel model is viable, but noted that they have several improvements to implement to their animation. Planned improvements include incorporating soft tissue and tooth wear marks and scratches, which should better constrain movements. They note that there are several other hypotheses to test as well. [ 83 ] Further work by Casey Holliday and Lawrence Witmer found that ornithopods like Edmontosaurus lacked the types of skull joints seen in those modern animals that are known to have kinetic skulls (skulls that permit motion between their constituent bones), such as squamates and birds. They proposed that joints that had been interpreted as permitting movement in dinosaur skulls were actually cartilaginous growth zones. [ 84 ] The immobile skull model was challenged in 2009 by Vincent Williams and colleagues. Returning to tooth microwear, they found four classes of scratches on Edmontosaurus teeth. The most common class was interpreted as resulting from an oblique motion, not a simple up-down or front-back motion, which is more consistent with the Weishampel model. This motion is thought to have been the primary motion for grinding food. Two scratch classes were interpreted as resulting from forward or backward movement of the jaws. The other class was variable and probably resulted from opening the jaws. The combination of movements is more complex than had been previously predicted. Because scratches dominate the microwear texture, Williams et al. suggested Edmontosaurus was a grazer instead of a browser , which would be predicted to have fewer scratches due to eating less abrasive materials. Candidates for ingested abrasives include silica -rich plants like horsetails and soil that was accidentally ingested due to feeding at ground level. [ 85 ] Reports of gastroliths , or stomach stones, in the hadrosaurid Claosaurus are actually based on a probable double misidentification. First, the specimen is actually of Edmontosaurus annectens . Barnum Brown , who discovered the specimen in 1900, referred to it as Claosaurus because E. annectens was thought to be a species of Claosaurus at the time. Additionally, it is more likely that the supposed gastroliths represent gravel washed in during burial. [ 35 ] [ edit ] Gut contents Possible gut contents were reported from the "Trachodon mummy" at the American Museum of Natural History, but were never described. Both of the "mummy" specimens collected by the Sternbergs were reported to have had possible gut contents. Charles H. Sternberg reported the presence of carbonized gut contents in the American Museum of Natural History specimen, [ 86 ] but this material has not been described. [ 87 ] The plant remains in the Senckenberg Museum specimen have been described, but have proven difficult to interpret. The plants found in the carcass included needles of the conifer Cunninghamites elegans , twigs from conifer and broadleaf trees, and numerous small seeds or fruits. [ 88 ] Upon their description in 1922, they were the subject of a debate in the German-language journal Paläontologische Zeitschrift . Kräusel, who described the material, interpreted it as the gut contents of the animal, [ 88 ] while Abel could not rule out that the plants had been washed into the carcass after death. [ 89 ] The Senckenberg Museum specimen At the time, hadrosaurids were thought to have been aquatic animals, and Kräusel made a point of stating that the specimen did not rule out hadrosaurids eating water plants. [ 18 ] [ 88 ] The discovery of possible gut contents made little impact in English-speaking circles, except for another brief mention of the aquatic-terrestrial dichotomy, [ 90 ] until it was brought up by John Ostrom in the course of an article reassessing the old interpretation of hadrosaurids as water-bound. Instead of trying to adapt the discovery to the aquatic model, he used it as a line of evidence that hadrosaurids were terrestrial herbivores. [ 18 ] While his interpretation of hadrosaurids as terrestrial animals has been generally accepted, [ 7 ] the Senckenberg plant fossils remain equivocal. Kenneth Carpenter has suggested that they may actually represent the gut contents of a starving animal, instead of a typical diet. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Other authors have noted that because the plant fossils were removed from their original context in the specimen and were heavily prepared, it is no longer possible to follow up on the original work, leaving open the possibility that the plants were washed-in debris. [ 87 ] [ 91 ] [ edit ] Isotopic studies The diet and physiology of Edmontosaurus have been probed by using stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen as recorded in tooth enamel . When feeding, drinking, and breathing, animals take in carbon and oxygen, which become incorporated into bone. The isotopes of these two elements are determined by various internal and external factors, such as the type of plants being eaten, the physiology of the animal, salinity , and climate. If isotope ratios in fossils are not altered by fossilization and later changes , they can be studied for information about the original factors; warmblooded animals will have certain isotopic compositions compared to their surroundings, animals that eat certain types of plants or use certain digestive processes will have distinct isotopic compositions, and so on. Enamel is typically used because the structure of the mineral that forms enamel makes it the most resistant material to chemical change in the skeleton. [ 17 ] A 2004 study by Kathryn Thomas and Sandra Carlson used teeth from the upper jaw of three individuals interpreted as a juvenile, a subadult, and an adult, recovered from a bone bed in the Hell Creek Formation of Corson County , South Dakota. In this study, successive teeth in columns in the edmontosaurs' dental batteries were sampled from multiple locations along each tooth using a microdrilling system. This sampling method takes advantage of the organization of hadrosaurid dental batteries to find variation in tooth isotopes over a period of time. From their work, it appears that edmontosaur teeth took less than about 0.65 years to form, slightly faster in younger edmontosaurs. The teeth of all three individuals appeared to show variation in oxygen isotope ratios that could correspond to warm/dry and cool/wet periods; Thomas and Carlson considered the possibility that the animals were migrating instead, but favored local seasonal variations because migration would have more likely led to ratio homogenization, as many animals migrate to stay within specific temperature ranges or near particular food sources. [ 17 ] The edmontosaurs also showed enriched carbon isotope values, which for modern mammals would be interpreted as a mixed diet of C3 plants (most plants) and C4 plants (grasses); however, C4 plants were extremely rare in the Late Cretaceous if present at all. Thomas and Carlson put forward several factors that may have been operating, and found the most likely to include a diet heavy in gymnosperms , consuming salt-stressed plants from coastal areas adjacent to the Western Interior Seaway , and a physiological difference between dinosaurs and mammals that caused dinosaurs to form tissue with different carbon ratios than would be expected for mammals. A combination of factors is also possible. [ 17 ] [ edit ] Pathologies and health In 2003, evidence of tumors , including hemangiomas , desmoplastic fibroma , metastatic cancer , and osteoblastoma , was described in Edmontosaurus bones. Rothschild et al. tested dinosaur vertebrae for tumors using computerized tomography and fluoroscope screening. Several other hadrosaurids, including Brachylophosaurus , Gilmoreosaurus , and Bactrosaurus , also tested positive. Although more than 10,000 fossils were examined in this manner, the tumors were limited to Edmontosaurus and closely related genera. The tumors may have been caused by environmental factors or genetic propensity . [ 92 ] Osteochondrosis , or surficial pits in bone at places where bones articulate, is also known in Edmontosaurus . This condition, resulting from cartilage failing to be replaced by bone during growth, was found to be present in 2.2% of 224 edmontosaur toe bones. The underlying cause of the condition is unknown. Genetic predisposition, trauma, feeding intensity, alterations in blood supply, excess thyroid hormones , and deficiencies in various growth factors have been suggested. Among dinosaurs, osteochondrosis (like tumors) is most commonly found in hadrosaurids. [ 93 ] [ edit ] Locomotion Life restoration of an E. regalis in a quadrupedal pose Like other hadrosaurids, Edmontosaurus is thought to have been a facultative biped , meaning that it mostly moved on four legs, but could adopt a bipedal stance when needed. It probably went on all fours when standing still or moving slowly, and switched to using the hind legs alone when moving more rapidly. [ 7 ] Research conducted by computer modeling in 2007 suggests that Edmontosaurus could run at high speeds, perhaps up to 45 kilometers per hour (28 mph). [ 23 ] Further simulations using a subadult specimen estimated as weighing 715 kilograms (1,580 lb) when alive produced a model that could run or hop bipedally, use a trot , pace , or single foot symmetric quadrupedal gait, or move at a gallop . The researchers found to their surprise that the fastest gait was kangaroo -like hopping (maximum simulated speed of 17.3 meters per second (62 km/h; 39 mph)), which they regarded as unlikely based on the size of the animal and lack of hopping footprints in the fossil record, and instead interpreted the result as indicative of an inaccuracy in their simulation. The fastest non-hopping gaits were galloping (maximum simulated speed of 15.7 meters per second (57 km/h; 35 mph)) and running bipedally (maximum simulated speed of 14.0 meters per second (50 km/h; 31 mph)). They found weak support for bipedal running as the most likely option for high-speed movement, but did not rule out high-speed quadrupedal movement. [ 94 ] While long thought to have been aquatic or semiaquatic, hadrosaurids were not as well-suited for swimming as other dinosaurs (particularly theropods, who were once thought to have been unable to pursue hadrosaurids into water). Hadrosaurids had slim hands with short fingers, making their forelimbs ineffective for propulsion, and the tail was also not useful for propulsion because of the ossified tendons that increased its rigidity, and the poorly developed attachment points for muscles that would have moved the tail from side to side. [ 28 ] [ 95 ] [ edit ] Interactions with theropods The damage to the tail vertebrae of this Edmontosaurus skeleton (on display at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science) indicates that it may have been bitten by a Tyrannosaurus . The time span and geographic range of Edmontosaurus overlapped with Tyrannosaurus , and an adult specimen of E. annectens on display in the Denver Museum of Nature and Science shows evidence of a theropod bite in the tail. Counting back from the hip, the thirteenth to seventeenth vertebrae have damaged spines consistent with an attack from the right rear of the animal. One spine has a portion sheared away, and the others are kinked; three have apparent tooth puncture marks. The top of the tail was at least 2.9 meters (9.5 ft) high, and the only theropod species known from the same rock formation that was tall enough to make such an attack is T. rex . The bones are partially healed, but the edmontosaur died before the traces of damage were completely obliterated. The damage also shows signs of bone infection. Kenneth Carpenter, who studied the specimen, noted that there also seems to be a healed fracture in the left hip which predated the attack because it was more fully healed. He suggested that the edmontosaur was a target because it may have been limping from this earlier injury. Because it survived the attack, Carpenter suggested that it may have outmaneuvered or outran its attacker, or that the damage to its tail was incurred by the hadrosaurid using it as a weapon against the tyrannosaur. [ 96 ] Another specimen of E. annectens , pertaining to a 7.6 meters (25 ft) long individual from South Dakota, shows evidence of tooth marks from small theropods on its lower jaws. Some of the marks are partially healed. Michael Triebold, informally reporting on the specimen, suggested a scenario where small theropods attacked the throat of the edmontosaur; the animal survived the initial attack but succumbed to its injuries shortly thereafter. [ 97 ] Some edmontosaur bone beds were sites of scavenging. Albertosaurus and Saurornitholestes tooth marks are common at one Alberta bone bed, [ 98 ] and Daspletosaurus fed on Edmontosaurus and fellow hadrosaurid Saurolophus at another Alberta site. [ 68 ] [ edit ] Social behavior Extensive bone beds are known for Edmontosaurus , and such groupings of hadrosaurids are used to suggest that they were gregarious, living in groups. [ 7 ] Four quarries containing edmontosaur remains are identified in a 2007 database of fossil bone beds, from Alaska (Prince Creek Formation), Alberta (Horseshoe Canyon Formation), South Dakota (Hell Creek Formation), and Wyoming (Lance Formation). [ 60 ] One edmontosaur bone bed, from claystone and mudstone of the Lance Formation in eastern Wyoming, covers more than a square kilometer, although Edmontosaurus bones are most concentrated in a 40 hectares (0.15 sq mi) subsection of this site. It is estimated that disassociated remains pertaining to 10,000 to 25,000 edmontosaurs are present here. [ 99 ] Unlike many other hadrosaurids, Edmontosaurus lacked a bony crest. It may have had soft-tissue display structures in the skull, though: the bones around the nasal openings had deep indentations surrounding the openings, and this pair of recesses are postulated to have held inflatable air sacs, perhaps allowing for both visual and auditory signaling. [ 15 ] Edmontosaurus may have been dimorphic , with more robust and more lightly built forms, but it has not been established if this is related to sexual dimorphism . [ 100 ] Because of its wide distribution, which covers a distance from Alaska to Colorado and includes polar settings that would have had little light during a significant part of the year, Edmontosaurus has been considered possibly migratory. A 2008 review of dinosaur migration studies by Phil R. Bell and Eric Snively proposed that E. regalis was capable of an annual 2,600 kilometers (1,600 mi) round-trip journey, provided it had the requisite metabolism and fat deposition rates. Such a trip would have required speeds of about 2 to 10 kilometers per hour (1 to 6 mph), and could have brought it from Alaska to Alberta. The possible migratory nature of Edmontosaurus contrasts with many other dinosaurs, such as theropods , sauropods , and ankylosaurians , which Bell and Snively found were more likely to have overwintered . [ 101 ] [ 102 ] In contrast to Bell and Snively, Anusuya Chinsamy and colleagues concluded from a study of bone microstructure that polar Edmontosaurus overwintered. 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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Battle of Musa Qala Part of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) Date 7–12 December 2007 Location Musa Qala , Helmand province , Afghanistan Result Coalition victory; Taliban retreat. Belligerents International Security Assistance Force : United Kingdom United States Denmark Estonia Afghan National Army Taliban insurgents Commanders and leaders Andrew Mackay Mahayadin Ghori Various Strength 4,500 ISAF and Afghan National Army forces. [ 1 ] 2,000 (Taliban claim). [ 1 ] 300 (ISAF claim). [ 2 ] Casualties and losses 2 soldiers killed, minimum 9 soldiers wounded (UK: 1 killed, 2 wounded; [ 3 ] US: 1 killed, [ 4 ] 7 wounded [ 5 ] ) . Uncertain: Less than 100 total (ISAF claim). [ 6 ] Hundreds killed, wounded and detained (Afghan Defence Ministry claim). [ 7 ] 2–40 civilians killed. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] v t e Helmand Province Campaign Lejay Eagle Fury Lashkar Gah Mountain Thrust Sangin Mountain Fury Now Zad Achilles Musa Qala I Volcano Kryptonite Silver Pickaxe-Handle Hammer Nasrat Musa Qala II Garmsir Eagle's Summit Red Dagger Shahi Tandar Diesel Mar Lewe Panther's Claw Strike of the Sword Dahaneh Cobra's Anger Moshtarak Tor Shezada v t e War in Afghanistan (2001–present) Timeline 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Battles and operations v t e Invasion Crescent Wind Rhino Mazari Sharif Kunduz Herat Kabul Tawin Kowt Shawali Kowt Sayyd Alma Kalay Qala-i-Jangi Kandahar Tora Bora v t e Helmand Province Campaign Lejay Eagle Fury Lashkar Gah Mountain Thrust Sangin Mountain Fury Now Zad Achilles Musa Qala I Volcano Kryptonite Silver Pickaxe-Handle Hammer Nasrat Musa Qala II Garmsir Eagle's Summit Red Dagger Shahi Tandar Diesel Mar Lewe Panther's Claw Strike of the Sword Dahaneh Cobra's Anger Moshtarak Tor Shezada v t e Kandahar Province Medusa Avalanche Kaika Panjwaii Falcon Summit Hoover Luger Kamin Shah Wali Kot 1st Kandahar Spin Boldak Sarposa Prison Arghandab Wech Baghtu 2nd Kandahar Nadahan wedding bombing Hamkari Dragon Strike Baawar Kandahar v t e Eastern Afghanistan Anaconda ( Takur Ghar ) Warrior Sweep Jacana Haven Denial Mountain Resolve Tar Heels Korangal valley ( Red Wings ) Afghanya Ebrahimkhel Jaji border incident Nangar Khel South Korean hostages Wanat Alasay Kamdesh Narang Khataba Bad Pakh Bulldog Bite Do Ab v t e Kabul Province 1st Kabul Hotel Serena 1st Indian Embassy Uzbin Feb 2009 Kabul raid 2nd Indian Embassy Bakhtar guest house NATO headquarters Jan 2010 Kabul raid Feb 2010 Kabul raid May 2010 Kabul bombing NATO convoy v t e Kunduz Province Campaign Kunduz airstrike Oqab Sahda Ehlm Gala-e Gorg Harekate Yolo Karez Mountain Viper Asbury Park Perth Chora Firebase Anaconda Shewan Balamorghab Derapet Doan Airstrikes Azizabad airstrike Baraki Barak airstrike Deh Bala Gora Prai Granai Hyderabad Kapisa airstrike Kunar Raid Kunduz airstrike Mano Gai airstrike Sayyd Alma Kalay Sangin Uruzgan Wech Baghtu attack Insurgent attacks Ashura Bagram Air Base Baghlan Camp Chapman Massacres Dasht-i-Leili Massacre Kandahar massacre Khataba Raid Maywand District murders Nangar Massacre Narang Raid Shinwar shooting Other 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests Video of US troops urinating on dead Taliban fighters The Battle of Musa Qala (also Qaleh or Qal'eh ) [ 10 ] was a military action in Helmand Province , southern Afghanistan , launched by the Afghan National Army and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) against the Taliban on 7 December 2007. [ 1 ] After three days of intense fighting, the Taliban retreated into the mountains on 10 December. [ 11 ] Musa Qala was officially reported captured on 12 December, with Afghan Army troops pushing into the town centre. [ 12 ] The operation was codenamed snakepit ( Pashto : Mar Kardad ). [ 1 ] Senior ISAF officers, including U.S. general Dan K. McNeill , the overall ISAF commander, agreed to the assault on 17 November 2007. [ 13 ] It followed more than nine months of Taliban occupation of the town, the largest the insurgents controlled at the time of the battle. ISAF forces had previously occupied the town, until a controversial withdrawal in late 2006. It was the first battle in the War in Afghanistan in which Afghan army units were the principal fighting force. Statements from the British Ministry of Defence (MOD) emphasised that the operation was Afghan-led, [ 14 ] although the ability of Afghan units to function without NATO control was questioned during the battle. [ 3 ] Military engagement over Musa Qala is part of a wider conflict between coalition forces and the Taliban in Helmand. Both before and after the battle, related fighting was reported across a larger area, particularly in Sangin district to the south of Musa Qala. Contents 1 Background 2 Battle 2.1 Immediate prelude 2.2 Main assault 2.3 Taliban retreat 3 Relevance to larger campaign 4 Aftermath 5 Taliban commanders 6 References 7 External links [ edit ] Background Musa Qala is a town of around 15,000 to 20,000 people, [ 15 ] [ 16 ] with another 25,000 in the surrounding area. [ 16 ] ISAF forces were first deployed in the town in mid-June 2006, as part of the "platoon house" strategy. This consisted of protecting the district centres of Northern Helmand with small detachments of British ISAF troops, at the request of the provincial governor Mohammed Daoud . This move met with an unexpectedly fierce resistance from the Taliban and local tribesmen, who used conventional, rather than asymmetric tactics, to drive the coalition from their positions. [ 17 ] The isolated British garrison found itself under siege and constant attack for long periods, and their replacements could only be brought in after a full battle group operation, codenamed Snakebite, broke through Taliban lines in early August. [ 18 ] The fighting ended in October 2006 when, in a controversial move, control was ceded to local tribal elders. [ 19 ] The deal was intended to see neither British nor Taliban forces in the town in an effort to reduce conflict and civilian casualties. At the time, a British officer commented: "There is an obvious danger that the Taliban could make the deal and then renege on it." [ 20 ] The Taliban did renege on the agreement, quickly over-running the town with 200 to 300 troops in February 2007. The Taliban seizure followed a US airstrike that incensed militants; a Taliban commander's brother and 20 followers were killed in the attack. A confluence of tribal politics, religion, and money from the opium trade helped ensure the uneasy truce would not hold. [ 21 ] At the time, the government claimed they could retake the town within 24 hours, but that plan had been postponed to avoid causing civilian casualties. [ 22 ] Musa Qala was the only significant town held by the Taliban at the time of the assault, and they had imposed a strict rule on its inhabitants. Special tribunals were set up, pronouncing sentences of stoning, amputation, or death by hanging against those who were considered enemies, or who contravened a strict interpretation of the Sharia . Four men are known to have been hanged as spies during this period. The Taliban also levied heavy taxes, closed down schools, and drafted local men into their ranks by force. [ 22 ] Other deprivations were reminiscent of previous Taliban rule : men attacked for not wearing beards; music banned and recordings smashed; women punished for not wearing the burqa . [ 23 ] The town is situated in a major opium poppy growing area and a BBC correspondent has reported it to be the centre of the heroin trade in Afghanistan. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ edit ] Battle Musa Qaleh, Helmand Province plus surrounding Provinces and some towns. [ edit ] Immediate prelude Coalition military manoeuvres and a build-up of troops and supplies continued for weeks before the assault. [ 26 ] On 1 November, British forces started reconnaissance patrols in preparation for the attack. [ 27 ] In the middle of that month, the MOD reported that troops from 40 Commando Royal Marines and the Right Flank Company of the Scots Guards were patrolling outside the town to confuse the Taliban insurgents and disrupt their supply routes. [ 28 ] In the days before the assault, reconnaissance patrols penetrated as close as a 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the Musa Qala town centre. Hundreds of families were reported to have fled from the pending assault, after the coalition dropped leaflets in warning. [ 27 ] Furthermore, the coalition secured the defection of a critical tribal leader, Mullah Abdul Salaam , who had been governor of Uruzgan province under Taliban rule. [ 3 ] A leader of the Alizai tribe , Salaam was reported to be in negotiation with the coalition as early as October 2007, causing a rift within the Taliban. [ 29 ] His defection was personally sought by Afghan president Hamid Karzai and he brought as many as one third of the Taliban forces defending Musa Qala to the coalition side. However, it is unclear if they fought on the side of the ISAF or simply stayed out of the fight. [ 3 ] Prior to the battle, two thousand militants were reported to be holding the town. [ 1 ] A similar claim of 2,050 "fully armed fighters" was made in late November by Enqiadi, a taliban commander. At the time, Enqiadi seemed confident that the whole of Helmand province would fall to the Taliban in the winter of 2007–08. [ 30 ] Subsequent estimates reduced numbers of Taliban fighters, with an ISAF officer suggesting that the maximum strength was closer to two to three hundred. [ 6 ] [ edit ] Main assault Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan: Members of the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment prepare for air assault on Musa Qala. The main assault on Musa Qala began at 4 pm on 7 December. [ 15 ] Several Taliban were reportedly killed in US airstrikes as the attack began. [ 31 ] That evening some 600 American soldiers from the 82nd Airborne Division [ 13 ] were airlifted to the north of the town in 19 helicopters. [ 1 ] Chinook and Blackhawk troop carriers escorted by Apache attack helicopters were involved in the assault. [ 13 ] During the night the paratroopers broke through Taliban trenches to clear the way for further ground troops and then dug defensive positions. [ 1 ] [ 32 ] During the attack, an Apache was hit by ground fire and had one engine knocked out but the pilot, CW2 Thomas O. Malone, managed to land safely despite being injured. [ 5 ] More than 2,000 British troops of the Helmand Task Force (then under the direction of 52nd Infantry Brigade ), including Scots Guards, Household Cavalry , and Royal Marines from 40 Commando, became involved in the operation. British troops set up a cordon around the town to aid the US attack and also began an advance with Afghan troops from the south, west, and east, exchanging gunfire with the Taliban. [ 24 ] At least on the first day of the battle these advances may have served as a feint to divert attention from the main US air assault . [ 13 ] [ 15 ] Danish and Estonian troops were also involved in the initial assault. [ 33 ] Sergeant Lee Johnson Fighting continued on 8 December. As British and Afghan soldiers continued their ground advance, US air forces repeatedly attacked the Taliban, including numerous anti-aircraft positions surrounding the town. [ 1 ] The Taliban defended positions surrounded by minefields, a principal danger to coalition forces. [ 34 ] The assault made progress nonetheless, with the Afghan Ministry of Defence reporting that day: "In this operation so far, 12 terrorists were killed, one captured and a number of weapons and ammunitions were seized." [ 26 ] A British soldier, Sergeant Lee Johnson of the 2nd Battalion (Green Howards) Yorkshire Regiment , was killed shortly after 10 am on the eighth, when his vehicle drove over a mine; another soldier was seriously injured in the blast. [ 35 ] Taliban forces took up new positions to defend the town on 9 December. Taliban sources suggested at the time that militants from nearby areas were entering the town to reinforce its defence. [ 36 ] Fighting was on-going through the day and bombs planted by insurgents continued to take a toll on ISAF forces: an American soldier, Corporal Tanner J O’Leary of the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment , was killed by the detonation of an improvised explosive device . [ 4 ] [ edit ] Taliban retreat By 10 December, news outlets reported that the Taliban insurgents had withdrawn north from the area and that Afghan Army and ISAF forces were in control of the town. [ 11 ] The British MOD was more cautious at the time, advising that "steady progress" had been made but that coalition forces remained on the outskirts of Musa Qala. Nevertheless the Afghan government suggested that the coalition had "completely captured" [ 37 ] the town. NATO announced the town's capture on the 11th, [ 37 ] however at the time the MOD suggested forces were still proceeding cautiously "compound to compound", [ 38 ] only officially confirmed the capture of Musa Qala the next day. Afghan troops were called forward for the final push and by midday on the twelfth were reported to be in the town centre, in a gesture symbolising their ability to fight and defeat the Taliban on their own. [ 13 ] Lieutenant Colonel Richard Eaton, spokesman for Task Force Helmand , described the retaking of the town: [ 12 ] The current situation in Musa Qaleh is that it is underneath the Afghan flag ... Midmorning today [12 December 2007] our operations to relieve and recapture Musa Qaleh were concluded with the final phase being an assault into Musa Qaleh by the Afghan Army.... The cooperation with the Afghan troops has been very good indeed. General Muhayadan was crucially involved in the planning. He moved his planning team to collocate with Headquarters 52 Brigade in Lashkar Gar . Brigadier Andrew Mackay , commander of the Helmand Task Force, emphasised that the coalition's plan encouraged the less committed local fighters—the so-called "tier two" Taliban—to break away from the more ideologically driven militants. [ 13 ] This strategy may have been successful; Afghan president Hamid Karzai declared that he had been approached by Taliban members wanting to swap sides after a string of insurgent exactions against civilians. [ 32 ] He said: "They hanged a boy of 15 from a ceiling and lit two gas canisters under him." [ 39 ] Precise Taliban casualties were not reported although the Afghan Defence Ministry suggested hundreds killed, detained, or captured. [ 7 ] The insurgents claimed 17 Afghan army and ISAF killed, and blamed the British for at least 40 civilians deaths, but their claims may not be reliable. [ 40 ] Although fierce in the first days, the battle did not produce the house-to-house combat that had been feared; the Taliban largely retreated without protracted resistance. [ 13 ] [ 25 ] Poor weather conditions, including fog, may have allowed them to retreat more easily. [ 40 ] Taliban spokesmen suggested the retreat was designed to avoid continued airstrikes and civilian casualties within the town. [ 37 ] By the time the town centre was reached, fighting proved "unremarkable" and according to one senior US officer: "The urban center of Musa Qala was not significantly opposed, it was not significantly barricaded". [ 41 ] The final advance into the town's main bazaar by the Afghan Army was physically led by an Advanced Search Team of the Royal Engineers of the British Army followed by EOD and the main Afghan force who raised their flag for the world's press. [ edit ] Relevance to larger campaign Kajaki Dam, River Helmand Musa Qala is just one flashpoint in the wider Helmand province campaign , a coalition effort to dislodge the Taliban from the volatile province, largely led by British forces. The battle to retake the town sparked conflict in adjoining areas. In November 2007, when reconnaissance patrols began, "vicious" Taliban attacks were launched in Sangin Valley, Helmand province, to the south, including one which saw Royal Marine Commandos endure two days of rocket and mortar fire. [ 13 ] Just three days before the main assault, on 4 December, British forces suffered a fatality to the north of the village of Sangin, when Trooper Jack Sadler was killed by a roadside bomb. [ 42 ] The week prior to the assault saw a variety of other engagements in Helmand: the British confronted sustained attack near the Kajaki Dam , northeast of Sangin; further west, Estonian, British and American troops were engaged near the town of Nawzad at the center of Nawzad District . Danish forces under British command were attacked in the town of Gereshk . [ 3 ] In the days after the main battle was launched, Lieutanant Colonel Eaton confirmed that the Taliban were attempting to create pressure in other areas but that attacks on British bases had been repulsed. One Taliban commander noted: "We have launched attacks in Sangin and in Sarwan Kala (Sarevan Qaleh) ... We have orders to attack the British everywhere." [ 15 ] When the principal Taliban retreat from Musa Qala occurred fighting continued elsewhere: on the eleventh and twelfth, retreating Taliban militants attacked a government centre in Sangin. They were repulsed with 50 killed, according to the Afghan Defence Ministry. [ 43 ] American, British, and other NATO special forces were specifically deployed to prevent the Taliban from withdrawing north into Baghran District , and east into Orūzgān Province , their traditional refuge. [ 40 ] [ edit ] Aftermath The Afghan flag is raised over Musa Qala following its recapture. British officers expressed satisfaction that Musa Qala had been recaptured without any artillery shells or bombs hitting the town itself. However, they acknowledged that the Taliban had not been definitively defeated and would probably "have another go" in the area. [ 25 ] Taliban fighters were believed to have merged back into the local rural population after the defeat, their traditional dress providing simple cover. In the days after the battle, counter-attacks on the town were considered likely and coalition officials suggested sustained defence would be necessary; [ 11 ] [ 37 ] British forces plan to reinforce Musa Qala but have emphasised that future defence of the village will be largely Afghan controlled. The optimistic picture of Afghan capability presented by ISAF command has been challenged. A reporter on the ground, writing for The Times , notes that the Afghan forces "could barely function without NATO’s protection and NATO had to cajole them to move forward". [ 3 ] British Prime Minister Gordon Brown was in Helmand at the time of the assault, visiting troops at Camp Bastion . He suggested success at Musa Qala would provide a step toward Afghan peace and promised continued reconstruction relief. [ 11 ] Coalition and Afghan government plans include the construction of a local mosque , the rebuilding of a district centre, police buildings, schools, and the repair of the electricity infrastructure. [ 41 ] The governor of Helmand, Assadullah Wafa , said a delegation would visit Musa Qala to distribute 5,000 tons of aid to returning civilians in the immediate aftermath of the battle. [ 43 ] On 26 December, engineers from 69 Gurkha Field Squadron, 36 Engineer Regiment moved into Musa Qala and started rebuilding the district centre. Their task includes the construction of a perimeter fence made of Hesco bastions , and sangars (watchtowers) made of sandbags. [ 44 ] Various Taliban supplies were seized by coalition forces following the battle. On 13 December, British and Afghan army units located bomb factories and weapons caches as they moved further into the outskirts of Musa Qala and searched Taliban positions. At the same time, the first civilians started to return to the area, some with reports of Taliban punishments and claims of active Pakistani and Arab jihadis . [ 23 ] A new orientation of British strategy in Helmand is to use military force to curb the influence of local drug barons, whose trade supports the insurgents. [ 45 ] On 16 December, British troops burned an estimated £150 to £200 million worth of heroin that had been found in a drug factory and other buildings in Musa Qala. [ 25 ] [ 46 ] The strategic purpose of controlling Musa Qala is both to squeeze Taliban operations in south-western Afghanistan and to serve as a symbol of Afghan National Army and ISAF strength; the town had taken on iconic proportions, according to British officials. The Taliban, however, continue to enjoy significant civilian support despite their atrocities and the broader campaign to win over the region remains difficult. [ 45 ] Troop shortages have made it difficult for NATO to hold areas seized from the Taliban in southern Afghanistan. [ 41 ] Civilian return to the town was slow, with shops still shuttered on 16 December. Civilian casualty reports were conflicting: one resident claimed 15 dead bodies lay in a single street and another that his family were dead under rubble. The coalition rejected such claims, admitting only that two children had been injured, and possibly killed, when a car driving at high speeds towards ISAF troops during the battle overturned when the driver was shot dead. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Coalition and Afghan authorities continued their efforts to win over Taliban sympathizers. However a "miscommunication between authorities" [ 49 ] created some tension. In late December, two western diplomats were expelled from Afghanistan. Governor Assadullah Wafa accused them of holding secret talks with the Taliban and proposing bribes to them; the secret talks were denied as a misunderstanding by a UN spokesperson. [ 49 ] In January 2008, Mullah Abdul Salaam was appointed governor of Musa Qala district by the Afghan government, a gesture that was intended to encourage other Taliban commanders to change sides. [ 50 ] [ edit ] Taliban commanders News reports mentioned numerous Taliban commanders having participated in the Battle of Musa Qala, many reported killed or captured: Enqiadi, reported to be a Taliban commander prior to the battle. [ 30 ] Mullah Ahmadullah, Taliban commander who spoke with the Associated Press during the battle. [ 34 ] Mullah Abdul Salaam, key tribal leader of the Alizai who defected to the coalition side (see above ). Mullah Faizullah, deputy Taliban shadow governor of Helmand province, killed in an airstrike. [ 16 ] Mullah Tor Jan, Musa Qala area commander, supposedly killed in an airstrike. [ 16 ] His actual whereabouts remain unknown, as he was again reported killed in an engagement with Afghan and Coalition forces on March 13, 2008. [ 51 ] Mullah Matin Akhund (also known as Abdul Matin [ 52 ] ), Taliban district chief of Musa Qala, [ 53 ] mistakenly reported captured. [ 54 ] Mullah Rahim Akhund, Taliban governor of Helmand province, [ 53 ] mistakenly reported captured. [ 54 ] [ edit ] References ^ a b c d e f g h Townsend, Mark (2007-12-09). "Fierce battle rages for Taliban stronghold" . London: The Guardian . http://www.guardian.co.uk/afghanistan/story/0,,2224731,00.html . Retrieved 2007-12-09 . ^ Rayment, Sean; Coghlan, Tom (2007-12-12). "A deadly Afghan battle like none other" . London: The Daily Telegraph . http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=D1TMSLU5P4R53QFIQMFCFFOAVCBQYIV0?xml=/news/2007/12/09/wafg209.xml . Retrieved 2008-01-08 . ^ a b c d e f Grey, Stephen (2007-12-09). "Terror on road to Taliban stronghold" . 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International Relations and Security Network . http://www.isn.ethz.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?id=18412 . Retrieved 2007-12-09 . ^ "Afghan and NATO Forces Surround Taliban-Held Town; 15 Die in Fighting" . Voice of America . 2007-12-07. Archived from the original on 2007-12-10 . http://web.archive.org/web/20071210130453/http://www.voanews.com/english/2007-12-08-voa2.cfm . Retrieved 2007-12-09 . ^ a b Starkey, Jerome (2007-12-11). "NATO retakes Taleban town after militants change sides" . The Scotsman . http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/ViewArticle.aspx?articleid=3589152 . Retrieved 2007-12-18 . ^ Lampert, Allison. "Afghan and NATO troops storm Taliban stronghold" . Global National . http://www.canada.com/globaltv/national/story.html?id=bf397e50-fc39-4056-86d4-5d1572146d12&k=7199 . Retrieved 2007-12-23 . ^ a b "Toll rises in Taleban town battle" . BBC . 2007-12-08 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7133994.stm . 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Retrieved 2007-12-18 . ^ "Taliban Town Taken" . The Sun . 2007-12-11 . http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article567987.ece . Retrieved 2007-12-18 . ^ a b c Coghlan, Tom (2007-12-10). "Taliban flee as troops retake Musa Qala" . London: The Telegraph . http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/12/10/wafg510.xml . Retrieved 2007-12-22 . ^ a b c "NATO says Musa Qala battle shows significant progress by Afghan army" . International Herald Tribune . 2007-12-13 . http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/13/europe/EU-GEN-NATO-Afghanistan.php#end_main . Retrieved 2007-12-22 . ^ "Trooper Jack Sadler killed in Afghanistan" . Defence News . British Ministry of Defence . 2007-12-05 . http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/TrooperJackSadlerKilledInAfghanistan.htm . Retrieved 2007-12-18 . ^ a b "Official: Taliban flee, 50 killed" . CNN . 2007-12-12. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20071213145655/http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/12/12/afghanistan.violence.ap/index.html . Retrieved 2007-12-12 . ^ "Ghurka engineers begin Musa Qaleh rebuilding process" . Defence News . British Ministry of Defence . 2007-12-27 . http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/GurkhaEngineersBeginMusaQalehRebuildingProcess.htm . Retrieved 2007-12-30 . ^ a b Loyn, David (2007-12-10). "Why the battle for Musa Qala matters" . BBC . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7137041.stm . Retrieved 2007-12-22 . ^ "Up in flames ... troops destroy £200m haul of warlords' heroin" . The Sunday Mirror . 2007-12-16 . http://www.sundaymirror.co.uk/news/sunday/2007/12/16/up-in-flames-troops-destroy-200m-haul-of-warlords-heroin-98487-20255897/ . Retrieved 2007-12-18 . [ dead link ] ^ Grey, Stephen (2007-12-21). "Filming troops in Afghanistan" . BBC News . http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_7150000/newsid_7155200/7155299.stm?bw=bb&mp=wm&asb=1&news=1&ms3=54&ms_javascript=true&bbcws=2 . Retrieved 2007-12-28 . ^ "Calm after fight for Afghan town" . BBC . 2007-12-16 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7146440.stm . Retrieved 2007-12-23 . ^ a b Siddique, Haroon (2007-12-27). "Expelled diplomats leave Afghanistan" . London: The Guardian . http://www.guardian.co.uk/afghanistan/story/0,,2232392,00.html . Retrieved 2008-01-30 . ^ Meo, Nick (2008-01-09). "Taleban warlord gets new job as governor" . London: The Times . http://avantgo.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3155916.ece . Retrieved 2008-01-30 . ^ "41 Taliban killed in south Afghanistan" . AP . 2008-03-13 . http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2008/03/13/41_taliban_killed_in_south_afghanistan/ . Retrieved 2008-03-16 . [ dead link ] ^ "Operation Snake Pit pounds Taliban stronghold" . Afgha.com. 2007-12-09 . http://www.afgha.com/?q=node/5261 . Retrieved 2008-11-16 . [ dead link ] ^ a b "Rebel commanders seized in Taliban-controlled town" . Pajwhok Afghan News. 2007-12-09 . http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2007/12/09/rebel-commanders-seized-taliban-controlled-town . Retrieved 2011-02-19 . ^ a b "Mistake over 'captured Taleban'" . BBC . 2007-12-11 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7138568.stm . Retrieved 2007-12-24 . [ edit ] External links Afghanistan Information Management Services: Musa Qala District map (PDF) The Long War Journal: A chronology of the Musa Qala dilemma Coordinates : 32°26′36″N 64°44′40″E  /  32.4433°N 64.7444°E  / 32.4433; 64.7444
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Rus' Khaganate 9th century → Map showing Varangian or Rus' settlement (in red) and location of Slavic tribes (in grey), during the mid-ninth century. Khazar influence indicated with blue outline. Capital Not specified Government Monarchy Historical era Early Middle Ages - Established ca. 800 - Disestablished ca. 900 Today part of Russia History of Russia This article is part of a series Volga Bulgaria (7th–13th) Khazar Khaganate (7th–10th) Rus' Khaganate (8th–9th) Kievan Rus' (9th–12th) Vladimir-Suzdal (12th–14th) Novgorod Republic (12th–15th) Mongol invasion (1220s–1240s) Tatar Yoke (13th–15th) Grand Duchy of Moscow (1340–1547) Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) Russian Empire (1721–1917) Russian Republic (1917) Russian SFSR / Soviet Union (1917–1991) Russian Federation (1992–present) Timeline Russia Portal v t e The Rus' Khaganate is a name suggested for a polity that flourished during a poorly-documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries AD ). [ 1 ] A predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty and the Kievan Rus' , the Rus' Khaganate was a state (or a cluster of city-states ) set up by a people called Rus' , who might have been Norsemen ( Vikings , Varangians ), [ 2 ] in what is today northern Russia . [ 3 ] The region's population at that time was composed of Baltic , Slavic , Finnic , Turkic and Norse peoples. The region was also a place of operations for Varangians , eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants and pirates. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] According to contemporaneous sources, the population centers of the region, which may have included the proto-towns of Holmgard (Novgorod), Aldeigja (Ladoga), Lyubsha , Alaborg , Sarskoye Gorodishche , and Timerevo , were under the rule of a monarch or monarchs using the Old Turkic title Khagan . The Rus' Khaganate period marked the genesis of a distinct Rus' ethnos , and its successor states would include Kievan Rus' and later states from which modern Russia , Belarus , and Ukraine evolved. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Contents 1 Documentary evidence 2 Dating 3 Location 4 Origin 5 Economy 6 Government 7 Customs and religion 8 Relations with neighbors 9 Decline and legacy 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links [ edit ] Documentary evidence The ruler of the Rus' is mentioned by the title of "khagan" in several historical sources (hence the suggested name of the polity). Most of them are foreign texts dating from the 9th century. Three others are East Slavic sources from the 11th and 12th centuries. The earliest European reference related to the khaganate comes from the Frankish Annals of St. Bertin . The Annals refer to a group of Norsemen , who called themselves Rhos ( qi se, id est gentem suam, Rhos vocari dicebant ) and visited Constantinople around the year 838. [ 7 ] Fearful of returning home via the steppes , which would leave them vulnerable to attacks by the Magyars , these Rhos travelled through Germany accompanied by Greek ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Theophilus . When questioned by the Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim , they informed him that their leader was known as chacanus (the Latin for "Khagan"). [ 8 ] and that they lived far to the north, and that they were Swedes ( comperit eos gentis esse sueonum ). [ 3 ] Thirty years later, in spring 871, the eastern and western emperors, Basil I and Louis II , quarreled over control of Bari , which had been conquered by their joint forces from the Arabs . The Byzantine emperor sent an angry letter to his western counterpart, reprimanding him for usurping the title of emperor. He argued that the Frankish rulers are simple reges , while the imperial title properly applied only to the overlord of the Romans, that is, to Basil himself. He also pointed out that each nation has its own title for the supreme ruler: for instance, the title of chaganus is used by the overlords of the Avars , Khazars ( Gazari ), and "Northmen" ( Nortmanno ). To that, Louis replied that he was aware only about the Avar khagans, and had never heard about the khagans of the Khazars and Normanns. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The content of Basil's letter, now lost, is reconstructed from Louis's reply, quoted in full in the Salerno Chronicle . [ 11 ] The correspondence between Louis and Basil indicates that at least one group of Scandinavians had a ruler who called himself "khagan". Ahmad ibn Rustah , a 10th century Muslim geographer from Persia , wrote that the Rus' khagan ("khaqan rus") lived on an island in a lake. [ 4 ] [ 12 ] Constantine Zuckerman comments that Ibn Rustah, using the text of an anonymous account from the 870s, attempted to accurately convey the titles of all rulers described by its author, which makes his evidence all the more precious. [ 13 ] The Muslim geographer mentions only two khagans in his treatise — those of Khazaria and Rus. A further near-contemporary reference to the Rus' comes from al-Yaqubi , who wrote in 889 or 890 that the Caucasus mountaineers, when besieged by the Arabs in 854, asked for help from the overlords ( sahib ) of al-Rum (Byzantium), Khazaria, and al- Saqaliba (Slavs). [ 14 ] Hudud al-Alam , an anonymous Arabic geography text written in the late 10th century, refers to the Rus' king as "rus-khaqan". [ 15 ] As the unknown author of Hudud al-Alam relied on numerous 9th-century sources, including ibn Khordadbeh, it is possible that his reference to the Rus' Khagan was copied from earlier, pre-Rurikid texts, rather than reflecting contemporary political reality. [ 16 ] Finally, the 11th century Persian geographer Abu Said Gardizi mentioned "khaqan-i rus" in his work Zayn al-Akbar . Like other Muslim geographers, Gardizi relied on traditions stemming from the 9th century. [ 17 ] There are good grounds for believing that the title "khagan" was still remembered in Kievan Rus' during the Christian period. Metropolitan Hilarion of Kiev applied the title "khagan" to the Grand Princes of Kievan Rus – Vladimir I of Kiev and Yaroslav I the Wise in the earliest surviving example of Old Russian literature , Slovo o Zakone i Blagodati ("Sermon on Law and Grace"), written around 1050. [ 18 ] Hilarion referred to Vladimir as "the great khagan of our land" ( velikago kagana nashea zemlja, Vladimera ) and Yaroslav as "our devout khagan." [ 19 ] A graffito in the north gallery of Saint Sophia Cathedral [ disambiguation needed ] reads "O Lord, save our khagan", apparently in reference to Sviatoslav II (1073–1076). [ 20 ] As late as the end of the 12th century, The Tale of Igor's Campaign refers in passing to a "kogan Oleg", [ 17 ] traditionally identified with Oleg of Tmutarakan . [ 21 ] [ edit ] Dating The Kälvesten runestone dates to the 9th century and it is the oldest known runestone that talks of expeditions in the East. Extant primary sources make it plausible that the title of khagan was applied to the rulers of the Rus' during a rather short period, roughly between their embassy to Constantinople (838) and Basil I's letter (871). All Byzantine sources after Basil I refer to the Rus' rulers as archons (Greek for "ruler"). Later Kievan authors, mentioned above, appear to have revived the term khagan as Slavicized knyaz , a laudatory epithet of a ruler rather than as a valid political term, [ 22 ] knyaz being the Slavic term for the ruler of the Rus, which was by then current. A connection between original kaghan and the Germanic kuning (Swedish konung , English king , German König ), proto-Germanic kuningaz , is imputed. The dating of the Khaganate's existence has been the subject of debates among scholars and remains unclear. Omeljan Pritsak dates the foundation of the Khaganate to around 830–840. In the 1920s, Russian historian Pavel Smirnov suggested that the Rus' Khaganate emerged only briefly at around 830 and was soon destroyed by the migration of the Magyar - Kabar tribal confederation towards the Carpathian Mountains . [ 23 ] Whatever the accuracy of such estimates may be, there are no primary sources which mention the Rus' or its khagans prior to the 830s. [ 24 ] Equally contentious has been discussion about the date of the khaganate's disintegration. The title of Khagan is not mentioned in the Rus'-Byzantine treaties (907, 911, 944), or in De Ceremoniis , a record of court ceremonials meticulously documenting the titles of foreign rulers, when it deals with Olga 's reception at the court of Constantine VII in 945. Moreover, ibn Fadlan , in his detailed account of the Rus (922), designated their supreme ruler as malik ("king"). From this fact, Peter Golden concluded via an argumentum ex silentio that the khaganate collapsed at some point between 871 and 922. [ 25 ] Zuckerman, meanwhile, argues that the absence of the title "khagan" from the first Russo-Byzantine Treaty proves that the khaganate had vanished by 911. [ 13 ] [ edit ] Location Europe in early 9th century The location of the khaganate has been actively disputed since the early 20th century. According to one fringe theory, the Rus' khagan resided somewhere in Scandinavia or even as far west as Walcheren . [ 26 ] In stark contrast, George Vernadsky believed that the khagan had his headquarters in the eastern part of the Crimea or in the Taman Peninsula and that the island described by Ibn Rustah was most likely situated in the estuary of the Kuban River . [ 27 ] Neither of these theories has won many adherents, as archaeologists have uncovered no traces of a Slavic-Norse settlement in the Crimea region in the 9th century and there are no Norse sources documenting "khagans" in Scandinavia. [ 28 ] Soviet historiography , as represented by Boris Rybakov and Lev Gumilev , advanced Kiev as the residence of the khagan, assuming that Askold and Dir were the only khagans recorded by name. Mikhail Artamonov became an adherent of the theory that Kiev was the seat of the Rus' Khaganate, and continued to hold this view into the 1990s. [ 29 ] Western historians, however, have generally argued against this theory. There is no evidence of a Norse presence in Kiev prior to the 10th century. [ 30 ] Troublesome is the absence of hoards of coins which would prove that the Dnieper trade route — the backbone of later Kievan Rus' — was operating in the 9th century. [ 31 ] Based on his examination of the archaeological evidence, Zuckerman concludes that Kiev originated as a fortress on the Khazar border with Levedia , and that only after the Magyars departed for the west in 889 did the middle Dnieper region start to progress economically. [ 32 ] A number of historians, the first of whom was Vasily Bartold , have advocated a more northerly position for the khaganate. [ 4 ] They have tended to emphasize ibn Rustah's report as the only historical clue to the location of the khagan's residence. [ 33 ] Recent archaeological research, conducted by Anatoly Kirpichnikov and Dmitry Machinsky , has raised the possibility that this polity was based on a group of settlements along the Volkhov River , including Ladoga, Lyubsha , Duboviki , Alaborg , and Holmgard. [ 34 ] "Most of these were initially small sites, probably not much more than stations for re-fitting and resupply, providing an opportunity for exchange and the redistribution of items passing along the river and caravan routes". [ 35 ] If the anonymous traveller quoted by ibn Rustah is to be believed, the Rus of the Khaganate period made extensive use of the Volga route to trade with the Middle East , possibly through Bulgar and Khazar intermediaries. His description of the Rus' island suggests that their center was at Holmgard , an early medieval precursor of Novgorod whose name translates from Old Norse as "the river-island castle". The First Novgorod Chronicle describes unrest in Novgorod before Rurik was invited to come rule the region in the 860s. This account prompted Johannes Brøndsted to assert that Holmgard-Novgorod was the khaganate's capital for several decades prior to the appearance of Rurik, including the time of the Byzantine embassy in 839. [ 36 ] Machinsky accepts this theory but notes that, before the rise of Holmgard-Novgorod, the chief political and economic centre of the area was located at Aldeigja-Ladoga. [ 37 ] [ edit ] Origin Main article: Rus' (people) Nicholas Roerich . Longships Built in the Land of the Slavs ; a 1903 painting depicting construction of Norse-style vessels in Rus'. The origins of the Rus' Khaganate are unclear. The first Norse settlers of the region arrived in the lower basin of the Volkhov River in the mid-8th century. The country comprising the present-day Saint-Petersburg , Novgorod , Tver , Yaroslavl , and Smolensk regions became known in Old Norse sources as " Gardarike ", the land of forts. Around the 860 Rus' , a group of Vikings perhaps from Roden , Sweden , began to rule the area under their leader Rurik . [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Gradually, Norse warlords, known to the Turkic -speaking steppe peoples as "köl-beki" or "sea-kings", came to dominate some of the region's Finno-Ugric and Slavic peoples, particularly along the Volga trade route linking the Baltic Sea with the Caspian Sea and Serkland . [ 41 ] Omeljan Pritsak speculated that a Khazar khagan named Khan-Tuvan Dyggvi, exiled after losing a civil war , settled with his followers in the Norse-Slavic settlement of Rostov , married into the local Scandinavian nobility, and fathered the dynasty of the Rus' khagans. [ 42 ] Zuckerman dismisses Pritsak's theory as untenable speculation, [ 43 ] and no record of any Khazar khagan fleeing to find refuge among the Rus' exists in contemporaneous sources. [ 44 ] Nevertheless, the possible Khazar connection to early Rus' monarchs is supported by the use of a stylized trident tamga , or seal, by later Rus' rulers such as Sviatoslav I of Kiev ; similar tamgas are found in ruins that are definitively Khazar in origin. [ 45 ] The genealogical connection between the 9th-century Khagans of Rus' and the later Rurikid rulers, if any, is unknown at this time. [ 46 ] Most historians agree that the title "khagan" was borrowed by the Rus from the Khazars, but there is considerable dispute over the circumstances of this borrowing. Peter Benjamin Golden presumes that the Rus' khaganate was a puppet state set up by the Khazars in the basin of the Oka River to fend off recurring attacks of the Magyars . [ 47 ] However, no source records that the Rus' of the 9th century were subjects to the Khazars. For foreign observers (such as Ibn Rustah), there was no material difference between the titles of the Khazar and Rus' rulers. [ 48 ] Anatoly Novoseltsev hypothesizes that the adoption of the title "khagan" was designed to advertise the Rus' claims to the equality with the Khazars. [ 49 ] This theory is echoed by Thomas Noonan , who asserts that the Rus' leaders were loosely unified under the rule of one of the "sea-kings" in the early 9th century, and that this " High King " adopted the title "khagan" to give him legitimacy in the eyes of his subjects and neighboring states. [ 50 ] According to this theory, the title was a sign that the bearers ruled under a divine mandate. [ 51 ] [ edit ] Economy The likely mainstay of the khaganate's economy was the Volga trade route. Early 9th-century coin hordes unearthed in Scandinavia frequently contain large quantities of dirhem coins minted in the Abbasid Caliphate and other Muslim polities, sometimes split into smaller pieces and inscribed with Runic signs. [ 52 ] All in all, more than 228,000 Arabic coins have been recovered from over 1,000 hoards in European Russia and the Baltic region. Almost 90% of these arrived in Scandinavia by way of the Volga trade route. Unsurprisingly, the dirhem was the basis for the monetary system of Kievan Rus'. [ 53 ] Trade was the major source of income for the Rus, who according to ibn Rustah did not engage in agriculture : "They have no cultivated fields but depend for their supplies on what they can obtain from as-Saqaliba's [Slavs] land. They have no estates, villages, or fields; their only business is to trade in sable , squirrel , and other furs , and the money they take in these transactions they stow in their belts." [ 54 ] Rus merchants travelled down the Volga, paying duties to the Bulghars and Khazars, to the ports of Gorgan and Abaskun on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea ; on occasion they travelled as far as Baghdad . [ 17 ] [ edit ] Government Writing in 922, Ibn Fadlan described the Rus' ruler (like the Khazar khagan), as having little real authority . Instead, political and military power was wielded by a deputy, who "commands the troops, attacks [the Rus' ruler's] enemies, and acts as his representative before his subjects." [ 55 ] The supreme king of the Rus', on the other hand, "has no duties other than to make love to his slave girls, drink, and give himself up to pleasure." [ 55 ] He was guarded by 400 men, "willing to die for him... These 400 sit below the royal throne: a large and bejewelled platform which also accommodates the forty slave-girls of his harem." Ibn Fadlan wrote that the Rus' ruler would almost never leave his throne and even "when he wants to go riding his horse is led up to him, and on his return the horse is brought right up to the throne." [ 56 ] Ibn Rustah, on the other hand, reported that the khagan was the ultimate authority in settling disputes between his subjects. His decisions, however, were not binding, so that if one of the disputants disagreed with the khagan's ruling, the dispute was then resolved in a battle , which took place "in the presence of the contestants' kin who stand with swords drawn; and the man who gets the better of the duel also gets the decision about the matter in dispute." [ 57 ] The dichotomy between the relative powerlessness of the nominal ruler and the great authority of his subordinate reflects the structure of Khazar government , with secular authority in the hands of a Khagan Bek only theoretically subordinate to the khagan, and it agrees with the traditional Germanic system, where there could be a division between the king and the military commander. Moreover, some scholars have noted similarities between this dual kingship and the postulated relationship between Igor and Oleg of Kiev in the early 10th century (compare Askold and Dir in the 9th century). [ 58 ] The institution of separate sacral ruler and military commander may be observed in the reconstructed relationship between Oleg and Igor, but whether this is part of the Rus' Khaganate's legacy to its successor-state is unknown. The early Kievan Rus' principalities exhibited certain distinctive characteristics in their government, military organization, and jurisprudence that were comparable to those in force among the Khazars and other steppe peoples; some historians believe that these elements came to Kievan Rus' from the Khazars by way of the earlier Rus' Khagans. [ 59 ] [ edit ] Customs and religion See also: Norse paganism , Slavic mythology , and Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate Oleg being mourned by his warriors , an 1899 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov . This burial rite, with the funerary tumulus, is typical of both Scandinavian , and Eurasian nomadic customs. Judging from excavations conducted since the 1820s at Ladoga and related sites in Northern Russia, the Rus' customs reflected primarily Scandinavian influences. This is consistent with the writings of ibn Rustah and ibn Fadlan. The former gives a brief description of the burial of a Rus' nobleman , who was put into a "grave like a large house", together with food, amulets, coins, other staples, as well as his favorite wife. "Then the grave door is sealed and she dies there." [ 60 ] Ibn Fadlan provides further evidence of the Rus' building a memorial mound, or cenotaph , and giving it a runic inscription on a piece of wood. [ 61 ] The Arab traveler also left a detailed description of the Rus' custom of cremating noblemen in a ship , which involved both animal and human sacrifice . When a poor man died, he was put into a little ship and burned in it; the funeral of a nobleman was much more elaborate. His estate was divided into three parts: one for his family, one to pay for his funerary costume, and one to make beer , which was consumed on the day of his cremation. [ 62 ] One of the deceased man's slave girls volunteered to be put to death so as to join her master in paradise . On the day of cremation, the dead man was disinterred from his grave, dressed in fine clothings, and put onto a specially constructed ship. The volunteer slave girl was killed (after the deceased man's kinsmen and friends had sex with her) and placed on board together with her master before the dead man's nearest kinsman set the vessel on fire. The funeral ended with the construction of a round mound. [ 63 ] Early medieval historians were impressed with the spirit of independence and enterprise inculcated among the Rus from birth. [ 17 ] Ibn Rustah writes: "When a son is born the father will go up to the newborn baby, sword in hand; throwing it down, he says; 'I shall not leave you any property: you have only what you can provide with this weapon!'" [ 64 ] Al-Marwazi repeated this description of the instructions given to a son and added that it was the daughter who received her father's inheritance. The same sense of rugged individualism was reflected in their treatment of the ill. According to ibn Fadlan, "if one of the Rus falls sick they put him in a tent by himself and leave bread and water for him. They do not visit him, however, or speak to him, especially if he is a serf. Should he recover he rejoins the others; if he dies they burn him. If he happens to be a serf, however, they leave him for the dogs and vultures to devor." [ 65 ] Sources describe the Rus as liberal in sexual matters. Ibn Fadlan wrote that the king of the Rus did not shy away from having public intercourse with the slave girls in his harem. When Rus traders arrived to the Volga shores, they would make love with the slave girls they brought for sale in the presence of their comrades; sometimes this would develop into a communal orgy . [ 66 ] The Idols , a painting by Nicholas Roerich (1901). Both ibn Fadlan and ibn Rustah portray the Rus as devout pagans. Ibn Rustah and, following him, Garizi reported that the Rus shamans or " medicine men " ( attiba ) wielded great power over the common folk. According to ibn Rustah, these shamans acted "as if they own everything". They determined what women, men, or animals had to be sacrificed, and there was no appealing their decisions. A shaman would take the selected offering, whether human or animal, and hang it from a pole until it died. [ 67 ] Ibn Fadlan left a description of the Rus merchants praying for success in trading before "a large wooden stake with a face like that of a human being, surrounded by smaller figures, and behind them tall poles in the ground." If trade did not pick up, more offerings were made; if the business remained slow, the trader would make offerings to the minor idols, too. When the trading was especially good, Rus merchants would likewise make additional offerings of cattle and sheep, some of which were distributed as alms. [ 68 ] On the other hand, Byzantine sources report that the Rus adopted Christianity by the end of the 860s. In his encyclical dated to 867, Patriarch Photius wrote about the enthusiastic conversion of the Rus, mentioning that he had sent to their lands a bishop . [ 69 ] Constantine VII attributes the conversion to his grandfather Basil the Macedonian and to Patriarch Ignatius rather than to their predecessors Michael III and Photius. Constantine narrates how the Byzantines galvanized the Rus' into conversion by their persuasive words and rich presents, including gold, silver, and precious fabrics. He also repeats a traditional story that the pagans were particularly impressed by a miracle: a gospel book thrown by the archbishop into an oven was not damaged by fire. [ 70 ] Ibn Khordadbeh wrote in the late 9th century that the Rus who arrived to Muslim lands "claimed to be Christians". [ 17 ] Modern historians are divided in their views on the historicity and extent of the Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate . [ edit ] Relations with neighbors In 838, the Rus' Khaganate sent an embassy to the Byzantine Empire, which was recorded in the Annals of St. Bertin. The purpose of this embassy remains controversial among historians. Aleksey Shakhmatov argued that the embassy was meant to establish amity with Byzantium and to open up the way into Sweden through Western Europe. [ 71 ] Constantine Zuckerman postulates that the Rus' ambassadors were to negotiate a peace treaty after their Paphlagonian expedition of the 830s. [ 48 ] George Vernadsky connects their mission with the construction of the fortress of Sarkel in 833. That embassy was not recorded in Byzantine sources, and in 860 Patriarch Photius referred to the Rus as "unknown people". [ 72 ] According to Vernadsky, the Khazars and Greeks erected Sarkel near the portage between the Don River and Volga specifically to defend this strategic point from the Rus. [ 27 ] Other scholars, however, believe that the fortress of Sarkel was constructed to defend against or monitor the activities of the Magyars and other steppe tribes, and not the Rus'. [ 73 ] The Ukrainian historian Mykhailo Hrushevsky declared that the extant sources were unclear on this point. [ 74 ] John Skylitzes claimed that Sarkel was a "staunch bulwark against the Pechenegs " but did not identify that as its original purpose. [ 75 ] In 860, the Rus besieged Constantinople , with a fleet of 200 ships. The Byzantine army and navy were far from the capital, leaving it vulnerable to the attack. The timing of the expedition suggests that the Rus were well-aware of the internal situation in the empire thanks to the commercial and other relations that continued after the embassy of 838. The Rus warriors devastated the suburbs of Constantinople before suddenly departing on August 4. [ 76 ] The early Rus' traded extensively with Khazaria . Ibn Khordadbeh wrote in the Book of Roads and Kingdoms that "they go via the Slavic River (the Don) to Khamlidj , a city of the Khazars, where the latter's ruler collects the tithe from them." [ 77 ] Some modern commentators infer from Arab accounts that the Rus' Khaganate's political culture was profoundly influenced by its contacts with Khazaria. [ 78 ] By the beginning of the Rurikid period in the first decades of the 10th century, however, relations between the Rus' and the Khazars soured . [ edit ] Decline and legacy A messenger sent to apprise his kin of the outbreak of a tribal war. A painting by Nicholas Roerich (1897) Soon after Patriarch Photius informed other Orthodox bishops about the Christianization of the Rus, all the centres of the khaganate in North-Western Russia were destroyed by fire. Archaeologists found convincing evidence that Holmgard, Aldeigja, Alaborg , Izborsk and other local centres were burnt to the ground in the 860s or 870s. Some of these settlements were permanently abandoned after the conflagration. The Primary Chronicle describes the uprising of the pagan Slavs and Chudes (Finnic peoples) against the Varangians, who had to withdraw overseas in 862. The First Novgorod Chronicle , whose account of the events Shakhmatov considered more trustworthy, does not pinpoint the pre-Rurikid uprising to any specific date. The 16th-century Nikon Chronicle attributes the banishment of the Varangians from the country to Vadim the Bold . The Ukrainian historian Mykhailo Braichevsky labelled Vadim's rebellion "a pagan reaction" against the Christianization of the Rus'. [ 79 ] A period of unrest and anarchy followed, dated by Zuckerman to ca. 875–900. The absence of coin hoards from the 880s and 890s suggests that the Volga trade route ceased functioning, precipitating "the first silver crisis in Europe". [ 80 ] After this economic depression and period of political upheaval, the region experienced a resurgence beginning in around 900. Zuckerman associates this recovery with the arrival of Rurik and his men, who turned their attention from the Volga to the Dnieper, for reasons as yet uncertain. The Scandinavian settlements in Ladoga and Novgorod revived and started to grow rapidly. During the first decade of the 10th century, a large trade outpost was formed on the Dnieper in Gnezdovo , near modern Smolensk . Another Dnieper settlement, Kiev, developed into an important urban centre roughly in the same period. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] The fate of the Rus' Khaganate, and the process by which it either evolved into or was consumed by the Rurikid Kievan Rus', is unclear. The Kievans seem to have had a very vague notion about the existence of the khaganate. Slavonic sources do not mention either the Christianization of the Rus in the 860s nor the Paphlagonian expedition of the 830s. The account of the Rus' expedition against Constantinople in the 860s was borrowed by the authors of the Primary Chronicle from Greek sources, suggesting the absence of a vernacular written tradition. [ 83 ] [ edit ] See also Ancient Germanic culture portal Arsania Rus'–Byzantine War Caspian expeditions of the Rus Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' [ edit ] Notes ^ e.g., Christian 338. ^ Annales Bertiniani in Monumenta Germaniae 19–20. ^ a b Annales Bertiniani 19–20; Jones 249–250. ^ a b c d Christian 338. ^ a b Franklin and Shepard 33–36. ^ a b Dolukhanov 187. ^ Jones 249–250. ^ A minority of scholars believe that the reference was to a king bearing the Old Norse name Håkan or Haakon . See, e.g. , Garipzanov 8–11. ^ Monumenta Germaniae 385–394. ^ cagano veram non praelatum Avarum, non Gazanorum aut Nortmannorum nuncipari reperimus. Duczko 25. ^ Dolger T. 59, №487. ^ Brøndsted (1965), pp. 267–268 ^ a b Zuckerman, "Deux étapes" 96. ^ Laurent and Canard 490. According to Zuckerman, Ibn Khordadbeh and other Arab authors often confused the terms Rus and Saqaliba when describing their raids to the Caspian Sea in the 9th and 10th centuries. Thus, the ruler of al-Saqualiba in 852 was likely the same person as the khagan of the Rus. But n.b. , ibn Khordadbeh's Book of Roads and Kingdoms does not mention the title of Khagan for the ruler of Rus'. Duczko 25. ^ Minorsky 159. ^ See, e.g ., Minorsky xvi. ^ a b c d e "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam ^ Ilarion, "Sermon on Law and Grace" 3, 17, 18, 26; for discussion, see Brook 154. ^ Duczko 25. ^ Spasi gospodi, kagana nashego . Duczko 25; see also Noonan, "Khazar" 91–92. ^ Most commentators follow Dmitry Likhachev 's interpretation of the passage. Tmutarakan was a former Khazar possession and the Khazar traditions may have persisted there for an extended period of time. It is known that, while reigning in Tmutarakan, Oleg assumed the title of the "archon of all Khazaria". Other candidates include Oleg of Novgorod and Igor Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Seversky . See: Zenkovsky 160; Encyclopaedia of The Lay 3–4. ^ Brook 154. ^ Smirnov 132-45 ^ Pritsak, Origin of Rus' passim. ^ Golden 87, 97. ^ Александров 222–224. ^ a b Vernadsky VII-4. ^ Franklin and Shepard 27–50. ^ Artamonov 271–290. ^ From the Baltic to the Black Sea: Studies in Medieval Archaeology (One World Archaeology, 18) by David Austin Publisher: Routledge; New edition edition (June 27, 1997).pp. 285-286; Э. Мюле. К вопросу о начале Киева// Вопросы истории. - № 4 - 1989 - с. 118 - 127. ^ Yanin 105–106; Noonan, The Monetary System of Kiev 396. ^ Zuckerman, "Les Hongrois au Pays de Lebedia" 65–66. ^ Новосельцев 397–408. ^ Zuckerman, 2000; Мачинский 5–25. ^ A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures 266. ^ Brøndsted 67–68; for a detailed analysis of recent archaeological investigations at Holmgard, see Duczko 102–104. ^ Мачинский 5–25; see also Duczko 31–32. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Russia ^ "in 839, the Rus' were Swedes . In 1043, the Rus' were Slavs ." (F. Donald Logan, The Vikings in History , cit. Montgomery, p. 24), ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Rus ^ Brutzkus 120. ^ Pritsak, Origins of Rus' 1:28, 171, 182. ^ Archaeologists did not find traces of a settlement in Rostov prior to the 970s. Furthermore, the placename "Rostov" has a transparent Slavic etymology. ^ Duczko 31. ^ Brook 154; Franklin and Shepard 120–121; Pritsak, Weights 78–79. ^ But see , e.g., Duczko 31–32, outlining theories that Rurik held the title of Khagan Rus'. ^ Golden 77–99; Duczko 30. ^ a b Zuckerman, "Deux étapes". ^ Новосельцев ^ Noonan, "Khazar" 87–89, 94. ^ Brook 154; Noonan, "Khazar" 87–94. ^ Noonan, "Rus/Rus' Merchants" 213–219. ^ Yanin 1956. 91–100. ^ Ibn Rustah. English translation in Brøndsted (1965), pp. 267–268 ^ a b Christian 340–341, citing ibn Fadlan's Risala . ^ Ibn Fadlan, Risala . English translation in Brøndsted 266–267 ^ Ibn Rustah. English translation in Brøndsted 266–267 ^ Christian 341. ^ Brutzkus 111. ^ Ibn Rustah. English translation in Brøndsted 305 ^ Brøndsted 305 ^ Ibn Fadlan describes the Rus' as addicted to beer, "and often one of them has been found dead with a beaker in his hand." Ibn Fadlan, Risala . English translation in Brøndsted 301 ^ Ibn Fadlan, Risala . English translation in Brøndsted 301–305 ^ Brøndsted 268 ^ Ibn Fadlan, Risala . English translation in Brøndsted 301–305. See also "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam . ^ Ibn Fadlan, Risala . English translation in Brøndsted 265, 305; "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam passim ^ Ibn Rustah. English translation in Brøndsted 268. See also "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam . ^ Ibn Fadlan, Risala . English translation in Brøndsted 266. See also "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam . ^ Photii Patriarchae Constantinopolitani Epistulae et Amphilochia. Ed. B. Laourdas, L.G. Westerinck. T.1. Leipzig, 1983. P. 49. ^ Theophanes 342–343. ^ A. Shakhmatov, Survey of the Oldest Period of the History of the Russian Language. Encyclopedia of Slavonic Philology, II, 1 (Petrograd, 1915), XXVIII, cited in Vasiliev 12 ^ Vasiliev 13. ^ Shepard 24; Kovalev 124. ^ Hrushevsky 1:176. ^ Huxley passim . ^ Franklin and Shepard, 50–55. ^ ibn Khordadbeh, as cited in Vernadsky 1:9 ^ E.g., Jones 164 (summarizing evidence from al-Masudi and al-Muqaddasi ); Franklin and Shepard 67-8; Christian 340. ^ Брайчевский 42–96. ^ Noonan, "Silver Crisis" 41–50; Noonan, "Fluctuations in Islamic Trade" passim ^ Franklin and Shepard, 91–111. ^ See, e.g., Duczko 81 et seq. , discussing the argument among various scholars as to whether the devastating attacks of the 860s and 870s were caused by Rurik and a new wave of Norse settlers who supplanted the old Rus Khagans, whether the burnings of the Rus' settlements were the result of civil war unconnected to Rurik's purported ascendency, or whether they were caused by unrelated incursions by Norsemen or other people. ^ Franklin and Shepard, 53. [ edit ] References Ahmed ibn Fadlan. Ibn Fadlan's Journey to Russia: A Tenth-Century Traveler from Baghdad to the Volga River. Frye, Richard Nelson, ed. and trans. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005. Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Rustah. al-Alaq al-nafisah: Maruf bih Ibn Rustah. Tarjamah va taliq-i Husayn Qarah'chanlu. Tehran, Iran: Amir Kabir, 1986. Александров А.А. Остров руссов. [ The Rus' Island ]. St. Petersburg-Kishinev, 1997. Artamanov, M.I. "Prevye Stranisky Russkoy Istorii ve Archeologicheskom Osveshchenii." Sovietskaya Arkheologica . Vol 3, 1990. pp. 271–290. Annales Bertiniani, a. 839 , (The Annals of St. Bertin). Ed. Georg Waitz, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum. Hannoverae, 1883. pp. 19–20. Брайчевский М.Ю. Утверждение христианства на Руси [ Establishment of Christianity in Rus ]. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1989. Brøndsted, Johannes . The Vikings . (transl. by Kalle Skov). Penguin Books, 1965. Brook, Kevin Alan . The Jews of Khazaria. 2d ed. Rowman and Littlefield, 2006. Brutzkus, Julius . "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev." Slavonic and East European Review , 22 (1944). Callmer J. The Archaeology of Kiev to the End of the Earliest Urban Phase. // Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 1987, №11. Christian, David . A History of Russia, Mongolia and Central Asia. Blackwell, 1999. Dolger F. Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des ostromischen Reiches. I . Berlin, 1924. Dolukhanov, P.M. The Early Slavs: Eastern Europe and the Initial Settlement to Kievan Rus'. London: Longman, 1996. Duczko, Władysław. Viking Rus: Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe . Brill, 2004. The Encyclopaedia of The Lay of Igor's Campaign , in 5 volumes. Volume 3. St. Petersburg, 1995. Franklin, Simon and Jonathan Shepard . The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. London: Longman, 1996. ISBN 0-582-49091-X . Garipzanov, Ildar. The Annals of St. Bertin and the Chacanus of the Rhos . University of Bergen, 2006. Golden, Peter Benjamin . "Rus." Encyclopaedia of Islam Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill. Brill Online, 2006 Golden, Peter Benjamin. The Question of the Rus' Qaganate . Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi , 1982. Halperin, Charles J. Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington: Univ. of Indiana Press, 1987. ISBN 0-253-20445-3 . Hansen, Mogens Herman , ed. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures . Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2000. Page 266. Hrushevsky, Mikhailo . History of Ukraine-Rus', trans. Marta Skorupsky. Canadian Inst. of Ukr. Studies Press, 1997. Huxley, George. "Byzantinochazarika." Hermathena 148 (1990): 79. Ilarion of Kiev. "Sermon on Law and Grace". Sermons and Rhetoric of Kievan Rus'. Simon Franklin, transl. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1991. Jones, Gwyn. A History of the Vikings. 2nd ed. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1984. Kovalev, Roman . "What Does Historical Numismatics Suggest about the Monetary History of Khazaria in the Ninth Century?- Question Revisited." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 13(2004):97–129. Laurent, J. and M. Canard. L'Armenie entre Byzance et l'islam depuis la conquete arabe jusqu'en 886 . Lisbon, 1980. Мачинский Д.А. "О месте Северной Руси в процессе сложения Древнерусского государства и европейской культурной общности." [ On the Place of Northern Rus in the Genesis of the Old Rus' State and European Cultural Continuum ]. Археологическое исследование Новгородской земли . Leningrad, 1984. Minorsky, Vladimir . Hudud al-'Alam (The Regions of the World) . London: Luzac & Co., 1937. "Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Epistolae VII". Epistolae Karolini aevi V . Berlin: W. Henze, 1928. Noonan, Thomas . "The Khazar Qaghanate and Its Impact On the Early Rus' State: The translatio imperii from Itil to Kiev." Nomads in the Sedentary World , Anatoly Mikhailovich Khazanov and Andre Wink, eds. p. 76–102. Richmond, England: Curzon, 2001. ISBN 0-7007-1370-0 . Noonan, Thomas. "When Did Rus/Rus' Merchants First Visit Khazaria and Baghdad?" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 7 (1987–1991): 213–219. Noonan, Thomas. "The First Major Silver Crisis in Russia and the Baltic, ca. 875–900". Hikuin , 11 (1985): 41–50. Noonan, Thomas. "Fluctuations in Islamic Trade with Eastern Europe during the Viking Age". Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 1992, №16. Noonan, Thomas. "The Monetary System of Kiev in the Pre-Mongol Period". Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 1987, №11. Page 396. Новосельцев А.П. et al. Древнерусское государство и его международное значение. [ Old Rus' State And Its International Relations ]. Moscow, 1965. Новосельцев А.П. "К вопросу об одном из древнейших титулов русского князя". [ On One of the Oldest Titles of the Rus' Princes ]. История СССР. – 1982. – Вып. 4. Pritsak, Omeljan . The Origin of Rus'. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991. Pritsak, Omeljan. The Origins of the Old Rus' Weights and Monetary Systems. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute , 1998. Shepard, Jonathan. "The Khazars' Formal Adoption of Judaism and Byzantium's Northern Policy." Oxford Slavonic Papers, New Series 31 (1998):24. Smirnov, Pavel. Volz'kiy shlyakh i starodavni Rusy ( The Volga route and the ancient Rus ). Kiev, 1928. Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus . Ed. I. Becker. Bonnae, 1838 (CSHB), pp. 342–343. Vasiliev, Alexander . The Russian Attack on Constantinople in 860 . Mediaeval Academy of America, 1946. Vernadsky, G.V. A History of Russia . Vol. 1. Yale University Press, 1943 ( Russian version online ) Vernadsky, G.V., ed. A Source Book for Russian History from Early Times to 1917, Vol. 1. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1972. Yanin, Valentin . Денежно-весовые системы русского средневековья. Домонгольский период. [ The Monetary Systems of the Russian Middle Ages. The Pre-Mongol Period ]. Moscow, 1956. Zenkovsky, Serge A., ed. Medieval Russia's Epics, Chronicles, and Tales. New York: Meridian, 1974. ISBN 0-452-01086-1 . Zuckerman, Constantine . "Deux étapes de la formation de l’ancien état russe", in Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient: Actes du Colloque International tenu au Collège de France en octobre 1997 , éd. M. Kazanski, A. Nersessian et C. Zuckerman (Réalités Byzantines 7). Paris, 2000 ( Russian translation online ). Zuckerman, Constantine. "Les Hongrois au Pays de Lebedia: une nouvelle puissance aux confins de Byzance et de la Khazarie en 836–889." Byzantium at War (9th–12th c.) Athens, 1997. [ edit ] External links Britannica Concise on the Origins of Russia Pritsak on the Origins of the Rus' Rus' in the Hudud al-Alam Waugh, Daniel C. 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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Coordinates : 48°15′32″N 14°30′04″E  /  48.25889°N 14.50111°E  / 48.25889; 14.50111 Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp Mauthausen Concentration Camp (known from the summer of 1940 as Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp ) grew to become a large group of Nazi concentration camps that was built around the villages of Mauthausen and Gusen in Upper Austria , roughly 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of the city of Linz . Its history ran from the time of the Anschluss in 1938 to the last week of the Second World War. The largest prisoner of war contingent was Soviet, the second largest was Spanish. [ 1 ] Initially a single camp at Mauthausen, it expanded over time and by the summer of 1940, the Mauthausen-Gusen had become one of the largest labour camp complexes in German-controlled Europe. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Apart from the four main sub-camps at Mauthausen and nearby Gusen , more than 50 sub-camps, located throughout Austria and southern Germany, used the inmates as slave labour . Several subordinate camps of the KZ Mauthausen complex included quarries, munitions factories, mines, arms factories and Me 262 fighter-plane assembly plants. [ 4 ] In January 1945, the camps, directed from the central office in Mauthausen, contained roughly 85,000 inmates. [ 5 ] The death toll remains unknown, although most sources place it between 122,766 and 320,000 for the entire complex. The camps formed one of the first massive concentration camp complexes in Nazi Germany , and were the last ones to be liberated by the Allies . The two main camps, Mauthausen and Gusen I, were labelled as "Grade III" ( Stufe III ) camps, which meant that they were intended to be the toughest camps for the "Incorrigible Political Enemies of the Reich ". Mauthausen never lost this Stufe III classification, the worst. In the offices of the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) it was referred to by a nickname - Knochenmühle , the bone-grinder. [ 6 ] Unlike many other concentration camps, intended for all categories of prisoners, Mauthausen was mostly used for extermination through labour of the intelligentsia , who were educated people and members of the higher social classes in countries subjugated by the Nazi regime during World War II . [ 7 ] Contents 1 History 1.1 KZ Mauthausen 1.2 KL Gusen 1.3 Mauthausen-Gusen camp system 1.4 Mauthausen-Gusen as a business enterprise 1.5 Extermination through labour 2 Inmates 2.1 Women and children in Mauthausen-Gusen 2.2 The treatment of inmates and methodology of crime 2.3 Death toll 3 Staff 4 Liberation and post-war heritage 5 Memorials 6 Photo gallery 7 Notes 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links [ edit ] History [ edit ] KZ Mauthausen Franz Ziereis , Commandant of Mauthausen, 1939-1945 On 7 August 1938 prisoners from Dachau concentration camp were sent to the town of Mauthausen near Linz , Austria , to begin the construction of a new camp. The site was chosen as a site for a slave labour camp because of the nearby granite quarry, and due to its proximity to Linz. [ 5 ] Although the camp was, from the beginning of its existence, controlled by the German state, it was founded by a private company as an economic enterprise. The owner of the Wiener-Graben quarry (the Marbacher-Bruch and Bettelberg quarries), which was located in and around Mauthausen, was a DEST Company: an acronym for Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH . The company, led by Oswald Pohl , who was also a high-ranking official of the SS , rented the quarries from the City of Vienna and started the construction of the Mauthausen camp. While DEST rented the quarries at Mauthausen from the city of Vienna in 1938, the company bought its first lots of land at nearby Gusen already on 25 May 1938. [ 4 ] A year later, the company ordered the construction of the first camp at Gusen. The granite mined in the quarries had previously been used to pave the streets of Vienna, but the Nazi authorities envisioned a complete reconstruction of major German towns in accordance with plans of Albert Speer and other architects of Nazi architecture , [ 8 ] for which large quantities of granite were needed. The money needed for the construction of the Mauthausen camp was gathered from a variety of sources, including commercial loans from Dresdner Bank and Prague -based Escompte Bank , the so-called Reinhardt's fund (meaning money stolen from the inmates of the concentration camps themselves); and from the German Red Cross . [ 5 ] [a] Mauthausen initially served as a strictly-run prison camp for common criminals, prostitutes [ 9 ] and other categories of "Incorrigible Law Offenders". [ 10 ] On 8 May 1939 it was converted to a labour camp which was mainly used for the incarceration of political prisoners. [ 11 ] [ edit ] KL Gusen Aerial view of the Gusen I & II camps Main article: Gusen concentration camp "(...) In March 1940 I was brought to Mauthausen to build the Gusen camp. The building tempo had to be accelerated, because the " Aktion gegen die polnische Intelligenz " was designated for the month of April. What no one knew in the home country, we knew - the SS-men who were beating us, told us that we build a camp for our rotten brothers from Poland, who today can still spend Easter uneventfully, without an inkling what awaits them. They called the camp under construction Gusen "Vernichtungslager fur die polnische Intelligenz"". - Stefan Józefowicz bank headmaster no. 1129 in Mauthausen, 43069 Gusen. [ 12 ] DEST started to purchase a lot of land at Gusen in May 1938 in order to establish a twin concentration camp at Mauthausen and Gusen from the beginning, although construction of Concentration Camp Gusen was not started until autumn 1939. In the years 1938 and 1939, inmates of the nearby Mauthausen makeshift camp marched daily to the stone-quarries at Gusen which were more productive and more important for DEST than the Wienergraben Quarry. [ 4 ] In late 1939, the not yet finished Mauthausen camp, with its Wiener-Graben granite quarry, was already overcrowded with prisoners since Germany started the war against Poland in September 1939. Their numbers rose from 1,080 in late 1938 to over 3,000 a year later. About that time the construction of a new camp "for the Poles" began in Gusen , about 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) away. The new camp (later named Gusen I ) became operational in May 1940 while the Kastenhof- and Gusen-Quarries in the vicinity of that new concentration camp were operated with concentration camp inmates from Mauthausen before. The first inmates were put in the first two huts (No. 7 and 8) on 17 April 1940, while the first transport of prisoners - mostly from the camps in Dachau and Sachsenhausen - arrived on 25 May of the same year. [ 5 ] The new camp at Gusen saved the inmates of Mauthausen the daily march between both locations. Like nearby Mauthausen, the Gusen camp also used its inmates as slave labour in the granite quarries, but they also rented them out to various local businesses. In October 1941, several huts were separated from the Gusen sub-camp by barbed wire and turned into a separate Prisoner of War Labour Camp ( German : Kriegsgefangenenarbeitslager ). This camp had a large number of prisoners of war incarcerated, mostly Soviet officers. By 1942 the production capacity of both Mauthausen and Gusen had reached its peak. Gusen was expanded to include the central depot of the SS , where various goods, which had been seized from occupied territories, were sorted and then dispatched to Germany. [ 13 ] Local quarries and businesses were in constant need of a new source of labour as more and more Austrians were drafted into the Wehrmacht . In March 1944, the former SS depot was converted to a new sub-camp, and was named Gusen II . Until the end of the war the depot served as an improvised concentration camp . The camp contained about 12,000 to 17,000 inmates, who were deprived of even the most basic facilities. [ 2 ] In December 1944, another part of Gusen was opened in nearby Lungitz . Here, parts of a factory infrastructure were converted into the third sub-camp of Gusen — Gusen III . [ 2 ] The rise in the number of sub-camps could not catch up with the rising number of inmates, which led to overcrowding of the huts in all of the sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen. From late 1940 to 1944, the number of inmates per bed rose from 2 to 4. [ 2 ] [ edit ] Mauthausen-Gusen camp system Map showing location of some of the most notable sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen See also: List of subcamps of Mauthausen As the production in all of the sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen complex was constantly rising, so was the number of detainees and the number of the sub-camps themselves. Although initially the camps of Gusen and Mauthausen mostly served the local quarries, from 1942, and onwards, they began to be included in the German war machine. To accommodate the ever-increasing number of slave workers, additional sub-camps ( German : Außenlager ) of Mauthausen began construction in all parts of Austria. At the end of the war the list included 101 camps (including 49 major sub-camps [ 14 ] ) which covered most of modern Austria , from Mittersill south of Salzburg to Schwechat east of Vienna and from Passau on the pre-war Austro-German border to the Loibl Pass on the border with Yugoslavia . The sub-camps were divided into several categories, depending on their main function: Produktionslager for factory workers, Baulager for construction, Aufräumlager for cleaning the rubble in Allied-bombed towns, and Kleinlager (small camps) where the inmates were working specifically for the SS. [ edit ] Mauthausen-Gusen as a business enterprise Heinrich Himmler of SS visiting Mauthausen in 1941. Himmler is talking to Franz Ziereis , camp commandant. The production output of Mauthausen-Gusen exceeded that of each of the five other large slave labour centres, including: Auschwitz-Birkenau , Flossenbürg , Gross-Rosen , Marburg and Natzweiler-Struthof , in terms of both production quota and profits. [ 15 ] The list of companies using slave labour from the Mauthausen-Gusen camp system was long, and included both national corporations and small, local firms and communities. Some parts of the quarries were converted into a Mauser machine pistol assembly plant. In 1943, an underground factory for the Steyr-Daimler-Puch company was built in Gusen. Altogether, 45 larger companies took part in making KZ Mauthausen-Gusen one of the most profitable concentration camps of Nazi Germany, with more than 11,000,000 Reichsmark [b] of the profits in 1944 alone (EUR 144 million as of 2012). Among them were: [ 15 ] Businesses profiting from slave workers of Mauthausen-Gusen DEST cartel Accumulatoren-Fabrik AFA (the main producer of batteries for German U-Boats) Bayer (main German producer of medicines and medications) Deutsche Bergwerks- und Hüttenbau Linz -based Eisenwerke Oberdonau (a major World War II steel supplier for the German Panzer tanks [ 16 ] ) Flugmotorenwerke Ostmark (aeroplane engine manufacturer) Otto Eberhard Patronenfabrik (munitions works) Heinkel and Messerschmitt (aeroplane factories, also a V-2 rocket fuselage factory) Hofherr und Schrenz Lederkopfwerke Bollomark Teufel UJJ Österreichische Sauerwerks (arms producer) PUCH (vehicles) Rax-Werke (machinery and V-2 rockets) Steyr Mannlicher (small arms factory) Steyr-Daimler-Puch cartel (arms and vehicles) Universale Hoch und Tiefbau (construction of tunnels in the Loibl Pass ) Prisoners were also 'rented out' as slave labour, and were exploited in various ways, such as working for local farms, for road construction, reinforcing and repairing the banks of the Danube, and the construction of large residential areas in Sankt Georgen [ 4 ] as well as being forced to excavate archaeological sites in Spielberg. "Bergkristall" Tunnel System at Gusen. Built to protect Me 262 production from air raids. When the Allied strategic bombing campaign started to target the German war industry, German planners decided to move production to underground facilities that were impenetrable to enemy aerial bombardment. In Gusen I, the prisoners were ordered to build several large tunnels beneath the hills surrounding the camp (code-named Kellerbau ). By the end of World War II the prisoners had dug 29,400 square metres (316,000 sq ft) to house a small arms factory. In January 1944, similar tunnels were also built beneath the village of Sankt Georgen by the inmates of Gusen II sub-camp (code-named Bergkristall ). They dug roughly 50,000 square metres (540,000 sq ft) so the Messerschmitt company could build an assembly plant to produce the Messerschmitt Me 262 and V-2 rockets . In addition to planes, some 7,000 square metres (75,000 sq ft) of Gusen II tunnels served as factories for various war materials. [ 4 ] [ 17 ] In late 1944, roughly 11,000 of the Gusen I and II inmates were working in underground facilities. [ 18 ] An additional 6,500 worked on expanding the underground network of tunnels and halls. In 1945, the Me 262 works was already finished and the Germans were able to assemble 1,250 planes a month. [ 4 ] [ 19 ] This was the second largest plane factory in Germany after the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp , which was also underground. [ 18 ] [ edit ] Extermination through labour Soviet POWs, Mathausen The political function of the camp continued in parallel with its economic role. Until at least 1942, it was used for the imprisonment and murder of Germany's political and ideological enemies, both real and imagined. [ 3 ] [ 20 ] The camp served the needs of the German war machine and also carried out extermination through labour . When the inmates were totally exhausted after having worked in the quarries for 12 hours a day, or if they were too ill or too weak to work, they were then transferred to the Revier ("Krankenrevier", sick barrack) or other places for extermination. Initially, the camp did not have a gas chamber of its own and the so-called Muselmänner , or prisoners who were too sick to work, after being maltreated, under-nourished or exhausted, were then transferred to other concentration camps for extermination (mostly to the infamous Hartheim Castle , [ 21 ] which was 40.7 kilometres / 25.3 miles away), or killed by lethal injection and cremated in the local crematorium . The growing number of prisoners made the system too expensive and from 1940, Mauthausen was one of the few camps in the West to use a gas chamber on a regular basis. In the beginning, an improvised mobile gas chamber – a van with the exhaust pipe connected to the inside – shuttled between Mauthausen and Gusen . By December 1941, a permanent gas chamber that could kill about 120 prisoners at a time was completed. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ edit ] Inmates New prisoners awaiting disinfection in the courtyard of Mauthausen See also: List of Mauthausen-Gusen inmates Until early 1940, the largest group of inmates consisted of German, Austrian and Czechoslovak socialists , communists , anarchists , homosexuals , and people of Roma origin. Other groups of people to be persecuted solely on religious grounds were the Sectarians , as they were dubbed by the Nazi regime, meaning Bible Students and Jehovah's Witnesses . The reason for their imprisonment was their total rejection of giving the loyalty oath to Hitler and their absolute refusal to participate in any kind of military service. [ 11 ] Sub-camp inmate counts Late 1944 – Early 1945 [ 5 ] [ 24 ] Gusen (I, II and III combined) 26,311 Ebensee 18,437 Gunskirchen 15,000 Melk 10,314 Linz 6,690 Amstetten 2,966 Wiener-Neudorf 2,954 Schwechat 2,568 Steyr-Münichholz 1,971 Schlier-Redl-Zipf 1,488 In early 1940, a large number of Poles were transferred to the Mauthausen-Gusen complex. The first groups were mostly composed of artists, scientists, Boy Scouts , teachers, and university professors, [ 5 ] [ 25 ] who were arrested during Intelligenzaktion and the course of the AB Action . [ 26 ] Camp Gusen II was called by Germans "Vernichtungslager fur die polnische Intelligenz" ("Extermination camp for Polish inteligentsia"). [ 27 ] Later in the war, new arrivals were from every category of the "unwanted", but educated people and so-called political prisoners constituted the largest part of all inmates until the end of the war. During World War II , large groups of Spanish Republicans were also transferred to Mauthausen and its sub-camps. Most of them were former Republican soldiers or activists who had fled to France after Franco 's victory and then were captured by German forces after the French defeat in 1940 or handed over to the Germans by the Vichy authorities. The largest of these groups arrived at Gusen in January 1941. [ 28 ] In early 1941, almost all the Poles and Spaniards, except for a small group of specialists working in the quarry's stone mill, were transferred from Mauthausen to Gusen. [ 29 ] Following the outbreak of the Soviet-German War in 1941 the camps started to receive a large number of Soviet POWs . Most of them were kept in huts separated from the rest of the camp. The Soviet prisoners of war were a major part of the first groups to be gassed in the newly-built gas chamber in early 1942. In 1944, a large group of Hungarian and Dutch Jews was also transferred to the camp. [ 30 ] Much like all the other large groups of prisoners that were transferred to Mauthausen-Gusen, most of them either died as a result of the hard labour and poor conditions, or were deliberately killed by throwing them down the sides of the Mauthausen quarry, nicknamed the Parachutists' Wall by the SS guards and Kapos . The nickname was a cruel joke which mocked the doomed prisoners by calling them "Parachutists without a parachute". Gruelling and pointless physical exercise was one of the methods of "wearing the inmates down". [ 29 ] Here a group of prisoners is forced to play " leap frog ". Throughout the years of World War II, the camps of Mauthausen-Gusen received new prisoners in smaller transports on a daily basis; mostly from other concentration camps in German-occupied Europe. Most of the prisoners in the sub-camps of Mauthausen were kept in various detention sites prior to transportation to their final destination. The most notable of such centres for Mauthausen-Gusen were the infamous camps at Dachau and Auschwitz . The first transports from Auschwitz arrived in February 1942. The second transport in June of that year was much larger and numbered some 1,200 prisoners. Similar groups were sent from Auschwitz to Gusen and Mauthausen in April and November 1943, and then in January and February 1944. Finally, after Adolf Eichmann visited Mauthausen in May of that year, KZ Mauthausen-Gusen received the first group of roughly 8,000 Hungarian Jews from Auschwitz; the first group to be evacuated from that camp before the Soviet advance. Initially, the groups evacuated from Auschwitz consisted of qualified workers for the ever-growing industry of the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex, but as the evacuation proceeded other categories of people were also transported to Mauthausen, Gusen, Vienna or Melk . Camp file of a Polish political prisoner No. 382, Jerzy Kaźmirkiewicz Over time, Auschwitz had to almost stop accepting new prisoners and most were directed to Mauthausen instead. The last group— roughly 10,000 prisoners—was evacuated in the last wave in January 1945, only a few weeks before the Soviet liberation of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex. [ 31 ] Among them was a large group of civilians arrested by the Germans after the failure of the Warsaw Uprising , [ 32 ] but by the liberation not more than 500 of them were still alive. [ 33 ] Altogether, during the final months of the war, 23,364 prisoners from other concentration camps arrived at the camp complex. [ 33 ] Many more perished during death marches , where they dropped dead because of pure exhaustion, or in railway wagons, where the prisoners were confined at sub-zero temperatures—without adequate food or water—for several days prior to their arrival. Prisoner transports were considered to be less important than other important services. Many of those who survived the journey died before they could be registered, whilst others were given the camp numbers of prisoners who had already been killed. [ 33 ] Most were then accommodated in the camps or in the newly-established tent camp ( German : Zeltlager ) just outside the Mauthausen sub-camp, where roughly 2,000 people were forced into tents intended for not more than 800 inmates, and then starved to death. [ 34 ] As in all other German concentration camps , not all the prisoners were equal. Their treatment depended largely on the category assigned to each inmate , as well as their nationality and rank within the system. The so-called kapos , or prisoners who had been recruited by their captors to police their fellow prisoners, were given more food and higher pay in the form of concentration camp coupons which could be exchanged for cigarettes in the canteen, as well as a separate room inside most barracks. In addition, following Himmler 's order in June, 1941, a brothel was opened for them in 1942, in the Mauthausen and Gusen I camps. [ 35 ] The Kapos formed the main part of the so-called Prominents ( German : Prominenz ), or prisoners who were given a much better treatment than the average inmate. [ edit ] Women and children in Mauthausen-Gusen Although the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex was mostly a labour camp for men, a women's camp was opened in Mauthausen, in September 1944, with the first transport of female prisoners from Auschwitz . Eventually, more women and children came to Mauthausen from Ravensbrück , Bergen Belsen , Gross Rosen , and Buchenwald . With them came some female guards. Twenty are known to have served in the Mauthausen camp, and sixty in the whole camp complex. Female guards also staffed the Mauthausen sub-camps at Hirtenberg , Lenzing (the main women's sub-camp in Austria), and St. Lambrecht . The Chief Overseers at Mauthausen were firstly Margarete Freinberger , and then Jane Bernigau . Of all the female Overseers who served in Mauthausen, almost all of them were recruited between September and November 1944, from Austrian cities and towns. In early April 1945, at least 2,500 more female prisoners came from the female sub-camps at Amstetten , St. Lambrecht, Hirtenberg, and the Flossenbürg sub-camp at Freiberg . It is rumoured that Hildegard Lächert also served at Mauthausen. [ 36 ] The available Mauthausen inmate statistics [ 37 ] from the spring of 1943, shows that there were 2,400 prisoners below the age of 20, which was 12.8% of the 18,655 population. By late March 1945, the number of juvenile prisoners in Mauthausen increased to 15,048, which was 19.1% of the 78,547 Mauthausen inmates. The number of imprisoned children increased 6.2 times, whereas the total number of adult prisoners during the same period multiplied by a factor of only four. These numbers reflected the increasing use of Polish, Czech, Russian, and Balkan teenagers as slave labour as the war continued. [ 38 ] Statistics showing the composition of juvenile inmates shortly before their liberation [ 37 ] reveal the following major child/prisoner sub-groups: 5,809 foreign civilian labourers, 5,055 political prisoners, 3,654 Jews, and 330 Russian POWs. There were also 23 Roma children, 20 so-called "anti-social elements", 6 Spaniards, and 3 Jehovah's Witnesses. [ edit ] The treatment of inmates and methodology of crime Hans Bonarewitz being taken to his execution after escaping and being recaptured 7 July 1942. Although not the only concentration camp where the German authorities implemented their extermination through labour ( Vernichtung durch Arbeit ), Mauthausen-Gusen was one of the most brutal and severe. The conditions within the camp were considered exceptionally hard to bear, even by concentration camp standards. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ] The inmates suffered not only from malnutrition , overcrowded huts and constant abuse and beatings by the guards and kapos , [ 29 ] but also from exceptionally hard labour. [ 22 ] As there were too many prisoners in Mauthausen to have all of them work in its quarry at the same time, many were put to work in workshops, or had to do other manual work, whilst the unfortunate ones who were selected to work in the quarry were only there because of their so-called "crimes" in the camp. The reasons for sending them to work in the "Punishment-Detail" were trivial, and included such "crimes" as not saluting a German passing by. The work in the quarries — often in unbearable heat or in temperatures as low as −30 °C (−22 °F) [ 29 ] — led to exceptionally high mortality rates. [ 41 ] [c] The food rations were limited, and during the 1940–1942 period, an average inmate weighed 40 kilograms, [ 42 ] roughly 88 pounds. It is estimated that the average energy content of food rations dropped from about 1,750 calories a day during the 1940–1942 period, to between 1,150 and 1,460 during the next period. In 1945, the energy content was even lower and did not exceed 600 to 1,000 calories a day; that is less than a third of the energy needed by an average worker in heavy industry . [ 2 ] This led to the starvation of thousands of inmates. The inmates of Mauthausen, Gusen I, and Gusen II had access to a separate sub-camp for the sick — the so-called Krankenlager . Despite the fact that (roughly) 100 medics from among the inmates were working there, [ 43 ] they were not given any medication and could offer only basic first aid. [ 5 ] [ 43 ] Thus the hospital camp – as it was called by the German authorities – was, in fact, the last stop before death for thousands of inmates, and very few had a chance to recover. "Stairs of Death" Prisoners forced to carry a granite block up 186 steps to the top of the quarry. April, 1941 visit by Heinrich Himmler The rock-quarry in Mauthausen was at the base of the infamous "Stairs of Death". Prisoners were forced to carry roughly-hewn blocks of stone — often weighing as much as 50 kilograms (110 lb) — up the 186 stairs - one behind the other. As a result, many exhausted prisoners collapsed in front of the other prisoners in the line, and then fell on top of the other prisoners, creating a horrific domino effect; the first prisoner falling onto the next, and so on, all the way down the stairs. [ 44 ] Such brutality was not accidental. The SS guards would often force prisoners — exhausted from hours of hard labour without sufficient food and water — to race up the stairs carrying blocks of stone. Those who survived the ordeal would often be placed in a line-up at the edge of a cliff known as "The Parachutists Wall" ( German : Fallschirmspringerwand ). [ 45 ] At gun-point each prisoner would have the option of being shot or pushing the prisoner in front of him off the cliff. [ 14 ] Other common methods of extermination of prisoners who were either sick, unfit for further labour or as a means of collective responsibility or after escape attempts included: Being beaten to death (by the SS and Kapos) Icy showers - some 3,000 inmates died of hypothermia - after having being forced to take an icy cold shower - and who were then left outside in cold weather. [ 46 ] Mass-shootings Medical experiments Aribert Heim , dubbed "Doctor Death" by the inmates, was there for seven weeks, which was enough to carry out his experiments [ 47 ] Another of the Nazi scientists to perform experiments on the inmates was Karl Gross , who purposely infected hundreds of prisoners with cholera and typhus in order to test his experimental vaccines on them. Between 5 February 1942, and mid-April 1944, more than 1,500 prisoners were killed as a result of his experiments [ 48 ] Hanging Starvation Injections of phenol . (A group of 2,000 prisoners who applied to be transferred to the sanatorium were declared mentally sick and were killed by Dr. Ramsauer in the course of the H-13 action) [ 46 ] Drowning in large barrels of water (Gusen II) [ 49 ] [d] Beating to death or starving to death in bunkers [ 50 ] Throwing the prisoners on the 380 volt electric barbed wire fence [ 50 ] Forcing prisoners outside the boundaries of the camp and then shooting them on the pretense that they were attempting to escape [ 51 ] After the war one of the survivors, Dr. Antoni Gościński reported 62 ways of murdering people in the camps of Gusen I and Mauthausen. [ 46 ] Hans Maršálek estimated that an average life expectancy of newly-arrived prisoners in Gusen varied from 6 months between 1940 and 1942, to less than 3 months in early 1945. [ 52 ] Paradoxically, with the growth of forced labour industry in various sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen, the situation of some of the prisoners improved significantly. While the food rations were increasingly limited every month, the heavy industry necessitated skilled specialists rather than unqualified workers and the brutality of the camp's SS and Kapos was limited. While the prisoners were still beaten on a daily basis and the Muselmänner were still exterminated, from early 1943 on some of the factory workers were allowed to receive food parcels from their families (mostly Poles and Frenchmen). This allowed many of them not only to evade the risk of starvation, but also to help other prisoners who had no relatives outside the camps — or who were not allowed to receive parcels. [ 53 ] [ edit ] Death toll Estimated death toll proportion Some of the bodies being removed by German civilians for decent burial at Gusen concentration camp after its liberation Mauthausen Crematorium Because the Germans destroyed much of the camp's files and evidence and often gave newly-arrived prisoners the camp numbers of those who had already been killed, [ 22 ] the exact death toll of the Mauthausen-Gusen complex is impossible to calculate. The matter is further complicated due to some of the inmates of Gusen being murdered in Mauthausen, and at least 3,423 sent to Hartheim Castle, 40.7 km (25.3 mi) away. Also, several thousands were killed in mobile gas chambers, without any mention of the exact number of victims in the remaining files. [ 54 ] The SS, before their escape from the camps on 4 May 1945, tried to destroy the evidence, allowing approximately only 40,000 victims to be identified. During the first days after the liberation, the camp's main chancellery was seized by the members of a Polish inmate resistance organization; secured against the wishes of other inmates, who wanted to burn it. [ 55 ] After the war, the main chancellery was brought by one of the survivors to Poland, then passed to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum in Oświęcim . [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Parts of the death register of Gusen I camp were secured by the Polish inmates, who took it to Australia after the war. In 1969 the files were given to the International Red Cross Tracing Bureau. [ 54 ] The surviving camp archives include personal files of 37,411 murdered prisoners, including 22,092 Poles, 5,024 Spaniards, 2,843 Soviet prisoners of war and 7,452 inmates of 24 other nationalities. [ 58 ] The surviving parts of the death register of KZ Gusen list an additional 30,536 names. Apart from the surviving camp files of the sub-camps of Mauthausen, the main documents used for an estimation of the death toll of the camp complexes are: A report by Józef Żmij , a survivor who had been working in the Gusen I camp's chancellery. His report is based on personally-made copies of yearly reports from the period between 1940 and 1944, and the camps commander's daily reports for the period between 1 January 1945 and the day of the liberation. Original death register for the sub-camp of Gusen held by the Personal notes of Stanisław Nogaj , another inmate who had been working in the chancellery of Gusen Death register prepared by the SS chief medic of the Mauthausen main chancellery for the sub-camps of Gusen (similar records for the Mauthausen sub-camp itself were destroyed) Because of that the exact death toll of the entire Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp system varies considerably from source to source. Various scholars place it at between 122,766 [ 59 ] and 320,000, [ 46 ] with other numbers also frequently quoted being 200,000 [ 60 ] and "over 150,000". [ 61 ] Various historians place the total death toll in the four main camps of Mauthausen, Gusen I, Gusen II and Gusen III at between 55,000 [ 22 ] and 60,000. [ 62 ] In addition, during the first month after the liberation additional 1042 prisoners died in American field hospitals. [ 63 ] Death Toll Statistics Gusen I, II and III Death Toll of Gusen I, II and III [e] Józef Żmij Stanisław Nogaj KZ Gusen Hans Maršálek [ 11 ] Stanisław Dobosiewicz [ 64 ] 1940 1,784 1,430 1,389 1,762 1941 5,793 7,214 5,564 5,272 6,300 1942 6,088 7,203 5,005 7,410 9,534 1943 5,225 5,303 5,173 5,248 6,103 1944 5,921 4,790 4,691 4,091 5,488 1945 12,600 197 4,673 15,415 Undated 2,843 Total 37,411 24,707 30,536 33,451 44,602 Out of approximately 320,000 prisoners who were incarcerated in various sub-camps of KZ Mauthausen-Gusen throughout the war, only approximately 80,000 survived, [ 65 ] including between 20,487 [ 63 ] and 21,386 [ 66 ] in Gusen I, II and III. [ edit ] Staff Several Norwegian Waffen SS volunteers worked as guards or as instructors for prisoners from Nordic countries, according to senior researcher at Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities — Terje Emberland. [ 67 ] [ edit ] Liberation and post-war heritage Tanks of U.S. 11th Armored Division entering the Mauthausen concentration camp; banner in Spanish reads "Antifascist Spaniards greet the forces of liberation". The photo was taken on 6 May 1945 Survivors of Gusen shortly after their liberation Temporary identity papers produced for Mauthausen detainee after camp liberation. During the final months before liberation, the camp's commander Franz Ziereis prepared for its defence against a possible Soviet offensive. Most of the inmates of German and Austrian nationality "volunteered" for the SS-Freiwillige Häftlingsdivision , an SS unit composed mostly of former concentration camp inmates and headed by Oskar Dirlewanger . [ 68 ] The remaining prisoners were rushed to build a line of granite anti-tank obstacles to the east of Mauthausen. The inmates unable to cope with the hard labour and malnutrition were exterminated in large numbers to free space for newly-arrived evacuation transports from other camps, including most of the sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen located in eastern Austria. In the final months of the war, the main source of calories, that is the parcels of food sent through the International Red Cross , stopped and food rations became catastrophically low. The prisoners transferred to the "Hospital Sub-camp" received one piece of bread per 20 inmates and roughly half a litre of weed soup a day. [ 69 ] This made some of the prisoners, previously engaged in various types of resistance activity, begin to prepare plans to defend the camp in case of an SS attempt to exterminate all the remaining inmates. It is not known why the prisoners of Gusen I and II were not exterminated en-masse , despite direct orders from Heinrich Himmler ; Ziereis' plan assumed rushing all the prisoners into the tunnels of the underground factories of Kellerbau and blowing up the entrances. The plan was known to one of the Polish resistance organizations which started an ambitious plan of gathering tools necessary to dig air vents in the entrances. On 28 April, under cover of a fictional air-raid alarm, some 22,000 prisoners of Gusen were rushed into the tunnels. However, after several hours in the tunnels all of the prisoners were allowed to return to the camp. Stanisław Dobosiewicz , the author of a monumental monograph of the Mauthausen-Gusen complex, explains that one of the possible causes of the failure of the German plan was that the Polish prisoners managed to cut the fuse wires. Ziereis himself stated in his testimony written on 25 May that it was his wife who convinced him not to follow the order from above. [ 70 ] Although the plan was abandoned, the prisoners feared that the SS might want to massacre the prisoners by other means. Because of that the Polish, Soviet and French prisoners prepared a plan for an assault on the barracks of the SS guards in order to seize the arms necessary to put up a fight. A similar plan was also devised by the Spanish inmates. [ 70 ] On 3 May the SS and other guards started to prepare for evacuation of the camp. The following day, the guards of Mauthausen were replaced with unarmed Volkssturm soldiers and an improvised unit formed of elderly police officers and fire fighters evacuated from Vienna. The police officer in charge of the unit accepted the "inmate self-government" as the camp's highest authority and Martin Gerken , until then the highest-ranking kapo prisoner in the Gusen's administration (in the rank of Lagerälteste , or the Camp's Elder ), became the new de facto commander. He attempted to create an International Prisoner Committee that would become a provisional governing body of the camp until it was liberated by one of the approaching armies, but he was openly accused of co-operation with the SS and the plan failed. All work in the sub-camps of Mauthausen stopped and the inmates focused on preparations for their liberation - or defence of the camps against a possible assault by the SS divisions concentrated in the area. [ 70 ] The remnants of several German divisions indeed assaulted the Mauthausen sub-camp, but were repelled by the prisoners who took over the camp. [ 9 ] Out of all the main sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen only Gusen III was to be evacuated. On 1 May the inmates were rushed on a death march towards Sankt Georgen , but were ordered to return to the camp after several hours. The operation was repeated the following day, but called off soon afterwards. The following day, the SS guards deserted the camp, leaving the prisoners to their fate. [ 70 ] On 5 May 1945 the camp at Mauthausen was approached by soldiers of the 41st Recon Squad of the US 11th Armored Division , 3rd US Army . The reconnaissance squad was led by S/SGT Albert J. Kosiek. His troop disarmed the policemen and left the camp. By the time of its liberation, most of the SS-men of Mauthausen had already fled; however, some 30 who were left were killed by the prisoners; [ 71 ] a similar number were killed in Gusen II. [ 71 ] By 6 May all the remaining sub-camps of the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex, with the exception of the two camps in the Loibl Pass , were also liberated by American forces. Among the inmates liberated from the camp was Lieutenant Jack Taylor, an officer of the Office of Strategic Services . [ 72 ] He had managed to survive with the help of several prisoners and was later a key witness at the Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials carried out by the Dachau International Military Tribunal . [ 73 ] Another of the camp's survivors was Simon Wiesenthal , an engineer who spent the rest of his life hunting Nazi war criminals . Future Medal of Honor recipient Tibor "Ted" Rubin was imprisoned there as a young teenager; a Hungarian Jew, he vowed to join the U.S. Army upon his liberation and later did just that, distinguishing himself in the Korean War as a corporal in the 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Following the capitulation of Germany, the Mauthausen-Gusen complex fell within the Soviet sector of occupation of Austria . Initially, the Soviet authorities used parts of the Mauthausen and Gusen I camps as barracks for the Red Army . At the same time, the underground factories were being dismantled and sent to the USSR as a war booty. After that, between 1946 and 1947, the camps were unguarded and many furnishings and facilities of the camp were dismantled, both by the Red Army and by the local population. In the early summer of 1947, the Soviet forces had blown the tunnels up and were then withdrawn from the area, while the camp was turned over to Austrian civilian authorities. [ edit ] Memorials It was not until 1949 that it was declared a national memorial site. Finally, 30 years after the camp's liberation, on 3 May 1975, Chancellor Bruno Kreisky officially opened the Mauthausen Museum. [ 3 ] Unlike Mauthausen, much of what constituted the sub-camps of Gusen I, II and III is now covered by residential areas built after the war. [ 74 ] [ edit ] Photo gallery Heinrich Himmler visited Mauthausen-Gusen in 1942, and is shown here conversing with a guard at the quarry. Another image of Himmler at the quarry, taken apparently immediately after the preceding image. Himmler in the quarry, prisoners doing forced labor can be seen at right. Himmler and his entourage ascend the "steps of death" which led from the quarry to a road going up to the Mauthausen camp. An explosion in the quarry, probably done as demonstration for Himmler during his visit. SS-officer in the quarry An SS barracks at Mauthausen Himmler and August Eigruber , one of the chief Austrian Nazis, taken during Himmler's visit to Mauthausen. Himmler's visit Soviet POWs standing before a barracks in Mauthausen Concentration Camp Liberated prisoners give rousing welcome to Cavalrymen of the 11th Armored Division . A survivor of Gusen. Exhibits at Mauthausen Construction of a prisoner barracks. Shot prisoner Execution of Bonarewitz, a prisoner who attempted an escape. New inmates change clothes at roll call square The survivors of Ebensee sub-camp shortly after their liberation. a memorial statue set by the state of Israel One of the barracks in Mauthausen with stones left by Jewish visitors in memory of the past. Prisoners in Ebensee , one of the sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen, after liberation by the US 80th Infantry Division Childrens' Memorial Two of the crematoria The Czechoslovakian Memorial Some of the commemorative plaques on the "Wailing Wall" Graffiti in a cellar in Concentration Camp Mauthausen A list of the dead (click the image for a translation) [ edit ] Notes ^ Oswald Pohl, apart from being a high-ranking SS member, owner of DEST and several other companies, chief of administration and treasurer of various Nazi organizations, was also the managing director of the German Red Cross . In 1938, he transferred 8,000,000 RM from member fees to one of the accounts of the SS (SS-Spargemeinschaft e. V.), which in turn donated all the money to DEST in 1939. [ 5 ] ^ 11,000,000 Reichsmark was equivalent to roughly 4,403,000 US dollars or almost 1 million UK pounds by 1939 exchange rates; [ 75 ] In turn, 4,403,000 1939 dollars are roughly equivalent to 560,370,000 modern US dollars using the relative share of GDP as the main factor of comparison, or 73.6 million using the consumer price index . [ 76 ] ^ It is often mentioned that the mortality rate reached 58% in 1941, as compared with 36% at Dachau, and 19% at Buchenwald over the same period. Dobosiewicz - who made the most extensive study - compared various factors: his estimations were based on the number of prisoners to arrive in a year as compared to the number of that were murdered during a year. [ 5 ] ^ Stanisław Grzesiuk recalls that in 1941, and 1942, all Kapos in charge of every Block in Gusen had to drown two prisoners a day. [ 29 ] ^ Compiled from a larger table published Stanisław Dobosiewicz's monograph; [ 64 ] the numbers are fragmentary and only include the numbers for Gusen I, II and III, without the numbers for other sub-camps or the main camp in Mauthausen. Summary by Stanisław Dobosiewicz includes categories omitted by some of the sources, including roughly 2,744 former inmates who died immediately after liberation, both in the camp and in American field hospitals, as well as an approximate number of Jewish children (420) and prisoners in the Sick Camp (1900) who were not registered in the official camp statistics. [ edit ] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Konzentrationslager Mauthausen-Gusen Dachau International Military Tribunal List of Nazi-German concentration camps List of subcamps of Mauthausen Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials Steyr-Münichholz subcamp [ edit ] References ^ Spaniards in the Holocaust, Preface, David Wingeate Pike, Routledge, 2000 ^ a b c d e (Polish) Stanisław Dobosiewicz (2000). Mauthausen-Gusen; w obronie życia i ludzkiej godności . Warsaw: Bellona. pp. 191–202. ISBN 83-11-09048-3 . ^ a b c (English) Günter Bischof ; Anton Pelinka (1996). Austrian Historical Memory and National Identity . Transaction Publishers. pp. 185–190. ISBN 1-56000-902-0 . http://books.google.com/?id=75l45XlpXTsC&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=Mauthausen . ^ a b c d e f (English) Rudolf A. Haunschmied; Jan-Ruth Mills, Siegi Witzany-Durda (2008). St. Georgen-Gusen-Mauthausen - Concentration Camp Mauthausen Reconsidered . Norderstedt: Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-8334-7610-5 . ^ a b c d e f g h i (Polish) Stanisław Dobosiewicz (1977). Mauthausen/Gusen; obóz zagłady (Mauthausen/Gusen; the Camp of Doom) . Warsaw: Ministry of National Defence Press. p. 449. ISBN 83-11-06368-0 . ^ Spaniards in the Holocaust, David Wingeate Pike p.14 ^ (Polish) Władysław Gębik (1972). Z diabłami na ty (Calling the Devils by their Names) . Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Morskie. p. 332. ^ (English) Albert Speer (1970). Inside The Third Reich . New York: The Macmillan Company. ISBN 0-88365-924-7 . ^ a b (Polish) Tadeusz Żeromski (1983). Międzynarodówka straceńców . Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. pp. 76+. ISBN 83-05-11175-X . ^ As stated in Reinhard Heydrich 's memo of January 1, 1941; in: Dobosiewicz, Stanisław, op.cit., p.12 ^ a b c (German) Hans Maršálek (1995). Die Geschichte des Konzentrationslagers Mauthausen (History of Mauthausen Concentration Camp) . Wien-Linz: Österreichischen Lagergemeinschaft Mauthausen u. Mauthausen-Aktiv Oberösterreich. ^ "Man to man...", Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walk i Męczeństwa, Warsaw 2011, p. 30, English version ^ Dobosiewicz, op.cit., p.26 ^ a b (English) James Waller (2002). Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing . Oxford: Oxford University Press . pp. 3–5. ISBN 0-19-514868-1 . http://books.google.com/?id=dHBB4TJpcx0C&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=Mauthausen . ^ a b (Spanish) various authors (2005). "Historia de los campos de concentración: El sistema de campos de concentración nacionalsocialista, 1933–1945: un modelo europeo" . Memoriales históricos, 1933–1945 . http://www.memoriales.net/ . ^ (German) M.S. (2000). "Linz – Eisenwerke Oberdonau" . Österreichs Geschichte im Dritten Reich . http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_linz2.html . Retrieved 2006-04-11 . ^ (English) Rudolf Haunschmied, Harald Faeth (1997). "B8 "BERGKRISTALL" (KL Gusen II)" . Tunnel and Shelter Researching . Archived from the original on 2006-06-14 . http://web.archive.org/web/20060614103134/http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1325/berg.htm . Retrieved 2006-04-26 . ^ a b Stanisław Dobosiewicz, W obronie życia… , op.cit., p.194 ^ Though in reality the actual production never reached such levels ^ (English) Elizabeth C. Richardson (1995). "United States vs. Leprich" . Administrative Law and Procedure . Thomson Delmar Learning. pp. 162–164. ISBN 0-8273-7468-2 . http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&visbn=0827374682&id=8iBCkpR1MqMC&pg=PA162&lpg=PA162&dq=Mauthausen&sig=uS5RYlmOR7sqvkU-C-Ff3Hgq_hU . ^ (English) Marc Terrance (1999). Concentration Camps: A Traveler's Guide to World War II Sites . Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-58112-839-8 . http://books.google.com/?id=TNt9IVBVeNQC&pg=PA142&lpg=PA142&dq=Mauthausen . ^ a b c d (English) Robert Abzug (1987). Inside the Vicious Heart . Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 106–110. ISBN 0-19-504236-0 . http://books.google.com/?id=CMfGlx3jDLIC&pg=PA107&lpg=PA107&dq=Mauthausen . ^ (English) Michael Shermer ; Alex Grobman (2002). "The Gas Chamber at Mauthausen" . Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It? . University of California Press. pp. 168–175. ISBN 0-520-23469-3 . http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&visbn=0520234693&id=Q-0B9-D5Vz4C&pg=PA168&lpg=PA168&dq=Mauthausen&sig=CNT1pOFaaBiIbNkcYl1YWbDgOso . ^ The sub-camp inmate counts refer to the situation as of late 1944 and early 1945, before the major reorganization of the camp's system and before the arrival of a large number of evacuation trains and death marches ^ (Polish) Stanisław Nogaj (1945). Gusen; Pamiętnik dziennikarza (Gusen: Memories of a Journalist) . Katowice-Chorzów: Komitet byłych więźniów obozu koncentracyjnego Gusen. p. 64. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, "Poland's holocaust: ethnic strife, collaboration with occupying forces and genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947", McFarland, 1998, pg. 25 ^ "Człowiek człowiekowi... Niszczenie polskiej inteligencji w latach 1939-1945 KL Mauthausen/Gusen" Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walk i Męczeństwa, Warszawa 2009 ^ (Polish) Włodzimierz Wnuk (1972). "Z Hiszpanami w jednym szeregu (With the Spaniards in One Line)". Byłem z wami (I Was With You) . Warsaw: PAX . pp. 100–105. ^ a b c d e (Polish) Stanisław Grzesiuk (1985). Pięć lat kacetu (Five Years of KZ) . Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. p. 392. ISBN 83-05-11108-3 . ^ Roughly 8,000 people altogether ^ (Polish) Piotr Filipkowski (2005). "Auschwitz w drodze do Matchausen (Auschwitz on its Way to Mauthausen)" . Europe According to Auschwitz . Archived from the original on September 28, 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070928135122/http://www.reporter.edu.pl/europa_wg_auschwitz/kronika_reportaz/konferencja_historia_mowiona_a_kronika_reportaz/auschwitz_w_drodze_do_matchausen . Retrieved 2006-04-11 . ^ (Polish) Jerzy Kirchmayer (1978). Powstanie warszawskie . Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. p. 576. ISBN 83-05-11080-X . ^ a b c Stanisław Dobosiewicz, op.cit., pp. 365–367 ^ (German) Florian Freund, Harald Greifeneder (2005). "Zeltlager" . http://www.mauthausen-memorial.at/db/admin/de/show_article.php?carticle=343&topopup=1 . Retrieved 2006-05-16 . ^ KZ Gusen Memorial Committee (1997). "KZ Gusen I Concentration Camp at Langenstein" . The Nizkor Project . Nizkor . http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/camps/gusen/gu10101x.htm . Retrieved 2006-04-10 . ^ (English) Daniel Patrick Brown (2002). The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries Who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System . Schiffer Publishing. p. 288. ISBN 0-7643-1444-0 . ^ a b (English) various authors; Henry Friedlander (1981). "The Nazi Concentration Camps". In Michael D. Ryan. Human Responses to the Holocaust Perpetrators and Victims, Bystanders and Resisters . Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 33–69. ISBN 0-88946-901-6 . as quoted in Sybil Milton (1997). "Non-Jewish Children in the Camps" . Annual 5 Chapter 2 . Simon Wiesenthal Center . http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395115#17 . Retrieved 2006-04-10 . ^ (Polish) Adam Myczkowski (1947?). Poprzez Dachau do Mauthausen-Gusen (Through Dachau to Mauthausen-Gusen) . Kraków: Księgarnia Stefana Kamińskiego. p. 31. ^ (English) Simon Wiesenthal Center. "Selected Holocaust Glossary: Terms, Places and Personalities" . Florida Holocaust Museum webpage . Florida Holocaust Museum. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006 . http://web.archive.org/web/20061208112244/http://www.flholocaustmuseum.org/frameworks/glossary.htm . Retrieved 2006-04-12 . ^ (English) Donald Bloxham (2003). Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-19-925904-6 . http://books.google.com/?id=ab4ZL8h5dFMC&pg=PA210&lpg=PA210&dq=extermination+through+labour . ^ a b (English) Michael Burleigh (1997). Ethics and Extermination: Reflections on Nazi Genocide . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 210–211. ISBN 0-521-58816-2 . http://books.google.com/?id=y-tbb8Yx3ooC&pg=RA1-PA211&lpg=RA1-PA211&dq=extermination+through+labour . ^ (English) David Wingeate Pike (2000). Spaniards in the Holocaust . London: Routledge. p. 97. ISBN 0-415-22780-1 . http://books.google.com/?id=-9uRoGlfSM8C&dq=Mauthausen-Gusen&lpg=PA95&pg=PA97 . ^ a b (Polish) Stefan Krukowski (1966). "Pamięci lekarzy (Memory of the doctors)". Nad pięknym modrym Dunajem; Mauthausen (Mauthausen: At the Blue Danube) . Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. pp. 292–297. ^ (English) Gary Weissman (2004). Fantasies of Witnessing: Postwar Efforts to Experience the Holocaust . Cornell University Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-8014-4253-2 . http://books.google.com/?id=kXO9wXvYuAQC&dq=Mauthausen&lpg=PA1&pg=PA3 . ^ (German) "Fallschirmspringerwand" . Mauthausen Memorial . KZ-Gedenkstaette Mauthausen . http://www.mauthausen-memorial.at/db/admin/de/show_article.php?carticle=367&topopup=1 . Retrieved 2006-05-16 . ^ a b c d (Polish) various authors; Włodzimierz Wnuk (1961). "Śmiertelne kąpiele (Deadly Baths)". Oskarżamy! Materiały do historii obozu koncentracyjnego Mauthausen-Gusen (We Accuse! Materialson the History of Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp) . Katowice: Klub Mauthausen-Gusen ZBoWiD. pp. 20–22. ^ (English) Dale Fuchs (October 2005). "Nazi war criminal escapes Costa Brava police search" . Guardian (October 17, 2005) . http://www.guardian.co.uk/secondworldwar/story/0,14058,1593885,00.html . Retrieved 2006-04-10 . ^ (English) "Mauthausen" . Holocaust Encyclopedia . United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/ . Retrieved 2006-04-10 . ^ Stanisław Dobosiewicz, W obronie… , op.cit. p.12 ^ a b (English) Bruno Maida. "The gas chamber of Mauthausen - History and testimonies of the Italian deportees; A Brief history of the camp" . National Association of Italian political deportees in the Nazi concentration camps . Fondazione Memoria della Deportazione . http://www.deportati.it/english_mauthausen_maida.html . ^ (English) James Schmidt (2005) (PDF). "Not These Sounds": Beethoven at Mauthausen . Boston: Boston University. pp. 146–148 . http://people.bu.edu/jschmidt/Mauthausen.pdf . Retrieved 2006-05-16 . ^ Hans Maršálek (1968) Konzentrazionslager Gusen . Vienna, p. 32; cited in: Dobosiewicz, op.cit., pp. 192–193 ^ Stanisław Grzesiuk, op.cit., pp. 252–255 and following ^ a b Stanisław Dobosiewicz, op.cit., pp.418–426 ^ (Polish) Stanisław Dobosiewicz (1980). Mauthausen/Gusen; Samoobrona i konspiracja (Mauthausen/Gusen: self-defence and underground) . Warsaw: Wydawnictwa MON. p. 486. ISBN 83-11-06497-0 . ^ (Polish) sm (2006-04-03). "Pracownicy muzeum Auschwitz zeskanowali już kartotekę Mauthausen (The Workers of Auschwitz Museum Have Scanned the Mauthausen Files)" . 61. rocznica wyzwolenia Auschwitz ( Polish Press Agency ) . http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/kat,1342,wid,8253609,wiadomosc.html?ticaid=11682 . Retrieved 2006-04-11 . ^ (English) Adam Cyra (2004). "Mauthausen Concentration Camp Records in the Auschwitz Museum Archives" . Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum . Historical Research Section, Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum. Archived from the original on September 30, 2006 . http://web.archive.org/web/20060930071713/http://www.auschwitz-muzeum.oswiecim.pl/new/index.php?tryb=news_big&language=EN&id=664 . Retrieved 2006-04-11 . ^ (Polish) Zbigniew Wlazłowski (1974). Przez kamieniołomy i kolczasty drut (Through the Quarries and Barbed Wire) . Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie. pp. 7–12. ^ As evidenced by one of the stone tablets commemorating the victims, erected after the war by Austrian authorities. ^ David Wingeate Pike, op.cit., p.XII ^ (Polish) various authors; Marian Filip, Mikołaj Łomacki et al. (1962). Wrogom ku przestrodze: Mauthausen 5 maja 1945 . Warsaw: ZG ZBoWiD. p. 56. ^ (English) Martin Gilbert (1987). The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War . Owl Books. p. 976. ISBN 0-8050-0348-7 . According to Martin Gilbert, there were 30,000 deaths in Mauthausen and its sub-camps in the first four months of 1945. According to him, this was approximately half of the deaths in the whole history of the camp. ^ a b Zbigniew Wlazłowski, op.cit., pp. 175–176 ^ a b Stanisław Dobosiewicz, op.cit., p. 421 ^ (Czech) Stanislav Hlaváček (2000). "Historie KTM" . Koncentrační Tábor Mauthausen; Pamětní tisk k 55. výročí osvobození KTM (Mauthausen concentration camp: Memorial publication for the 55th anniversary of the liberation) . ISBN . http://www.mauthausen.cz/chronologie.html . Retrieved 2006-05-18 . ^ Stanisław Dobosiewicz, Mauthausen/Gusen; Obóz śmierci , op.cit., p. 397; the difference in numbers given is most probably the result of the fact that Dobosiewicz included roughly 700 inmates who were held in the Revier at the time of liberation ^ (translation of title: — Norwegian guards worked in Hitler's concentration camps)" - Norske vakter jobbet i Hitlers konsentrasjonsleire " ^ Dobosiewicz, op.cit., p.323 ^ Dobosiewicz, op.cit., pp.374–375 ^ a b c d Stanisław Dobosiewicz, op.cit., pp. 382–388 ^ a b Stanisław Dobosiewicz, op.cit., pp.395–397 ^ (English) "Jack Taylor, American Agent Who Survived Mauthausen" . Jewish Virtual Library . 2006 . http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/mauth32.html . Retrieved 2006-04-28 . ^ (English) Jack Taylor (3rd Quarter 2003). "OSS Archives: The Dupont Mission" . The BLAST; UDT-SEAL Association . http://www.udtseal.org/oss.html . Retrieved 2006-04-28 . ^ Marc Terrance, op.cit., pp. 138–139 ^ as per: (English) Michał Derela (2005). "The prices of Polish armament before 1939" . The PIBWL military site . http://derela.republika.pl/prices.htm . Retrieved 2006-05-22 . ^ as per: Samuel H. Williamson, "Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1774 to present" , MeasuringWorth, March 2011. [ edit ] Further reading (Polish) Jakub Willner (1965). Moja droga do Mauthausen (My Path Towards Mauthausen) . Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie. (Polish) Grzegorz Timofiejew (1960). Człowiek jest nagi . Łódź: Wydawnictwo Łódzkie. p. 355. (German) Hans Maršálek (1960). Mauthausen mahnt! Kampf hinter Stacheldraht Tatsachen, Dokumente und Gerüchte über das größte Hitler'sche Vernichtungslager in Österreich . Vienna. (English) Evelyn Le Chêne (1971). Mauthausen, The History of a Death Camp . London: Methuen. p. 296. ISBN 0-416-07780-3 . (English) Istvan Deak (1992). "In the Shadow of Death" . New York Review of Books (1992-10-08) . http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.py?camps/mauthausen/shadow.death . Retrieved 2006-05-16 . (Polish) Jerzy Osuchowski (1961). Gusen: przedsionek piekła (Gusen; the Hell's Porch) . Warsaw: Wydawnictwa MON. p. 208. (German) Simon Wiesenthal (1946). KZ Mauthausen; Bild und Wort ( Concentration Camp Mauthausen: Pictures and Words ) . Linz-Vienna: IBIS Verlag. (German) Simon Wiesenthal (1995). Denn sie wussten, was sie tun: Zeichnungen und Aufzeichnungen aus dem KZ Mauthausen . Deuticke. p. 107. ISBN 3-216-30114-1 . (French) Michel Fabréguet (1994). Mauthausen. Camp de concentration national-socialiste en Autriche rattacheé (1938–1945) . Paris: Editions du Seuil. (English) Yechezkel Harfenes (1988). Slingshot of Hell: Holocaust Journal . Southfield, Michigan: Targum. p. 301. ISBN 0-944070-07-8 . (Greek) Iakovos Kambanellis (1981). Mauthausen . Athens: Kedros Publishers. ISBN 960-04-0112-8 . http://www.kedros.gr/product_info.php?products_id=276 . (English) Iakovos Kambanellis ; Gail Holst-Warhaft (1996). Mauthausen . Athens: Kedros Publishers. p. 360. ISBN 960-04-0979-X . http://www.kedros.gr/main.php?manufacturers_id=556 . [ edit ] External links Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Rex Bloomstein from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Online Mauthausen-Gusen Memorial Mauthausen-Synopsis Shoaheducation.com KZ Gusen Memorial Committee Audiowalk Gusen Map of the Mauthausen-Gusen complex (Google Maps) USHMM United States Holocaust Memorial Museum contains more than 500 pictures of Mauthausen-Gusen remember.org The community of former Russian prisoners of Mauthausen concentration camp v t e The Holocaust Related articles by country: Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Poland Norway Russia Ukraine Early elements Racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia Camps Transit and collection Belgium : Breendonk Mechelen France : Gurs Drancy Italy : Bolzano Netherlands : Amersfoort Westerbork Concentration Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Flossenbürg Gonars (Italy) Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Janowska Kaiserwald Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Sajmište Salaspils Stutthof Theresienstadt Uckermark Warsaw Extermination Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sobibor Treblinka Methods Inmate identification Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labor Human medical experimentation Inmate disposal of victims Divisions : SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen History of the Jews during World War II Pogroms Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Vel' d'Hiv Wąsosz Ghettos Białystok Budapest Kovno Kraków Łódź Lublin Lvov (Lwów) Minsk Riga Vilna Warsaw List of 267 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland with number of prisoners and deportation route Final Solution Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps Einsatzgruppen Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest Resistance Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings ( Warsaw · Białystok · Częstochowa ) End of World War II Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Other victims Romani people (Gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Responsibility Organizations Nazi Party Sturmabteilung (SA) Schutzstaffel (SS) Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) Individuals Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues Collaborators Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis National SS brigades Special Brigades Aftermath Nuremberg Trials Denazification Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany Lists Holocaust survivors Victims and survivors of Auschwitz Survivors of Sobibor Timeline of Treblinka Victims of Nazism Rescuers of Jews Resources The Destruction of the European Jews Functionalism versus intentionalism Remembrance Days of remembrance Memorials and museums
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Roald Amundsen, Helmer Hanssen , Sverre Hassel and Oscar Wisting (l–r) at "Polheim", the tent erected at the South Pole on 16 December 1911. The top flag is the Flag of Norway ; the bottom is marked " Fram ". Photograph by Olav Bjaaland . The first expedition to reach the geographic South Pole was led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen . He and four others arrived at the pole on 14 December 1911, [ n 1 ] five weeks ahead of a British party led by Robert Falcon Scott as part of the Terra Nova Expedition . Amundsen and his team returned safely to their base, and later learned that Scott and his four companions had died on their return journey. Amundsen's initial plans had focused on the Arctic and the conquest of the North Pole by means of an extended drift in an icebound ship. He obtained the use of Fridtjof Nansen 's polar exploration ship Fram , and undertook extensive fundraising. Preparations for this expedition were disrupted when, in 1909, the rival American explorers Frederick Cook and Robert E. Peary each claimed to have reached the North Pole. Amundsen then changed his plan and began to prepare for a conquest of the South Pole; uncertain of the extent to which the public and his backers would support him, he kept this revised objective secret. When he set out in June 1910, even most of his crew believed they were embarking on an Arctic drift. Amundsen made his Antarctic base, "Framheim", in the Bay of Whales on the Great Ice Barrier . After months of preparation, depot-laying and a false start that ended in near-disaster, he and his party set out for the pole in October 1911. In the course of their journey they discovered the Axel Heiberg Glacier , which provided their route to the polar plateau and ultimately to the South Pole. The party's mastery of the use of skis and their expertise with sledge dogs ensured rapid and relatively trouble-free travel. Other achievements of the expedition included the first exploration of King Edward VII Land and an extensive oceanographic cruise. Although the expedition's success was widely applauded, the story of Scott's heroic failure overshadowed its achievement. Also, Amundsen's decision to keep his true plans secret until the last moment was criticised by some. Recent polar historians have more fully recognised the skill and courage of Amundsen's party; the permanent scientific base at the pole bears his name, together with that of Scott. Contents 1 Background 2 Preparation 2.1 Nansen and Fram 2.2 Initial steps 2.3 Personnel 2.4 Change of plan 2.5 Transport, equipment and supplies 2.6 Departure 3 First season, 1910–11 3.1 Framheim 3.2 Depot journeys 3.3 Winter 4 Second season, 1911–12 4.1 False start 4.2 South Pole journey 4.2.1 Barrier and mountains 4.2.2 March to the pole 4.2.3 Return to Framheim 4.2.4 Informing the world 4.3 Other expedition achievements 4.3.1 Eastern party 4.3.2 Fram and Kainan Maru 5 Aftermath 5.1 Contemporary reactions 5.2 Scott tragedy 5.3 Historical perspective 6 Notes and references 7 Sources 7.1 Books 7.2 Online 8 External links [ edit ] Background Gjøa , the small sloop in which Amundsen and his crew conquered the Northwest Passage, 1903–06 Amundsen was born near Christiania (now Oslo), Norway, in 1872, the son of a ship-owner. [ 3 ] In 1893, he abandoned his medical studies at Christiania University and signed up as a seaman aboard the sealer Magdalena for a voyage to the Arctic. After several further voyages he qualified as a second mate ; when not at sea, he developed his skills as a cross-country skier in the harsh environment of Norway's Hardangervidda plateau. [ 4 ] In 1896, inspired by the polar exploits of his countryman Fridtjof Nansen , Amundsen joined the Belgian Antarctic Expedition as mate , aboard Belgica under Adrien de Gerlache . [ 5 ] Early in 1898 the ship became trapped by pack ice in the Bellinghausen Sea , and was held fast for almost a year. The expedition thus became, involuntarily, the first to spend a complete winter in Antarctic waters, a period marked by depression, near-starvation, insanity, and scurvy among the crew. [ 6 ] Amundsen remained dispassionate, recording everything and using the experience as an education in all aspects of polar exploration techniques, particularly aids, clothing and diet. [ 7 ] Belgica ' s voyage marked the beginning of what became known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration , [ 6 ] and was rapidly followed by expeditions from the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and France. However, on his return to Norway in 1899, Amundsen turned his attention northwards. Confident in his abilities to lead an expedition, he planned a traversal of the Northwest Passage , the then-uncharted sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the labyrinth of north Canadian islands. Having earned his master's ticket , Amundsen acquired a small sloop , Gjøa , which he adapted for Arctic travel. He secured the patronage of King Oscar of Sweden and Norway , the support of Nansen, and sufficient financial backing to set out in June 1903 with a crew of six. [ 8 ] The voyage lasted until 1906 and was wholly successful; the Northwest Passage, which defeated mariners for centuries, was finally conquered. [ 9 ] At the age of 34 Amundsen became a national hero, in the first rank of polar explorers. [ 8 ] Polar expeditions in both north and south were active during this period. In November 1906 the American Robert Peary returned from his latest unsuccessful quest for the North Pole, claiming a new Farthest North of 87° 6′—a record disputed by later historians. [ 10 ] He immediately began raising funds for a further attempt. [ 11 ] In July 1907 Dr Frederick Cook , a former shipmate of Amundsen's from Belgica , set off northwards on what was ostensibly a hunting trip but was rumoured to be an attempt on the North Pole. [ 12 ] A month later Ernest Shackleton 's Nimrod Expedition sailed for Antarctica, while Robert Falcon Scott was preparing a further expedition should Shackleton fail. [ 13 ] Amundsen saw no reason to concede priority in the south to the British, and spoke publicly about the prospects of leading an Antarctic expedition—although his preferred goal remained the North Pole. [ 14 ] [ edit ] Preparation [ edit ] Nansen and Fram Further information: Nansen's Fram expedition Fridtjof Nansen , whose Arctic drift of 1893–96 inspired Amundsen In 1893 Nansen had driven his ship Fram into the Arctic pack ice off the northern Siberian coast and allowed it to drift in the ice towards Greenland, hoping that this route would cross the North Pole. In the event, the drift did not approach the pole, and an attempt by Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen to reach it on foot was likewise unsuccessful. [ 15 ] Nevertheless, Nansen's strategy became the basis of Amundsen's own Arctic plans. [ 16 ] He reasoned that if he entered the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait , well to the east of Nansen's starting point, his ship would achieve a more northerly drift and pass near or through the pole. [ 17 ] Amundsen consulted Nansen, who insisted that Fram was the only vessel fit for such an undertaking. Fram had been designed and built in 1891–93 by Colin Archer , Norway's leading shipbuilder and naval architect, in accordance with Nansen's exacting specifications, as a vessel that would withstand prolonged exposure to the harshest of Arctic conditions. [ 18 ] The ship's most distinctive feature was its rounded hull which, according to Nansen, enabled the vessel to "slip like an eel out of the embraces of the ice". [ 19 ] For extra strength the hull was sheathed in South American greenheart , the hardest timber available, and crossbeams and braces were fitted throughout its length. [ 19 ] The ship's wide beam of 36 feet (11 m) in relation to its overall length of 128 feet (39 m) gave it a markedly stubby appearance. This shape improved its strength in the ice but affected its performance in the open sea, where it moved sluggishly and was inclined to roll most uncomfortably. [ 20 ] However, its looks, speed, and sailing qualities were secondary to the provision of a secure and warm shelter for the crew during a voyage that might extend over several years. [ 21 ] Fram had emerged virtually unscathed from Nansen's expedition after nearly three years in the polar ice. On its return it had been refitted, [ 20 ] before spending four years under the command of Otto Sverdrup , charting and exploring 100,000 square miles (260,000 km 2 ) of uninhabited territory in the northern Canadian islands. [ 22 ] After Sverdrup's voyage ended in 1902 Fram was laid up in Christiania. [ 17 ] Although the ship was technically the property of the state, it was tacitly acknowledged that Nansen had first call on it. After his return from the Arctic in 1896 he had aspired to take Fram on an expedition to Antarctica, but by 1907 such hopes had faded. [ 17 ] Late in September of that year, Amundsen was summoned to Nansen's home and told he could have the ship. [ 23 ] [ edit ] Initial steps Amundsen made his plans public on 10 November 1908, at a meeting of the Norwegian Geographical Society . He would take Fram round Cape Horn to the Pacific; after provisioning in San Francisco the ship would continue northwards, through the Bering Strait to Point Barrow . From here he would set a course directly into the ice to begin a drift that would extend over four or five years. Science would be as important as geographical exploration; continuous observations would, Amundsen hoped, help to explain a number of unresolved problems. [ 24 ] The plan was received enthusiastically, and the next day King Haakon [ n 2 ] opened a subscription list with a gift of 20,000 kroner . On 6 February 1909 the Norwegian Parliament approved a grant of 75,000 kroner to refit the ship. [ 26 ] The general fundraising and business management of the expedition was placed in the hands of Amundsen's brother Leon so that the explorer could concentrate on the more practical aspects of organisation. [ 27 ] In March 1909 it was announced that Shackleton had reached a southern latitude of 88° 23′—less than 100 nautical miles (190 km) from the Pole—before turning back; thus, as Amundsen observed, in the south "a little corner remained". [ 28 ] He was unreserved in his praise for Shackleton's achievement, writing that Shackleton was the south's equivalent of Nansen in the north. [ 29 ] Following this near miss, Scott immediately confirmed his intention to lead an expedition (what became the Terra Nova Expedition ) that would encompass the "little corner" and claim the prize for the British Empire . [ 13 ] [ edit ] Personnel Roald Amundsen, the expedition's leader Amundsen chose three naval lieutenants as his expedition's officers: Thorvald Nilsen , a navigator who would be second-in-command; Hjalmar Fredrik Gjertsen , and Kristian Prestrud . [ 30 ] Gjertsen, despite lacking a medical background, was made expedition doctor, and was sent on a "lightning course" in surgery and dentistry. [ 31 ] A naval gunner, Oscar Wisting , was accepted on Prestrud's recommendation because he could turn his hand to most tasks. Although he had little previous experience of sledge dogs, Amundsen wrote that Wisting developed "a way of his own" with them, and became a useful amateur veterinarian. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] An early choice for the party was Olav Bjaaland , a champion skier who was a skilled carpenter and ski-maker. [ 34 ] Bjaaland was from Morgedal in the Telemark province of Norway, a region renowned for the prowess of its skiers and as the home of the pioneer of modern techniques, Sondre Norheim . [ 35 ] Amundsen shared Nansen's belief that skis and sledge dogs provided by far the most efficient method of Arctic transport, and was determined to recruit the most skilful dog drivers. Helmer Hanssen , who had proved his worth on the Gjøa expedition, agreed to travel with Amundsen again. [ 36 ] He was joined later by Sverre Hassel , an expert on dogs, and veteran of Sverdrup's 1898–1902 Fram voyage, who initially intended only to travel with Amundsen as far as San Francisco. [ 37 ] Mindful of the value of a competent cook, Amundsen secured the services of Adolf Lindstrøm, another Sverdrup veteran who had been cook aboard Gjøa . [ 30 ] From his experiences on board Belgica and Gjøa , Amundsen had learned the importance on long voyages of stable and compatible companions, [ 32 ] and with these experienced personnel he felt he had the core of his expedition. He continued to recruit through 1909; the Fram party would eventually total 19. All of these except one were Amundsen's personal choices; the exception was Hjalmar Johansen, who was taken on at the request of Nansen. Since his epic march with Nansen, Johansen had been unable to settle down. Despite the efforts of Nansen and others to help him, his life became a spiral of drink and indebtedness. [ 38 ] Nansen wished to give his former comrade a final chance to show that he was still a capable worker in the field; feeling that he could not refuse Nansen's wishes, Amundsen reluctantly accepted Johansen. [ 32 ] Among other members of Fram' s crew was Alexander Kuchin , a student of oceanography expert Professor Bjorn Helland-Hansen . Sailing with Fram , Kuchin became the first Russian to step on the land of Antarctica ( Bellingshausen and Lazarev discovered the continent in 1820, but never landed). While Amundsen's party went to the South Pole, Kuchin remained with the ship, completing an oceanographic survey of the Southern Ocean . He had to return to Norway with another ship from Buenos Aires , carrying the oceanographic materials obtained by the expedition to Helland-Hansen, and soon after that he perished in an ill-fated attempt to pass through the Northern Sea Route which he led together with Vladimir Rusanov . [ 39 ] [ edit ] Change of plan Robert Falcon Scott, Amundsen's initially unwitting rival for the South Pole In September 1909 newspapers carried reports that Cook and Peary had each reached the North Pole, Cook in April 1908 and Peary a year later. Asked to comment, Amundsen avoided an outright endorsement of either explorer, but surmised that "probably something will be left to be done". [ 40 ] Although he avoided the controversy over the respective claims of Cook and Peary, [ n 3 ] he saw immediately that his own plans would be seriously affected. Without the allure of capturing the pole, he would struggle to maintain public interest or funding. "If the expedition was to be saved ... there was nothing left for me but to try and solve the last great problem—the South Pole". Thus Amundsen decided to go south; the Arctic drift could wait "for a year or two" until the South Pole had been conquered. [ 43 ] Amundsen did not publicise his change of plan. As Scott's biographer David Crane points out, the expedition's public and private funding was earmarked for scientific work in the Arctic; there was no guarantee that the backers would understand or agree to the proposed volte-face . [ 44 ] Furthermore, the altered objective might cause Nansen to revoke the use of Fram , [ 45 ] or parliament to halt the expedition for fear of undermining Scott and offending the British. [ 46 ] Amundsen concealed his intentions from everyone except his brother Leon and his second-in-command, Nilsen. [ 47 ] This secrecy led to awkwardness; Scott had sent Amundsen instruments to enable their two expeditions, at opposite ends of the earth, to make comparative readings. [ 44 ] When Scott, in Norway to test his motor sledges, telephoned Amundsen's home to discuss cooperation, the Norwegian would not take the call. [ 48 ] The privately revised expedition schedule required Fram to leave Norway in August 1910 and sail to Madeira in the Atlantic, its only port of call. From there the ship would proceed directly to the Ross Sea in Antarctica, heading for the Bay of Whales , an inlet on the Ross Ice Shelf (then known as the "Great Ice Barrier") where Amundsen intended to make his base camp. The Bay of Whales was the southernmost point in the Ross Sea to which a ship could penetrate, 60 nautical miles (110 km) closer to the Pole than Scott's intended base at McMurdo Sound . [ 47 ] In 1907–09 Shackleton had considered the ice in the Bay of Whales to be unstable, but from his studies of Shackleton's records Amundsen decided that the Barrier here was grounded on shoals or skerries , and would support a safe and secure base. [ 47 ] [ n 4 ] After landing the shore party, Fram was to carry out oceanographic work in the Atlantic before picking up the shore party early in the following year. [ 47 ] [ edit ] Transport, equipment and supplies Olav Bjaaland dressed for winter travel: "Not an outfit that cut a dash by its appearance, but it was warm and strong" [ 50 ] Amundsen did not understand the apparent aversion of British explorers to dogs: "Can it be that the dog has not understood its master? Or is it the master who has not understood the dog?" he later wrote. [ 51 ] Following his decision to go south he ordered 100 North Greenland sledge dogs —the best and strongest available. [ 52 ] Besides their durability as pack animals, dogs could be fed to other dogs and could provide fresh meat for the men in the polar party. The party's ski boots, specially designed by Amundsen, were the product of two years' testing and modification in search of perfection. [ 53 ] The party's polar clothing included suits of sealskin from Northern Greenland, and clothes fashioned after the style of the Netsilik Inuit from reindeer skins, wolf skin, Burberry cloth and gabardine . [ 54 ] The sledges were constructed from Norwegian ash with steel-shod runners made from American hickory . Skis, also fashioned from hickory, were extra long to reduce the likelihood of slipping into crevasses. [ 55 ] The tents—"the strongest and most practical that have ever been used" [ 56 ] —had built-in floors and required a single pole. For cooking on the march, Amundsen chose the Swedish Primus stove rather than the special cooker devised by Nansen, because he felt the latter took up too much space. [ 57 ] From his experiences on Belgica , Amundsen was aware of the dangers of scurvy. Although the true cause of the disease, vitamin C deficiency, was not understood at the time, it was generally known that the disease could be countered by eating fresh meat. [ 58 ] To neutralise the danger, Amundsen planned to supplement sledging rations with regular helpings of seal meat. [ 59 ] He also ordered a special kind of pemmican which included vegetables and oatmeal: "a more stimulating, nourishing and appetising food it would be impossible to find". [ 60 ] The expedition was well supplied with wines and spirits, for use as medicine and on festive or social occasions. Mindful of the loss of morale on Belgica , Amundsen provided for leisure time with a library of around 3,000 books, a gramophone, a large quantity of records and a range of musical instruments. [ 61 ] [ edit ] Departure Fram under sail In the months before departure, funds for the expedition became harder to acquire. Because of limited public interest, newspaper deals were cancelled and parliament refused a request for a further 25,000 kroner. Amundsen mortgaged his house to keep the expedition afloat; heavily in debt, he was now wholly dependent on the expedition's success to avoid personal financial ruin. [ 62 ] After a month's trial cruise in the northern Atlantic, Fram sailed to Kristiansand in late July 1910 to take the dogs on board and to make final preparations for departure. While at Kristiansand, Amundsen received an offer of help from Peter "Don Pedro" Christopherson, a Norwegian expatriate whose brother was Norway's Minister in Buenos Aires . Christopherson would provide fuel and other provisions to Fram at either Montevideo or Buenos Aires, an offer which Amundsen gratefully accepted. [ 63 ] Just before Fram sailed on 9 August, Amundsen revealed the expedition's true destination to the two junior officers, Prestrud and Gjertsen. On the four-week voyage to Funchal in Madeira, a mood of uncertainty developed among the crew, who could not make sense of some of the preparations and whose questions were met with evasive answers from their officers. This, says Amundsen's biographer Roland Huntford , was "enough to generate suspicion and low spirits". [ 64 ] Fram reached Funchal on 6 September. [ 65 ] Three days later Amundsen informed the crew of the revised plan. He told them he intended to make "a detour" to the South Pole on the way to the North Pole, which was still his ultimate destination, but would have to wait for a while. [ 66 ] After Amundsen outlined his new proposals, each man was asked whether he was willing to go on, and all responded positively. [ 65 ] Amundsen wrote a lengthy letter of explanation to Nansen, stressing how the North Pole claims of Cook and Peary had dealt a "death blow" to his original plans. He felt he had been forced into this action by necessity, asked for forgiveness and expressed the hope that his achievements would ultimately atone for any offence. [ 67 ] Before leaving Funchal on 9 September Amundsen sent a cable to Scott, to inform him of the change of plan. Scott's ship Terra Nova left Cardiff amid much publicity on 15 June, and was due to arrive in Australia early in October; it was to Melbourne that Amundsen sent his telegram. [ 68 ] [ n 5 ] No indication was given of the Norwegian's plans or his destination in Antarctica: "We shall know in due course I suppose", Scott wrote to the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) secretary, John Scott Keltie . News of Amundsen's revised plans reached Norway early in October and provoked a generally hostile response. Although Nansen gave his blessing and warm approval, [ 69 ] Amundsen's actions were with few exceptions condemned by press and public, and funding dried up almost completely. [ 70 ] Reactions in Britain were predictably adverse; an initial disbelief expressed by Keltie soon turned to anger and scorn. "I have sent full details of Amundsen's underhand conduct to Scott ... If I was Scott I would not let them land", wrote Sir Clements Markham , the influential former RGS president. [ 71 ] Unaware of the world's reactions, Fram sailed south for four months. The first icebergs were sighted on New Year's Day 1911; the Barrier itself came into view on 11 January, and on 14 January Fram was in the Bay of Whales. [ 72 ] [ edit ] First season, 1910–11 [ edit ] Framheim The base at Framheim , February 1911 After Fram was anchored to ice in an inlet in the south-eastern corner of the Bay, Amundsen selected a site for the expedition's main hut, 2.2 nautical miles (4.1 km) from the ship. [ 73 ] Six teams of dogs were used to move supplies to the site, as work on erecting the hut began. Bjaaland and Stubberud laid the foundations deep into the ice, levelling the sloping ground. Because the prevailing winds came from the east, the hut was erected on an east-west axis, with the door facing west; in this way the wind caught only the shorter eastern wall. [ 74 ] The roof was in place by 21 January, and six days later the hut was complete. [ 75 ] By then a large supply of meat—including 200 seals—had been brought to the base, for use by the shore party and to be laid in depots before the journey to the pole. [ 76 ] The base was dubbed Framheim , "the home of Fram ". [ 77 ] Early on the morning of 3 February, Terra Nova arrived unexpectedly in the Bay of Whales. She had sailed from New Zealand on 29 November 1910 and had arrived in McMurdo Sound early in January. After landing Scott and his main party there, Terra Nova had taken a party of six men, led by Victor Campbell , eastward to King Edward VII Land . This group intended to explore this then-unknown territory, but had been prevented by sea ice from approaching the shore. The ship was sailing westward along the Barrier edge in search of a possible landing place when it encountered Fram . [ 78 ] Scott had previously speculated that Amundsen might make his base in the Weddell Sea area, on the opposite side of the continent; [ 79 ] this proof that the Norwegians would be starting the race for the pole with a 60 nautical mile advantage was an alarming prospect for the British. [ 80 ] The two groups behaved civilly towards each other; Campbell and his officers Harry Pennell and George Murray Levick breakfasted aboard Fram , and reciprocated with lunch on the Terra Nova . [ 81 ] Amundsen was relieved to learn that Terra Nova had no wireless radio, since that might have imperilled his strategy to be first with the news of a polar victory. [ 82 ] He was worried, however, by a remark of Campbell's that implied that Scott's motorised sledges were working well. [ 83 ] Nevertheless he offered the British party a site alongside Framheim as a base for the exploration of King Edward VII Land. Campbell turned the offer down, and sailed for McMurdo Sound to inform Scott of Amundsen's whereabouts. [ 84 ] [ edit ] Depot journeys One of the men with a dog team and sledge on the Barrier in early 1911 In early February Amundsen began organising the depot-laying journeys across the Barrier, in preparation for the following summer's assault on the pole. Supply depots laid in advance at regular intervals on the projected route would limit the amount of food and fuel that the South Pole party would have to carry. The depot journeys would be the first true tests of equipment, dogs and men. For the first journey, to begin on 10 February, Amundsen chose Prestrud, Helmer Hanssen and Johansen to accompany him; 18 dogs would pull three sledges. [ 85 ] Before leaving, Amundsen left instructions with Nilsen regarding Fram . The ship was to sail to Buenos Aires for reprovisioning, before undertaking a programme of oceanographic work in the Southern Ocean and then returning to the Barrier as early as possible in 1912. [ 86 ] [ n 6 ] When the four men began their journey south, their only knowledge of the Barrier was from books previous explorers had published, and they anticipated difficult travelling conditions. They were surprised to find the Barrier surface was much like that of a conventional glacier; they covered 15 nautical miles (28 km) on the first day. [ 88 ] Amundsen noted how well his dogs were performing in these conditions, and wondered at the English aversion to the use of dogs on the Barrier. [ 89 ] The party reached 80° S on 14 February, and after laying the depot turned for home, reaching Framheim on 16 February. [ 90 ] The second depot-laying party left Framheim on 22 February, with eight men, seven sledges and forty-two dogs. [ 91 ] Conditions on the Barrier had deteriorated sharply; average temperatures had dropped by 9 °C (16 °F), [ 92 ] and rough snow had drifted across the previously smooth ice surface. In temperatures sometimes as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) , on 3 March the party reached 81° S, where they established a second depot. [ 93 ] Amundsen, Helmer Hanssen, Prestrud, Johansen and Wisting then continued with the strongest dogs, hoping to reach 83° S, but in difficult conditions they halted at 82° S on 8 March. [ 93 ] Amundsen could see that the dogs were exhausted; [ 94 ] the party turned for home, and with light sledges travelled swiftly to reach Framheim on 22 March. [ 95 ] Amundsen wanted more supplies taken south before the impending polar night made travel impossible, and on 31 March a party of seven men led by Johansen left Framheim for the 80° S depot with six slaughtered seals—2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) of meat. [ 96 ] The party returned on 11 April—three days later than expected—after they strayed into a field of crevasses. [ 97 ] Overall, the depot-laying journeys established three depots containing 7,500 pounds (3,400 kg) of supplies, which included 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) of seal meat and 40 imperial gallons (180 L) of paraffin oil . [ 95 ] Amundsen learned much from the journeys, especially on the second, when the dogs struggled with sledges that were too heavy. He decided to increase the number of dogs for the polar journey, if necessary at the expense of the number of men. [ 98 ] The journeys revealed some disunity among the men, particularly between Johansen and Amundsen. During the second depot journey, Johansen openly complained about the unsatisfactory nature of the equipment; Amundsen believed that his authority had been challenged. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] [ edit ] Winter Sverre Hassel in the oil store at Framheim during the winter of 1911 The sun set over Framheim on 21 April, not to reappear for four months. [ 101 ] Amundsen was mindful of the boredom and loss of morale that had blighted the Belgica expedition's winter in the ice, and although there was no possibility of sledging he ensured that the shore party kept busy. [ 102 ] One urgent task was to improve the sledges, which had not worked well during the depot journeys. In addition to those chosen specifically for the expedition, Amundsen had brought along several sledges from Sverdrup's 1898–1902 Fram expedition, which he now thought would be better suited to the task ahead. Bjaaland reduced the weight of these older sledges by almost a third by planing down the timber, and also constructed three sledges of his own from some spare hickory wood. The adapted sledges were to be used to cross the Barrier, while Bjaaland's new set would be used in the final stages of the journey, across the polar plateau itself. [ 103 ] Johansen prepared the sledging rations (42,000 biscuits, 1,320 tins of pemmican and about 220 pounds (100 kg) of chocolate), [ 104 ] while other men worked on improving the boots, cooking equipment, goggles, skis and tents. [ 105 ] To combat the dangers of scurvy, twice a day the men ate seal meat that had been collected and frozen in quantities before the onset of winter. The cook, Lindstrøm, supplemented the vitamin C intake with bottled cloudberries and blueberries , and provided wholemeal bread made with fresh yeast, rich in B vitamins . [ 106 ] [ 107 ] While Amundsen was confident in his men and equipment, he was, Hassel recorded, tormented by thoughts of Scott's motor sledges and the fear that these would carry the British party to success. [ 108 ] With this in mind Amundsen planned to begin the polar journey as soon as the sun rose in late August, though Johansen warned that it would be too cold on the Barrier so early in the season. Amundsen overruled him, and at sunrise on 24 August seven sledges were made ready. [ 109 ] Johansen's concerns seemed justified, as harsh conditions for the next two weeks—temperatures as low as −58 °C (−72 °F) —prevented the men from leaving. [ 110 ] On 8 September 1911, when the temperature rose to −27 °C (−17 °F) , Amundsen decided he could wait no longer, and the party of eight set off; Lindstrøm remained alone at Framheim. [ 109 ] [ edit ] Second season, 1911–12 Map showing Amundsen's route to the pole, Oct–Dec 1911. The depots marked at 80, 81 and 82° were laid in the first season, Feb–March 1911. Shackleton's 1908–09 route, as followed by Scott, is to the right. [ edit ] False start The party made good initial progress, travelling around 15 nautical miles (28 km) each day. The dogs ran so hard that several from the strongest teams were detached from the traces and secured onto the sledges to act as ballast. [ 111 ] In their wolf-skin and reindeer-skin clothing the men could cope with the freezing temperatures while they kept moving, but when they stopped they suffered, and barely slept at night. The dogs' paws became frostbitten. [ 109 ] On 12 September, with temperatures down to −56 °C (−69 °F) , the party halted after only 4 nautical miles (7.4 km) and built igloos for shelter. [ 111 ] Amundsen now recognised that they had started the march too early in the season, and decided they should return to Framheim. He would not risk the lives of men and dogs for reasons of stubbornness. [ 112 ] Johansen, in his diary, wrote of the foolishness of starting prematurely on such a long and historic journey, and of the dangers of an obsession with beating the English. [ 113 ] On 14 September, on their way back to Framheim, they left most of their equipment at the 80° S depot, to lighten the sledges. Next day, in freezing temperatures with a strong headwind, several dogs froze to death while others, too weak to continue, were placed upon the sledges. [ 114 ] On 16 September, 40 nautical miles (74 km) from Framheim, Amundsen ordered his men to push for home as quickly as possible. Not having a sledge of his own, he leapt onto Wisting's, and with Helmer Hanssen and his team raced away, leaving the rest behind. The three arrived back at Framheim after nine hours, followed by Stubberud and Bjaaland two hours later and Hassel shortly after. [ 115 ] Johansen and Prestrud were still out on the ice, without food or fuel; Prestrud's dogs had failed, and his heels were badly frostbitten. They reached Framheim after midnight, more than seventeen hours after they had turned for home. [ 116 ] Next day, Amundsen asked Johansen why he and Prestrud had been so late. Johansen answered angrily that he felt they had been abandoned, and castigated the leader for leaving his men behind. [ 117 ] Amundsen would later inform Nansen that Johansen had been "violently insubordinate"; as a result, he was excluded from the polar party, which Amundsen now reduced to five. [ 118 ] Johansen was placed under the command of Prestrud, much his junior as an explorer, in a party that would explore King Edward VII Land . Stubberud was persuaded to join them, leaving Amundsen, Helmer Hanssen, Bjaaland, Hassel and Wisting as the revised South Pole party. [ 119 ] [ edit ] South Pole journey [ edit ] Barrier and mountains Men and dogs at the 85° South depot, on the way to the pole, 15 November 1911 Despite his eagerness to start out again, Amundsen waited until mid-October and the first hints of spring. He was ready to leave on 15 October, but was held up by the weather for a few more days. [ 120 ] On 19 October 1911 the five men, with four sledges and fifty-two dogs, began their journey. [ 121 ] The weather quickly worsened, and in heavy fog the party strayed into the field of crevasses that Johansen's depot party had discovered the previous autumn. [ 122 ] Wisting later recalled how his sledge, with Amundsen aboard, nearly disappeared down a crevasse when the snow bridge broke underneath it. [ 122 ] Despite this near mishap they were covering more than 15 nautical miles (28 km) a day, and reached their 82° S depot on 5 November. They marked their route by a line of cairns, built of snow blocks, at three-mile intervals. [ 123 ] [ 124 ] On 17 November they reached the edge of the Barrier and faced the Transantarctic Mountains . Unlike Scott, who would be following the Beardmore Glacier route pioneered by Shackleton, Amundsen had to find his own route through the mountains. After probing the foothills for several days and climbing to around 1,500 feet (460 m), the party found what appeared to be a clear route, a steep glacier 30 nautical miles (56 km) long leading upwards to the plateau. Amundsen named this the Axel Heiberg Glacier , after one of his chief financial backers. [ 125 ] [ n 7 ] It was a harder ascent than the team had anticipated, made much longer by the need to take detours, and by the deep, soft snow. After three days of difficult climbing the party reached the glacier summit. [ 125 ] Amundsen was full of praise for his dogs, and scorned the idea that they could not work in such conditions; on 21 November the party travelled 17 miles and climbed 5,000 feet (1,500 m). [ 126 ] [ edit ] March to the pole The Axel Heiberg Glacier, Amundsen's route to the Antarctic Plateau (also called the polar plateau) Upon reaching 10,600 feet (3,200 m) at the summit of the glacier, at 85° 36′ S, Amundsen prepared for the final stage of the journey. Of the 45 dogs who had made the ascent (7 had perished during the Barrier stage), only 18 would go forward; the remainder were to be killed for food. Each of the sledge-drivers killed dogs from his own team, skinned them, and divided the meat between dogs and men. "We called the place the Butchers' Shop", Amundsen recalled. "[T]here was depression and sadness in the air; we had grown so fond of our dogs". [ 127 ] Regrets did not prevent the team from enjoying the plentiful food; Wisting proved particularly skilful in his preparation and presentation of the meat. [ 128 ] The party loaded up three sledges with supplies for a march of up to 60 days, leaving the remaining provisions and dog carcasses in a depot. Bad weather prevented their departure until 25 November, when they set off cautiously over the unknown ground in persistent fog. [ 129 ] They were travelling over an icy surface broken by frequent crevasses, which together with the poor visibility slowed their progress. Amundsen called this area the "Devil's Glacier". On 4 December they came to an area where the crevasses were concealed under layers of snow and ice with a space between, which gave what Amundsen called an "unpleasantly hollow" sound as the party passed over it. He christened this area. "The Devil's Ballroom". When later that day they emerged on to more solid ground, they had reached 87° S. [ 130 ] On 8 December the Norwegians passed Shackleton's Farthest South record of 88° 23′. [ 131 ] As they neared the pole, they looked for any break in the landscape, that might indicate another expedition had got there ahead of them. While camped on 12 December they were momentarily alarmed by a black object that appeared on the horizon, but this proved to be their own dogs' droppings off in the distance, magnified by mirage. [ 132 ] Next day they camped at 89° 45′ S, 15 nautical miles (28 km) from the pole. [ 133 ] On the following day, 14 December 1911, with the concurrence of his comrades Amundsen travelled in front of the sledges, and at around 3 pm the party reached the vicinity of the South Pole. [ 134 ] They planted the Norwegian flag and named the polar plateau "King Haakon VII's Plateau". [ 135 ] Amundsen later reflected on the irony of his achievement: "Never has a man achieved a goal so diametrically opposed to his wishes. The area around the North Pole—devil take it—had fascinated me since childhood, and now here I was at the South Pole. Could anything be more crazy?" [ 136 ] For the next three days the men worked to fix the exact position of the pole; after the conflicting and disputed claims of Cook and Peary in the north, Amundsen wanted to leave unmistakable markers for Scott. [ 137 ] After taking several sextant readings at different times of day, Bjaaland, Wisting and Hassel skied out in different directions to "box" the pole; Amundsen reasoned that at least one of them would cross the exact point. [ 138 ] Finally the party pitched a tent, which they called Polheim , as near as possible to the actual pole as they could calculate by their observations. In the tent Amundsen left equipment for Scott, and a letter addressed to King Haakon which he requested Scott to deliver. [ 138 ] [ edit ] Return to Framheim On 18 December, the party began the journey back to Framheim. [ 139 ] Amundsen was determined to return to civilisation before Scott, and be first with the news. [ 140 ] Nevertheless, he limited their daily distances to 15 nautical miles (28 km), to preserve the strength of dogs and men. In the 24-hour daylight the party travelled during the notional night, to keep the sun at their backs and thus reduce the danger of snow-blindness . Guided by the snow cairns built on their outward journey, they reached the Butchers' Shop on 4 January 1912, and began the descent to the Barrier. [ 141 ] The men on skis "went whizzing down", but for the sledge drivers—Helmer Hanssen and Wisting—the descent was precarious; the sledges were hard to manoeuvre, and brakes were added to the runners to enable rapid stops when crevasses were encountered. [ 142 ] On 7 January, the party reached the first of their depots on the Barrier. [ 143 ] Amundsen now felt their pace could be increased, and the men adopted a routine of travelling 15 nautical miles (28 km), stopping for six hours, then resuming the march. [ 144 ] Under this regime they covered around 30 nautical miles (56 km) a day, and on 25 January, at 4 am, they reached Framheim. Of the 52 dogs that had started in October, 11 had survived, pulling 2 sledges. The journey to the pole and back had taken 99 days—10 fewer than scheduled—and they had covered about 1,860 nautical miles (3,440 km). [ 145 ] [ edit ] Informing the world On his return to Framheim, Amundsen lost no time in winding up the expedition. After a farewell dinner in the hut, the party loaded the surviving dogs and the more valuable equipment aboard Fram , which departed the Bay of Whales late on 30 January 1912. The destination was Hobart in Tasmania . During the five-week voyage Amundsen prepared his telegrams and drafted the first report that he would give to the press. [ 146 ] On 7 March, Fram reached Hobart, where Amundsen quickly learned there was as yet no news from Scott. He immediately sent telegrams to his brother Leon, to Nansen and to King Haakon, briefly informing them of his success. The next day he cabled the first full account of the story to London's Daily Chronicle , to which he had sold exclusive rights. [ 147 ] Fram remained in Hobart for two weeks; while there she was joined by Douglas Mawson 's ship Aurora , which was in service with the Australasian Antarctic Expedition . Amundsen presented them with a gift of 21 of his surviving dogs. [ 148 ] [ edit ] Other expedition achievements The Japanese Antarctic Expedition's ship Kainan Maru in the Bay of Whales, January 1912 [ edit ] Eastern party On 8 November 1911, Prestrud, Stubberud and Johansen had departed for King Edward VII Land. [ 149 ] The search for the point at which the solid ice of the Barrier became ice-covered land proved difficult. On 1 December the party had their first sighting of what was indubitably dry land, a nunatak which had been recorded by Scott during the Discovery expedition in 1902. [ 150 ] After reaching this point they collected geological specimens and samples of mosses, and briefly explored their surroundings before returning to Framheim on 16 December. [ 151 ] They were the first men to set foot on King Edward VII Land. [ 152 ] [ edit ] Fram and Kainan Maru After leaving the Bay of Whales on 15 February 1911, Fram sailed for Buenos Aires where she arrived on 17 April. [ 153 ] Here, Nilsen learned that the expedition's funds were exhausted; a sum supposedly set aside for the ship's needs had not materialised. Fortunately, Amundsen's friend Don Pedro Christopherson was at hand to fulfil his earlier promises to provide supplies and fuel. [ 154 ] Fram departed in June for an oceanographic cruise between South America and Africa, which occupied the next three months. [ 155 ] The ship returned to Buenos Aires in September for final refitting and re-provisioning, before sailing south on 5 October. Strong winds and stormy seas prolonged the voyage, but the ship arrived at the Bay of Whales on 9 January 1912. [ 156 ] On 17 January the men in Framheim were surprised by the appearance of a second ship; it was Kainan Maru , carrying the Japanese Antarctic Expedition led by Nobu Shirase . [ 157 ] Communication between the two expeditions was limited by language difficulties, though the Norwegians gathered that the Japanese were heading for King Edward VII Land. [ 158 ] Kainan Maru departed the next day, and on 26 January she landed a party on King Edward VII Land. This was the first landing on this shore from the sea; attempts by Discovery (1902), Nimrod (1908) and Terra Nova (1911) had all failed. [ 159 ] [ edit ] Aftermath [ edit ] Contemporary reactions Clements Markham, the distinguished British geographer, was a harsh critic of Amundsen's change of plan and expressed private doubts about the Norwegian's success. In Hobart, Amundsen received congratulatory telegrams from, among others, former US President Theodore Roosevelt and King George V of England . The king expressed particular pleasure that Amundsen's first port of call on his return had been on soil of the British Empire. In Norway the news was proclaimed in banner headlines, and the national flag was flown throughout the country. All the expedition's participants received the Norwegian South Pole medal ( Sydpolsmedaljen ), established by King Haakon to commemorate the expedition. [ 160 ] However, Amundsen's biographer Roland Huntford refers to "the chill underneath the cheers"; there remained a residue of unease over Amundsen's tactics. One Norwegian newspaper expressed relief that Amundsen had found a new route, and had not intruded on Scott's path from McMurdo Sound. [ 161 ] In Britain, press reaction to Amundsen's victory was restrained but generally positive. Apart from the enthusiastic reports in the Daily Chronicle and the Illustrated London News —which each had a financial stake in Amundsen's success—the Manchester Guardian remarked that any cause for reproach was wiped out by the Norwegians' courage and determination. Readers of Young England were exhorted not to grudge "the brave Norseman" the honour he had earned, and The Boy's Own Paper suggested that every British boy should read Amundsen's expedition account. [ 162 ] The Times correspondent offered a mild rebuke to Amundsen for his failure to inform Scott until it was too late for the latter to respond, "all the more unnecessary, for no one would have welcomed co-operation in the work of South Polar exploration more than Captain Scott ... Still, no one who knows Captain Amundsen can have any doubt of his integrity, and since he states he has reached the Pole we are bound to believe him". [ 163 ] Senior figures at the RGS expressed more hostile sentiments, at least privately. To them, Amundsen's feat was the result of "a dirty trick". Markham hinted that Amundsen's claim might be fraudulent: "We must wait for the truth until the return of the Terra Nova ". [ 161 ] When later in 1912 Amundsen addressed the RGS he felt slighted after Lord Curzon , the Society's president, jocularly called for "three cheers for the dogs". [ 164 ] Shackleton did not join in denigrating Amundsen's victory, and called him "perhaps the greatest polar explorer of today". [ 165 ] Before she heard the news of her husband's death, Kathleen Scott conceded that Amundsen's journey "was a very fine feat ... in spite of one's irritation one has to admire it". [ 165 ] [ edit ] Scott tragedy Amundsen left Hobart to undertake a lecture tour of Australia and New Zealand. He then went to Buenos Aires where he completed his expedition account. Back in Norway he supervised the publication of his book, then visited Britain before embarking on a long lecture tour of the United States. [ 166 ] In February 1913, while in Madison, Wisconsin , he received the news that Scott and four comrades had reached the pole on 17 January 1912, but had all perished by 29 March, during their return journey. The bodies of Scott, Wilson and Bowers had been discovered in November 1912, after the end of the Antarctic winter. In his initial response, Amundsen called the news "Horrible, horrible". [ 167 ] His more formal tribute followed: "Captain Scott left a record, for honesty, for sincerity, for bravery, for everything that makes a man". [ 168 ] According to Huntford, the news of Scott's death meant that "Amundsen the victor was eclipsed ... by Scott the martyr". [ 169 ] In the English-speaking world a myth quickly developed in which Scott was portrayed as one who had behaved nobly and played the game fairly. He had been defeated because, by contrast, Amundsen was a mere glory-seeker who had concealed his true intentions, had used dogs rather than relying on honest man-hauling and had slaughtered these same dogs for food. Furthermore, he was considered a "professional" which, in the mindset of upper-class Britain of that time, diminished anything he might have accomplished. [ 170 ] The myth was heavily reinforced with the publication of Scott's journals and his "Message to the Public". Huntford points out that "[Scott's] literary talent was his trump. It was as if he had reached out from his buried tent and taken revenge." [ 169 ] Even so, among explorers Amundsen's name continued to be respected. In his account of the Terra Nova expedition written a few years later, Scott's comrade Apsley Cherry-Garrard wrote that the primary reason for Amundsen's success was "the very remarkable qualities of the man", specifically his courage in choosing to discover a new route rather than follow the known path. [ 171 ] [ edit ] Historical perspective Further information: Comparison of the Amundsen and Scott Expeditions The remains of Amundsen's last ship, Maud , in Cambridge Bay ( Victoria Island ), where it sank in 1930. 69°7′8.28″N 105°1′11.61″W  /  69.1189667°N 105.0198917°W  / 69.1189667; -105.0198917 The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 delayed the start of Amundsen's northern polar drift—to which the South Pole expedition had been intended as a preliminary—until July 1918. He then set off in a specially-constructed vessel, Maud , which remained in Arctic waters for the next seven years. The ship did not drift over the North Pole, although in the course of the expedition it became the second ship to traverse the North-East Passage . [ 172 ] Amundsen left the expedition in 1923; the remaining years of his life were largely devoted to polar exploration by air. On 12 May 1926, aboard the airship Norge with Lincoln Ellsworth and Umberto Nobile , Amundsen flew over the North Pole. He and Wisting, also on the airship, were the first men to see both poles. [ 173 ] In 1928, while attempting to rescue a later Nobile expedition, Amundsen disappeared with his aircraft in the seas between Norway and Spitsbergen . [ 174 ] The four men who had stood at the pole with Amundsen were all asked to accompany their leader on the Maud drift. Bjaaland and Hassel declined; neither participated in any further polar ventures. [ 175 ] [ 176 ] Helmer Hanssen and Wisting both joined Maud ; the latter took over the leadership when Amundsen left the expedition. In 1936 Wisting captained Fram on the ship's final voyage to Oslo, where it became a museum. [ 177 ] Johansen, who had been unable to settle back into normal life on his return from Antarctica, became withdrawn and uncommunicative. He refused to discuss his experiences or his dispute with Amundsen, and retreated into a life of depression and poverty. On 4 January 1913 he shot himself in his Oslo lodgings. [ 178 ] The Scott myth lasted until the final quarter of the 20th century, when it was replaced by one that characterised him as a "heroic bungler" whose failure was largely the result of his own mistakes. This portrayal, the polar historian Stephanie Barczewski asserts, is as fallacious as the earlier one in which he was considered beyond criticism. [ 170 ] In the early 21st century, writers have suggested more reasoned explanations for the Scott tragedy than his incompetence, and his reputation has to some extent been rescued. [ 179 ] The renewed spotlight on Scott has also highlighted Amundsen's achievements: Barczewski writes that "Amundsen and his men reached the pole due to a combination of superb planning, long experience with sledge-dogs and skis and impressive physical stamina". [ 170 ] In her account of Scott's expedition, Diana Preston is equally specific in identifying the basis of Amundsen's success. He was focused on the single goal of reaching the pole, whereas Scott had to reconcile the competing claims of geographical exploration and scientific knowledge. "A practical and experienced professional, [Amundsen] planned carefully and applied all the lessons he had learned in the Arctic ... [H]e relied exclusively on the well-tried means of transport and unsentimentally exploited their food potential. He was similarly efficient and unsentimental in his management of his men". [ 180 ] The United States' scientific base at the South Pole, founded in 1957, is named the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station , to honour the memories of both polar pioneers. [ 181 ] [ edit ] Notes and references Notes ^ Some sources give the date as 15 December. Since the western and eastern hemispheres are conjoined at the South Pole, both dates can be considered as correct, though Amundsen gives 14 December, both in his first telegraphed report on arrival in Hobart, and in his fuller account The South Pole . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] ^ Norway had separated from Sweden in 1905. King Oscar of Sweden relinquished the Norwegian throne and Prince Carl of Denmark became King Haakon VII of Norway. [ 25 ] ^ Peary quickly denounced Cook's claim as false, and subsequent investigations cast serious doubts on the latter's records. Peary's data, though challenged by Cook, were accepted without question by the National Geographic Society (which had sponsored his expedition). Public support for Cook quickly faded, although he retained some support, including that of Amundsen. Peary was generally accepted as the conqueror of the North Pole until late 20th century research, particularly that of the explorer Wally Herbert , indicated that Peary did not in fact reach the North Pole. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] ^ Amundsen's theory about grounded ice was eventually proved wrong, although the ice in the vicinity of his camp did not break away significantly until 1987 and 2000. [ 49 ] ^ The exact wording of this telegram has been differently reported. Crane and Preston , p. 127, record the wording as "Am going south"; Jones , p. 78, and Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 299, give a longer text: "Beg leave to inform you Fram proceeding Antarctica". ^ Amundsen had divided the expedition into sea and shore parties. The sea party, under Nilsen, sailed with Fram ; the nine-man shore party consisted of Amundsen, Prestrud, Johansen, Helmer Hanssen, Hassel, Bjaaland, Stubberud, Wisting and Lindstrøm. In The South Pole , Vol. I, p. 179, Amundsen omits Wisting from the shore party. [ 87 ] ^ Other features encountered in this area and roughly mapped for the first time were named by Amundsen and his companions, mostly after themselves and those that had backed the expedition. These features included: the Queen Maud Mountains , the Prince Olav Mountains , Mount Fridtjof Nansen , Mount Don Pedro Christophersen , Mount Wilhelm Christophersen , Mount Hanssen , Mount Wisting , Mount Hassel , Mount Bjaaland , Mount Engelstad , the Liv Glacier , and the Nilsen Plateau . References ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 511. ^ Amundsen , p. xvii, Vol. I. ^ Langner , pp. 25–26. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 43–57. ^ Langner , p. 41. ^ a b Crane , pp. 74–75. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 64–74. ^ a b Langner , pp. 78–80. ^ Maxtone-Graham , pp. 230–36. ^ Herbert , pp. 191–201. ^ Fleming , pp. 348–49. ^ Fleming , p. 351. ^ a b Barczewski , pp. 60–62. ^ Langner , pp. 82–83. ^ See Scott, J.M. , pp. 140–94 for a summary account of Nansen's Fram expedition. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 194. ^ a b c Huntford 2001 , pp. 547–49. ^ Huntford 2001 , pp. 183–86. ^ a b Nansen , pp. 62–68, Vol. I. ^ a b The Fram Museum . ^ Fleming , p. 240. ^ Fairley , pp. 260–61. ^ Scott, J.M. , pp. 244–45. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 197–200. ^ Scott, J.M. , pp. 200–02. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 205. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 204–06. ^ Amundsen , pp. 36–41, Vol. I. ^ Riffenburgh , p. 300. ^ a b Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 205–07. ^ Amundsen , p. 72, Vol. I. ^ a b c Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 247–51. ^ Amundsen , p. 102, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , pp. 137–38, Vol. I. ^ Weinstock, J. "Sondre Norheim: Folk Hero to Immigrant" . ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 90 and 248. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 276–77. ^ Huntford 2001 , pp. 518–19, 542. ^ Barr 1985 . ^ The New York Times , 8 September 1909 . ^ Fleming , pp. 365–89. ^ Herbert , pp. 273–329. ^ Amundsen , pp. 42–43, Vol. I. ^ a b Crane , pp. 425–26. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 214. ^ Barczewski , p. 62. ^ a b c d Amundsen , pp. 45–7, Vol. I. ^ Jones , pp. 78–79. ^ Solomon , pp. 94–95. ^ Amundsen , pp. 62–64, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , p. 58, Vol. I. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 210. ^ Solomon , p. 163. ^ Amundsen , pp. 78–79, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , p. 76, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , p. 77, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , pp. 85–86, Vol. I. ^ Preston , p. 219. ^ Amundsen , p. 51, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , p. 55, Vol. I. ^ Amundsen , pp. 68–70, Vol. I. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 244–45. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 275. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 277–78. ^ a b Amundsen , pp. 125–31, Vol. I. ^ Langner , p. 115. ^ From text of Amundsen's letter, quoted in Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 279–80. ^ Crane , p. 423. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 300–01. ^ Barczewski , pp. 65–66. ^ Crane , p. 428. ^ Amundsen , pp. 138–68, Vol. I. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 335–38. ^ Amundsen , pp. 181–82, Vol. I. ^ Turley , pp. 73–74. ^ Langner , p. 124. ^ Amundsen , p. 194, Vol. I. ^ MacPhee , p. 87. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 368. ^ Solomon , p. 93. ^ Cherry-Garrard , p. 135. ^ MacPhee , pp. 89–92. ^ Langner , p. 132. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 344–45. ^ Langner , pp. 144–45. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 346. ^ Amundsen , p. 179, Vol. I. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 347. ^ Langner , p. 145. ^ MacPhee , p. 105. ^ Turley , p. 79. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 350. ^ a b Huntford 1979 , p. 352. ^ Langner , p. 149. ^ a b MacPhee , p. 106. ^ Amundsen , p. 254, Vol. I. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 357–58. ^ Langner , p. 151. ^ Langner , pp. 149–50. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 355–56. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 379. ^ Langner , p. 159. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 382–83. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 390. ^ Langner , p. 160. ^ MacPhee , pp. 120–21. ^ Langner , pp. 160–61. ^ Langner , p. 161. ^ a b c Langner , p. 170. ^ MacPhee , p. 123. ^ a b Huntford 1979 , p. 407. ^ Langner , p. 172. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 408. ^ Langner , pp. 172–73. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 409. ^ Langner , pp. 174–75. ^ Langner , p. 175. ^ Huntford 2001 , p. 571. ^ MacPhee , p. 131. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 386. ^ Turley , p. 86. ^ a b Langner , p. 178. ^ Langner , p. 179. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 430–37. ^ a b MacPhee , p. 143. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 450. ^ Amundsen , pp. 63–66, Vol. II. ^ Langner , pp. 184–85. ^ Amundsen , pp. 67–73, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , pp. 105–07, Vol. II. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 459. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 451–52. ^ Langner , p. 193. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 487. ^ Amundsen , p. 122, Vol. II. ^ Langner , pp. 195–96. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 491. ^ a b MacPhee , p. 155. ^ Huntford 1979 , pp. 494–95. ^ MacPhee , p. 169. ^ Turley , pp. 118–19. ^ Amundsen , p. 157, Vol. II. ^ Langner , p. 206. ^ Turley , p. 120. ^ Amundsen , pp. 173–74, Vol. II. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 493–97. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 510–11. ^ Amundsen , p. 352, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , p. 216, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , pp. 240 and 246, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , pp. 249–61, Vol. II. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 493. ^ Amundsen , p. 316, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , pp. 328–31, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , pp. 316–28, Vol. II. ^ Amundsen , pp. 331–46, Vol. II. ^ Hamre , p. 417. ^ Amundsen , pp. 271–72, Vol. II. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 527. ^ Sydpolsmedaljen (Norway's South Polar medal) . ^ a b Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 511–16. ^ Jones , pp. 89–90. ^ The Times , 9 March 1912 , p. 5. ^ Barczewski , p. 121. ^ a b Huntford ( Shackleton ) 1985 , p. 344. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , p. 525. ^ Preston , p. 242. ^ Jones , p. 248. ^ a b Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 525–26. ^ a b c Barczewski , pp. 1–2. ^ Cherry-Garrard , p. 607. ^ Huntford ( The Last Place on Earth ) 1985 , pp. 532–33. ^ Fleming , pp. 411–14. ^ Fleming , p. 420. ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 496. ^ Sverre Helge Hassel . ^ Oscar Wisting . ^ Huntford 1979 , p. 529. ^ The Daily Telegraph , 19 December 2004 . ^ Preston , p. 221. ^ National Science Foundation, 27 April 2009 . [ edit ] Sources [ edit ] Books Amundsen, Roald ; Nilsen, Thorvald; Prestrud, Kristian; Chater, A.G. (tr.), (1976) [1912]. The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian expedition in the Fram , 1910–12 (Volumes I and II). London: C. Hurst & Company. ISBN 0-903983-47-8 . First published in 1912 by John Murray, London. Barczewski, Stephanie (2007). Antarctic Destinies: Scott, Shackleton and the Changing Face of Heroism . London and New York: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84725-192-3 . Cherry-Garrard, Apsley (1970) [1922]. The Worst Journey in the World . London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-00-9501-2 . First published in 1922 by Chatto and Windus, London. Crane, David (2005). Scott of the Antarctic . London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-715068-7 . Fairley, T.C. (1959). Sverdrup's Arctic Adventures . London: Longmans. OCLC 732299190 . Fleming, Fergus (2002). Ninety Degrees North . London: Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-535-2 . Hamre, Ivar (November 1933). "The Japanese South Polar Expedition of 1911–1912: A Little-Known Episode in Antarctic Exploration". The Geographical Journal 82 (5): 411–423. doi : 10.2307/1786962 . (Subscription required) edit Herbert, Wally (1989). The Noose of Laurels . London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-41276-3 . Huntford, Roland (1979). Scott and Amundsen . London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-19565-7 . Huntford, Roland (1985). The Last Place on Earth . London and Sydney: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-28816-4 . Huntford, Roland (1985). Shackleton . London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-25007-0 . Huntford, Roland (2001). Nansen . London: Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11492-7 . Jones, Max (2003). The Last Great Quest . Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280483-9 . Langner, Rainer-K.; Beech, Timothy (tr.) (2007). Scott and Amundsen: Duel in the Ice . London: Haus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-905791-08-8 . MacPhee, Ross (2010). Race to the end: Amundsen, Scott, and the attainment of the South Pole . New York and London: Sterling Innovation. ISBN 978-1-402770-29-6 . Maxtone-Graham, John (2000). Safe Return Doubtful: The Heroic Age of Polar Exploration . London: Constable. ISBN 0-094-80330-7 . Nansen, Fridtjof (1897). Farthest North, Volume I. London: Archibald Constable & Co. OCLC 499726131 . Preston, Diana (1999). A First Rate Tragedy . London: Constable. ISBN 0-09-479530-4 . Riffenburgh, Beau (2005). "Nimrod": the Extraordinary Story of Shackleton's First Expedition . London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 0-7475-7253-4 . Scott, J.M. (1971). Fridtjof Nansen . Sheridan, Oregon: Heron Books. OCLC 143929 . Solomon, Susan (2001). The Coldest March: Scott's Fatal Antarctic Expedition . New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09921-5 . Turley, Charles (1935). Roald Amundsen, explorer . London: Methuen. OCLC 3331281 . [ edit ] Online "Amundsen Would Compare" . The New York Times . 8 September 1909 . http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00614F8345512738DDDA10894D1405B898CF1D3 . Retrieved 15 October 2011 . "Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station" . Office of Polar Programs . National Science Foundation. 27 April 2009 . http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/support/southp.jsp . Retrieved 16 October 2011 . Barr, William (1985). "Aleksandr Stepanovich Kuchin: The Russian who went South with Amundsen" . Polar Record (Cambridge University Press) 22 (139): 401–412. doi : 10.1017/S0032247400005647 . http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=33A3EA1974FD87520CC20C7C5F6B91C8.journals?fromPage=online&aid=5399980 . "Captain Amundsen's Achievement. Work Of Previous Explorers" . The Times (London): p. 5. 9 March 1912 . http://www.newsint-archive.co.uk/pages/main.asp . (Subscription required) Rees, Jasper (19 December 2004). "Ice in our Hearts" . The Daily Telegraph (London) . http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3633687/Ice-in-our-hearts.html . Retrieved 14 October 2011 . "The Polar Ship Fram " . The Fram Museum . http://www.frammuseum.no/Visit-the-Museum/Fram.aspx . Retrieved 16 October 2011 . "Sverre Helge Hassel" . The Fram Museum . http://www.frammuseum.no/Polar-Heroes/Crew-Heroes/Sverre-Hassel.aspx . Retrieved 11 November 2011 . "Oscar Wisting" . The Fram Museum . http://www.frammuseum.no/Polar-Heroes/Crew-Heroes/Oscar-Wisting.aspx . Retrieved 11 November 2011 . Weinstock, John. "Sondre Norheim: Folk Hero to Immigrant" . The Norwegian-American Historical Association . http://www.naha.stolaf.edu/pubs/nas/volume29/vol29_12.htm . Retrieved 16 October 2011 . "Sydpolsmedaljen" . Store Norske Leksikon . http://snl.no/Sydpolsmedaljen . Retrieved 11 November 2011 . (in Norwegian) [ edit ] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amundsen Expedition Antarctica portal Map of Amundsen's and Scott's South Pole journeys from The Fram Museum (Frammuseet) (archive link) The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the Fram at eBooks at Adelaide (HTML) The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the Fram at Internet Archive and Google Books (scanned books original editions color illustrated) The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the Fram via LibriVox (audiobooks) Roald Amundsens dagbok fra hans Sørpolen-ekspedisjon ( Roald Amundsen's diary from his South Pole Expedition ) at Sorpolen 1911–2011 (in Norwegian) Films from the expedition on europeanfilmgateway.eu, provided by the Norwegian National Library (Nasjonalbiblioteket) v t e Amundsen's South Pole expedition Comparison with Scott's expedition Fram Framheim Polheim Roald Amundsen Olav Bjaaland Helmer Hanssen Sverre Hassel Oscar Wisting v t e Polar exploration Arctic Ocean History Expeditions Farthest North North Pole Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole J. Ross J. C. Ross Kane Hayes Polaris Polaris C. F. Hall British Arctic Expedition HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham Lady Franklin Bay Expedition Greely Lockwood Brainard 1st Fram expedition Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup Jason Amedeo F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth Airship Italia Nautilus Wilkins ANT-25 Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov "North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1 Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel NP-36 NP-37 Sedov Badygin Wiese USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007 MIR submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov Iceland Greenland Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson Danish colonization Egede Scoresby Jason Nansen Sverdrup Peary Rasmussen Northwest Passage Northern Canada Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery Bylot Baffin Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Discovery Clerke Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper Parry HMS Hecla Lyon HMS Fury Hoppner Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom Beechey Franklin's lost expedition HMS Erebus HMS Terror Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition Rae J. Richardson Austin McClure Expedition HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel Inglefield 2nd Grinnell Expedition USS Advance Kane Fox McClintock HMS Pandora Young Fram Sverdrup Gjøa Amundsen Rasmussen Karluk Stefansson Bartlett St. Roch H. Larsen Cowper North East Passage Russian Arctic Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition Weyprecht Payer Vega A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander USS Jeannette DeLong Yermak Makarov Zarya Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach Vilkitsky Maud Amundsen AARI Samoylovich Begichev Urvantsev Sadko Ushakov Glavsevmorput Schmidt Aviaarktika Shevelev Sibiryakov Voronin Chelyuskin Krasin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers NS Lenin Arktika class Antarctic Continent History Expeditions Southern Ocean Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Smith San Telmo Vostok Bellingshausen Mirny Lazarev Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe Dumont d'Urville United States Exploring Expedition USS Vincennes Wilkes USS Porpoise Ringgold HMS Erebus J. C. Ross HMS Terror Crozier Cooper Challenger expedition HMS Challenger Nares Murray Jason C. A. Larsen " Heroic Age " Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica Gerlache F. Cook Arctowski Racoviţă Southern Cross Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Discovery Discovery Hut Gauss Gauss Drygalski Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic O. Nordenskiöld C. A. Larsen Scottish Antarctic Expedition Bruce Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition Nimrod French Antarctic Expeditions Pourquoi-Pas Charcot Japanese Antarctic Expedition Shirase Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim Terra Nova Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly Filchner Australasian Antarctic Expedition SY Aurora Mawson Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild James Caird Ross Sea party Mackintosh Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest IPY · IGY Modern research Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE Rymill New Swabia Ritscher Operation Tabarin Marr Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic Survey Operation Windmill Ketchum Ronne Expedition F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Hillary V. Fuchs Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1st Somov Klenova Mirny 2nd Tryoshnikov 3rd Tolstikov Antarctic Treaty System Transglobe Expedition Fiennes Burton Lake Vostok Kapitsa Farthest South South Pole HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Weddell HMS Erebus J. C. Ross HMS Terror Crozier Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Barne Nimrod Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams South Magnetic Pole Mawson David Mackay Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim Terra Nova Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold Vostok Station Pole of inaccessibility Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov Crary A. Fuchs Messner
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent Subtropical Storm Andrea Subtropical storm ( SSHS ) Subtropical Storm Andrea shortly before being classified as a subtropical storm Formed May 9, 2007 Dissipated May 11, 2007 Highest winds 1-minute sustained : 60 mph (95 km/h) Lowest pressure 1001 mbar ( hPa ); 29.56 inHg Fatalities 6 indirect Damage Minimal Areas affected Virginia , North Carolina , South Carolina , Georgia , Florida , Bahamas Part of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season Subtropical Storm Andrea was the first named storm and first subtropical cyclone of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season . It developed out of a non-tropical low on May 9 about 150 miles (240 km) northeast of Daytona Beach, Florida , three weeks before the official start of the season. After encountering dry air and strong vertical wind shear , Andrea weakened to a subtropical depression on May 10 while remaining nearly stationary, and the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories early on May 11. Andrea was the first pre-season storm to develop since Tropical Storm Ana in April 2003. Additionally, the storm was the first Atlantic named storm in May since Tropical Storm Arlene in 1981. [ 1 ] The storm produced rough surf along the coastline from Florida to North Carolina , causing beach erosion and some damage. In some areas, the waves eroded up to 20 feet (6 m) of beach, leaving 70 homes in danger of collapse. Offshore North Carolina , high waves of 34 feet (10 m) and tropical-storm-force winds damaged three boats; their combined nine passengers were rescued by the Coast Guard , although all nine sustained injuries. Light rainfall was also reported in some coastal locations. Damage was minimal, but six people drowned as a result of the storm. Contents 1 Meteorological history 2 Preparations 3 Impact 3.1 Southeast U.S. 3.2 Florida 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [ edit ] Meteorological history Storm path In early May, an upper-level trough dropped southward through the western Atlantic Ocean , forcing a back-door cold front —a cold front that moves southwestward ahead of a building surface ridge to its north or northeast—southward. For several days, forecast models had anticipated for the trough to evolve into a closed low pressure area , [ 2 ] and on May 6, a frontal low with a large and well-defined circulation developed about 90 miles (140 km) east of Cape Hatteras . The low maintained scattered convection around its circulation center, and in conjunction with the strong high pressure to its north, a very tight pressure gradient produced gale force winds near the coastline. [ 3 ] The extratropical storm tracked southeastward and later turned to the southwest while steadily deepening; on May 7, it attained hurricane force winds. [ 4 ] With a lack of tropical moisture, its corresponding convection was minimal and scattered. [ 5 ] The National Hurricane Center first mentioned the possibility of tropical cyclogenesis on May 8, while the storm was located about 230 miles (370 km) east-southeast of the South Carolina coastline. Its associated convection had steadily increased as it tracked slowly westward at 5–10 mph (8–16 km/h). [ 6 ] The system changed little in organization throughout the day, [ 7 ] though by the following morning, hurricane specialists indicated the low was acquiring subtropical characteristics [ 8 ] as it tracked over progressively warmer waters. [ 4 ] Early on May 9, a Hurricane Hunters flight into the system revealed winds of 45 mph (70 km/h) and a flat thermal core, which indicated the system was neither warm-core nor cold-core . In addition, satellite imagery indicated a consolidation of the convection near the center, as well as hints of upper-level outflow and a contraction of the radius of maximum winds from more than 115 miles (185 km) to about 70 miles (120 km). Based on the observations and the hybrid structure of the system, the National Hurricane Center classified the low as Subtropical Storm Andrea at 1500 UTC on May 9 about 150 miles (240 km) northeast of Daytona Beach, Florida . [ 9 ] During a subsequent analysis of the storm, researchers estimated that the storm had transitioned into a subtropical cyclone nine hours earlier. [ 4 ] As Andrea developed before June 1—the traditional start of hurricane seasons in the Atlantic Ocean—it became the first pre-season storm since Tropical Storm Ana in April 2003. Additionally, the storm was the first Atlantic named storm in May since Tropical Storm Arlene in 1981. [ 1 ] A satellite animation of the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea, as seen in water-vapor imagery Upon first becoming a subtropical cyclone, Andrea was embedded within a large, nearly stationary deep-layer trough , resulting in a westward movement. Drifting over sea surface temperatures of no more than 77 ° F (25 ° C), [ 9 ] the organization of the system deteriorated with a significant decrease in convection. [ 10 ] By early on May 10, much of the associated weather was located to the east of the cyclone within a band of moderate convection due to a brief spell of westerly vertical wind shear . The center of circulation had become disorganized, with several small cloud swirls within the larger circulation. [ 11 ] This disorganization of the center, combined with increasing wind shear and dry air suppressing convective activity, caused it to begin weakening later that morning. [ 12 ] By 1500 UTC on May 10, only a few thunderstorms remained near the center, and thus the NHC downgraded Andrea to subtropical depression status. [ 13 ] Though a few intermittent thunderstorms persisted over the eastern semicircle, the depression remained disorganized and weak; the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories early on May 11, after it had been without significant deep convection for 18 hours about 80 miles (125 km) northeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida . [ 14 ] Later on May 11, convection re-fired over the center as the system drifted south-southeastward, though it lacked sufficient organization to qualify as a tropical cyclone. [ 15 ] By May 12, shower activity had organized greatly to the east of the center, and the National Hurricane Center remarked that a small increase in convection would result in the formation of a tropical depression. [ 16 ] It accelerated east-northeastward away from the continental United States without redeveloping, and after passing over cooler waters, [ 17 ] the remnants of Andrea merged with an approaching cold front on May 14. [ 18 ] [ edit ] Preparations Due to rough surf from the precursor low, local National Weather Service offices issued a High Surf Advisory for much of the coastline from Florida through North Carolina. [ 3 ] Upon first becoming a subtropical cyclone, the National Hurricane Center issued a tropical storm watch from the mouth of the Altamaha River in Georgia southward to Flagler Beach, Florida . [ 19 ] The watch was discontinued after Andrea weakened to a subtropical depression. [ 13 ] Additionally, a gale warning was issued for much of the South Carolina coastline. [ 20 ] At Isle of Palms in South Carolina, workers and dozens of firefighters prepared sandbags in preparation for high tide after waves from the storm previously caused moderate beach erosion. As a precaution, officials there intentionally cut power and gas to multiple uninhabited buildings. [ 20 ] Officials closed schools in Dare County, North Carolina due to the threat for high winds from the storm. The North Carolina Department of Transportation also canceled ferry transportation to and from Ocracoke and Knotts Island, North Carolina . [ 21 ] [ edit ] Impact Subtropical Storm Andrea shortly after being classified Prior to becoming a subtropical cyclone , the low produced gale-force winds and dangerous surf near the coast from North Carolina through Georgia, [ 6 ] and later along the coast of Florida. [ 7 ] Significant swells were also reported in the Bahamas . [ 22 ] The waves caused beach erosion and washed up against coastal houses along the southeast coast of the United States. [ 23 ] [ edit ] Southeast U.S. Off the coast of North Carolina, the storm produced 34-foot (10-m) waves and storm force winds which damaged three boats; their combined nine passengers were rescued by the Coast Guard . All nine were injured to some degree; three endured hypothermia, one received a broken rib, and one Coast Guardsman experienced back injuries from the surf. [ 24 ] Another boat and its four occupants were reported missing, [ 21 ] [ 25 ] and after twelve days they remain missing. [ 26 ] Rough waves from the precursor low left two kayakers missing near Seabrook Island, South Carolina . One was found the next day, [ 27 ] and the other was found dead a week later. [ 28 ] Onshore, winds reached 52 mph (84 km/h) in Norfolk, Virginia , with an unofficial report of 57 mph (92 km/h) near Virginia Beach . Similar observations occurred along the Outer Banks , [ 29 ] with the winds knocking some tree limbs onto power lines; [ 30 ] some isolated power outages were reported. [ 21 ] Wind damage included some roofs losing shingles from the winds. [ 29 ] In Elizabeth City, North Carolina , an outer rainband dropped 0.5 inches (10 mm) of precipitation in about two hours as well as several lightning strikes; one bolt of lightning injured two firefighters. [ 21 ] The winds covered portions of North Carolina Highway 12 with sand, [ 29 ] and for a day the route was closed after waves from the storm washed out about 200 feet (60 m) of roadway. [ 21 ] In some locations, the waves eroded up to 20 feet (6 m) of beach, leaving 70 homes in imminent danger. [ 31 ] On St. Simons Island in Georgia, the storm produced a storm tide of 8.09 feet (2.43 m). Trace amounts of rainfall occurred in the southeastern portion of the state. [ 32 ] [ edit ] Florida In Florida, waves of over 10 feet (3 m) in height capsized a boat near Lantana ; the two occupants were rescued without injury. Additionally, the waves displaced a sailboat that had previously been washed ashore in Juno Beach . Large waves flooded a parking lot and destroyed several fences and tree branches at Jupiter Beach , which resulted in its temporary closure; nearby a maintenance shed was destroyed. Eight Leatherback Sea Turtle nests in Boca Raton were destroyed after the surf reached the dunes. [ 33 ] Due to high surf, the beach pier at Flagler Beach was closed for about a day. Minor to moderate beach erosion caused the Florida Department of Transportation to fill in areas near the seawall with sand. [ 32 ] One death occurred when a surfer drowned in the rough waves off the coast at New Smyrna Beach in Volusia County . [ 34 ] Outer rainbands produced light rainfall, with the highest report in the Jacksonville National Weather Service area of responsibility totaling 0.77 inches (20 mm); the bands also cause tropical storm force wind gusts in the northeastern portion of the state. [ 32 ] The winds spread smoke from local brush fires through the Tampa Bay area to Miami . [ 35 ] [ 36 ] High winds from Andrea were reported as fueling severe wildfires in northern Florida and southern Georgia. [ 37 ] [ edit ] See also Tropical cyclones portal List of Florida hurricanes List of North Carolina hurricanes List of storms in the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season Other Atlantic subtropical cyclones Timeline of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season [ edit ] References ^ Hurricane Research Division (August 2011). "Atlantic hurricane best track (Hurdat)" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/tracks1851to2010_atl_reanal.html . Retrieved 2011-09-19 . ^ Cangialosi (2007). "May 4 Tropical Weather Discussion" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Atl-Dis/2007050417.AXNT20 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b Cangialosi (2007). "May 6 Tropical Weather Discussion" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Atl-Dis/2007050623.AXNT20 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b c Jamie R. Rhome, Jack Beven, and Mark Willis (2007). "Subtropical Storm Andrea Tropical Cyclone Report" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL012007_Andrea.pdf . Retrieved 2007-07-02 . ^ Cangialosi (2007). "May 7 Tropical Weather Discussion" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Atl-Dis/2007050723.AXNT20 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b Knabb (2007). "May 8 Special Tropical Disturbance Statement" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Disturbance/2007/2007050813.WONT41 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b Brown (2007). "May 9 Special Tropical Disturbance Statement" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Disturbance/2007/2007050903.WONT41 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ Franklin/Knabb (2007). "May 9 Special Tropical Disturbance Statement (2)" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Disturbance/2007/2007050913.WONT41 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b Knabb (2007). "Subtropical Storm Andrea Discussion One" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.discus.001.shtml . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ Knabb (2007). "Subtropical Storm Andrea Discussion Two" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.discus.002.shtml . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ Avila (2007). "Subtropical Storm Andrea Discussion Three" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.discus.003.shtml . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ Mainelli (2007). "Subtropical Storm Andrea Discussion Four" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.discus.004.shtml . Retrieved 2007-05-10 . ^ a b Knabb (2007). "Subtropical Depression Andrea Discussion Five" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.discus.005.shtml ? . Retrieved 2007-05-10 . ^ Rhome (2007). "Subtropical Depression Andrea Discussion Seven" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.discus.007.shtml ? . Retrieved 2007-05-10 . ^ Knabb (2007). "May 11 Special Tropical Disturbance Statement" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Disturbance/2007/2007051118.WONT41 . Retrieved 2007-05-11 . ^ Franklin (2007). "May 12 Special Tropical Disturbance Statement" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Disturbance/2007/2007051118.WONT41 . Retrieved 2007-05-13 . ^ Beven (2007). "May 13 Special Tropical Disturbance Statement" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Disturbance/2007/2007051314.WONT41 . Retrieved 2007-05-13 . ^ National Hurricane Center. "June 1 Tropical Weather Outlook" . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Outlook-A/2007060109.ABNT20 . Retrieved 2007-06-01 . ^ Knabb (2007). "Subtropical Storm Andrea Public Advisory One" . National Hurricane Center . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al01/al012007.public.001.shtml ? . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b Jennifer Wilson (2007). "Forecasters: Subtropical Storm Andrea has formed" . WIStv Columbia, South Carolina . http://www.wistv.com/Global/story.asp?S=6488453&nav=menu36_2 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b c d e Lauren King and Kristin Davis (2007). "Season's first named storm unleashes band of rain". Virginian Pilot . ^ Willis (2007). "May 8 Tropical Weather Discussion" . National Hurricane Center . ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Atl-Dis/2007050810.AXNT20 . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ Jessica Gresko (2007). "Year's first named storm becomes Andrea, forms 3 weeks before hurricane season begins". Associated Press. ^ "High drama on high seas". Virginian Pilot . 2007-05-08. ^ Sunbeam Television (2007). "Coast Guard continues search for missing sailors" . http://www3.whdh.com/news/articles/local/BO51728 . Retrieved 2007-05-10 . ^ Amanda Milkovits (2007). "Sailors’ circle holds hope" . The Providence Journal . http://www.projo.com/news/content/a_sailors_life_05-18-07_UB5M866.355c273.html . Retrieved 2007-05-18 . ^ Associated Press (2007). "First named '07 Atlantic storm forms near coast" . http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18573390/ . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ "DNA identifies missing Atlanta kayaker's body in S.C.". Associated Press. 2007. ^ a b c "Wind and chill chase away spring today's weather". Virginian Pilot . 2007-05-07. ^ Francine Sawyer (2007). "Storm moving away from coast" . New Bern Sun Journal . http://www.newbernsj.com/news/weather_34221___article.html/service_winds.html . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ Bryan Mims (2007). "Offshore Storm System Raked N.C. Beaches" . WRAL.com . http://www.wral.com/weather/story/1399195/ . Retrieved 2007-05-09 . ^ a b c Keegan, Shashy, McAllister, & Enyedi (2007). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Report" . Jacksonville, Florida National Weather Service . http://www.webcitation.org/5Oy3NRnN6 . Retrieved 2007-05-19 . ^ Erika Pesantes, Sally Apgar and Chrystian Tejedor (2007-05-09). "Sweeping erosion hits Palm Beach County coast: Low-pressure system sucks swaths of sand; Jupiter feels brunt of it". South Florida Sun-Sentinel . ^ Tanya Caldwell (2007). "Holly Hill surfer drowns after taking on 'gigantic wave' in New Smyrna Beach". Orlando Sentinel . ^ Staff Writer (2007). "Subtropical storm Andrea is swirling off the north Florida coastline". Bradenton Herald . ^ CNN Staff Writer (2007). "Atlantic's first named storm whips up wildfires" . CNN . http://www.cnn.com/2007/WEATHER/05/09/storm.andrea/index.html . Retrieved 2007-05-10 . ^ Kevin Spear and Jim Stratton (2007-05-12). "'Fire of a lifetime' hits North Florida". Orlando Sentinel . [ edit ] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Subtropical Storm Andrea (2007) Wikinews has related news: Subtropical storm brews off eastern Florida, USA Tropical Cyclone Report Advisory archive on Subtropical Storm Andrea v t e Atlantic tropical cyclones forming in the off-season Pre-1900 1771 • 1779 (first) • 1779 (second) • 1794 • 1822 • 1825 • 1865 (1) • 1887 (1) • 1887 (2) • 1887 (18) • 1887 (19) • 1889 (1) • 1890 (1) 1900-1949 1908 (1) • 1908 (2) • 1916 (1) • 1932 (1) • 1933 (1) • 1934 (1) • 1940 (1) • 1948 (1) 1950-1974 Able (1951) • One (1952) • Alice (1953) • Fourteen (1953) • Alice (1954) • Arlene (1959) • Alma (1970) • ( Alpha (1972) ) • 1975-1999 ( Two (1975) ) • ( One (1976) ) • ( One (1978) ) • Arlene (1981) • Lili (1984) • Karen (1989) • ( One (1992) ) • Nicole (1998) 2000s Olga (2001) • Ana (2003) • Odette (2003) • Peter (2003) • Otto (2004) • Zeta (2005) • ( Andrea (2007) ) • Olga (2007) • Arthur (2008) Purple indicates a preseason storm. Crimson indicates a postseason storm. Green indicates a storm which formed in the postseason and continued over to the preseason of the next year. Italicised entries are tropical or subtropical storms; the maximum strength of storms prior to 1851 is unknown, so for simplicity it is assumed that they all reached hurricane strength. (Parentheses) indicate a subtropical cyclone. Tropical depressions and storms which formed in the season and carried over into the postseason are not included. v t e Tropical cyclones of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season A B C D E F G I H 10 J K L M 15 N O Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Book · Category · Portal · WikiProject · Commons
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+tagline From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /tagline subtitle /subtitle jumpto Jump to: navigation , search /jumpto bodycontent United Nations Parliamentary Assembly الجمعية البرلمانية للأمم المتحدة ‎ (Arabic) 联合国议会大会 (Chinese) Assemblée parlementaire des Nations Unies (French) Парламентская Ассамблея Организации Объединенных Наций (Russian) Asamblea Parlamentaria de las Naciones Unidas (Spanish) CEUNPA -supported logo of a UNPA, reflecting parliamentary benches Org type Proposed Organ of the United Nations Acronyms UNPA Status proposed A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly ( UNPA ) is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that would allow for participation of member nations' legislators and, eventually, direct election of United Nations (UN) parliament members by citizens worldwide. The idea was raised at the founding of the League of Nations in the 1920s and again following the end of World War II in 1945, but remained dormant throughout the Cold War . In the 1990s and 2000s, the rise of global trade and the power of world organizations that govern it led to calls for a parliamentary assembly to scrutinize their activity. [ 1 ] The Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly was formed in 2007 to coordinate pro-UNPA efforts, which as of December 2011 has received the support of over 800 Members of Parliament from over 100 countries worldwide. [ 2 ] Supporters have set forth possible UNPA implementations, including promulgation of a new treaty; creation of a UNPA as a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly; and evolution of a UNPA from the Inter-Parliamentary Union or another nongovernmental organization . Several proposals for apportionment of votes have been raised to address disparities in UN members' population and economic power. CEUNPA advocates initially giving the UNPA advisory powers and gradually increasing its authority over the UN system. Opponents cite issues such as funding, voter turnout, and undemocratic UN member nations as reasons for abandoning the project altogether. Contents 1 History 2 Implementation 3 Powers 4 Legitimacy and accountability 5 Funding 6 Direct election vs. appointment by national parliaments 7 Apportionment of votes 8 Election standards 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [ edit ] History Proposals for a parliamentary assembly in the global organization of nations date back to at least the 1920s, when League of Nations founders considered (and rejected) plans to include a people's assembly as part of the League's structure. [ 3 ] League and UN founding documents include few mechanisms for direct participation by citizens or legislators, aside from Article 71 provision allowing ECOSOC to grant consultative status to certain organizations, and the Chapter XVIII and XIX requirements that ratification and amendments be approved by member states "in accordance with their respective constitutional processes" which typically involve legislative and/or public input. [ 4 ] In 1945, a people's world assembly was proposed by British politician Ernest Bevin , who said in the House of Commons that "There should be a study of a house directly elected by the people of the world to whom the nations are accountable." [ 5 ] On 16 October 1945, before the UN Charter had even entered into force, retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts and former New Hampshire Governor Robert P. Bass held a conference in Dublin, New Hampshire , which passed the Dublin Declaration. It stated that the UN Charter was inadequate to preserve peace and proposed the transformation of the U.N. General Assembly into a world legislature , opining, "Such a government should be based upon a constitution under which all peoples and nations will participate upon a basis of balanced representation which will take account of natural and industrial resources and other factors as well as population. It cannot be based on treaties...in which the states...act and vote as states". [ 6 ] It called for "limited but definite and adequate power for the prevention of war." [ 7 ] Grenville Clark and other participants in the Dublin conference went on to become active in the United World Federalists (UWF) and the global World Federalist Movement . [ 8 ] UWF enjoyed some success in the postwar period, as 23 state legislatures passed bills supporting the organization’s goals, but McCarthyism prompted many prominent members to resign lest Senator Joseph McCarthy ruin their careers. [ 9 ] In the United States, internationalism came to be associated with communism. [ 10 ] In the post- Cold War era, several factors contributed to a more favorable environment for UNPA proposals. [ 11 ] A Trilateral Commission report notes that the shift from a world led by the two rival Soviet- and U.S.-led blocs meant a general diffusion of power. Growth of economic interdependence, proliferation of transnational actors, nationalism in weak states, spread of technology, and increasing numbers of issues (such as global environmental problems and weapons of mass destruction containment) that are both domestic and international generated stronger incentive to develop international cooperation than ever before. [ 12 ] Democracy in general had spread; in 2003, Freedom House counted 121 electoral democracies, compared to 66 in 1987 [ 13 ] and 30 in 1975 (although by the mid-2000s, the trend appeared to have stagnated). [ 14 ] The rapidly integrating European Union, a unique supranational body whose European Parliament was gradually growing in power, provided an example to the world of how a multi-nation parliament can evolve and function. [ 15 ] The World Trade Organization and similar organizations generated great concern as they seemed to be gaining more influence and control over trade disputes, yet were not accountable to the people; [ 1 ] U.S. President Bill Clinton opined, "We must insist that international trade organizations be open to public scrutiny instead of mysterious, secret things subject to wild criticism." [ 16 ] A " new diplomacy " seemed to be taking shape in which NGOs and governments cooperated to create new global institutions such as the International Criminal Court . [ 17 ] U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Chairman Harold C. Pachios of Preti, Flaherty, Beliveau & Pachios noted: [ 18 ] “ From the time governments were organized until very recently, diplomacy involved conveying a message to another government, usually delivered by a government official–an ambassador–to a representative of a foreign government, and the response of foreign government officials. The interrelationship of countries was generally governed by these exchanges of messages between governments, and these exchanges were customarily secret. The information revolution which occurred in the last half of the 20th century, particularly in the last decade of the 20th century, dramatically changed all of that. Now it is ordinary citizens of countries who more often than not govern the relations among nations. ” In early 1993, the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade presented a report stating, "By way of building the public and political constituency for the United Nations, the Committee recommends that Canada support the development of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly." [ 19 ] The Campaign for a Democratic United Nations (CAMDUN), the International Network for a United Nations Second Assembly (INFUSA), and the Global People's Assembly Movement (GPAM), began circulating UNPA proposals around 1995, and other organizations, such as One World Trust , began publishing analyses of how to proceed in the current political situation. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] On 8 February 2005, on the initiative of the Committee for a Democratic UN, 108 Swiss Parliamentarians signed an open letter to the Secretary-General calling for the establishment of just such a body. [ 23 ] On 14 May 2005, the Congress of the Liberal International issued a resolution stating that "the Liberal International calls on the member states of the United Nations to enter into deliberations on the establishment of a Parliamentary Assembly at the United Nations." [ 24 ] On 9 June 2005, the European Parliament issued a resolution that contained an item stating that Europarl "calls for the establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) within the UN System, which would increase the democratic profile and internal democratic process of the organisation and allow world civil society to be directly associated in the decision-making process ; states that the Parliamentary Assembly should be vested with genuine rights of information, participation and control, and should be able to adopt recommendations directed at the UN General Assembly; [...]" [ 25 ] In 2006, Citizens for a United Nations People's Assembly circulated a petition to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to "convene a High Level Panel to determine the steps required for the establishment of a Peoples' Parliamentary Assembly within the United Nations Organization" [ 26 ] In April 2007, international NGOs launched the International Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly , the principal current movement for the establishment of a UNPA. [ 27 ] Its Secretariat is led by the Committee for a Democratic U.N. [ 28 ] Over 150 civil society groups and more than 550 parliamentarians from all over the world are taking part in the Campaign. [ 29 ] As of November 2008, CEUNPA's appeal was endorsed by around 2400 signatories from over 120 countries, among them hundreds of parliamentarians, civil society leaders, leading academics and distinguished individuals such as former UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali , the President of the Pan-African Parliament, Gertrude Mongella , Academy Award winner Emma Thompson , SF-author Sir Arthur C. Clarke and Edgar Mitchell , former NASA astronaut and sixth human being to walk on the moon. [ 30 ] On 25 September 2007, the statement by H.E. Mr. José Sócrates , Prime Minister of Portugal , on behalf of the European Union , at the United Nations 62nd Session of the General Assembly, General Debate, stated, "We remain committed to the reform of its main bodies in order to enhance the Organization's representativity, transparency and effectiveness." [ 31 ] On 24 October 2007, the Pan African Parliament unanimously adopted a resolution calling for the establishment of a Parliamentary Assembly at the United Nations, noting, "in contrast to regional international bodies such as the African Union , the European Union, the Council of Europe, or Mercosur , the United Nations and its specialized organizations is one of the last international fora lacking an integrated and institutionalized Parliamentary Assembly." [ 32 ] [ 33 ] So far, four international conferences of CEUNPA have taken place. [ 27 ] One of the most influential and well-known pro-UN organizations, UNA-USA has been on both sides of the issue. In 2003, UNA-USA's executive director of policy studies, Jeffrey Laurenti, wrote an article, An Idea Whose Time Has Not Come , arguing that there were important unresolved issues of inclusivity, authority, and efficiency with the UNPA. [ 34 ] UNA's position seemed to reverse in November 2006, when the 38th plenary session of the World Federation of United Nations Associations issued a resolution stating that it "Supports the establishment of a United Nations parliamentary Assembly as a consultative body within the United Nations system as a voice of the citizens; Calls upon the governments of the United Nations member states, parliamentarians and civil society representatives to jointly examine possible steps and options to create a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly." [ 35 ] Major regional parliaments and parliamentary assemblies Name First session Direct election Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe 1949 N/A European Parliamentary Assembly 1952 1979 Assembly of WEU 1955 N/A NATO Parliamentary Assembly 1955 N/A Parliamentary Assembly of OSCE 1992 N/A Arab Parliament 2001 N/A Pan African Parliament 2004 N/A Mercosur Parliament 2007 2014 (planned) According to Stefan Marschal, the post-World War II years, particularly the 1980s and 1990s, saw tremendous growth in parliamentary assemblies , with more than 40 established since 1949. About 42% of the world's parliamentary assemblies are formally affiliated with an intergovernmental organization ; 32% are informally affiliated; and 26% are unaffiliated. The spread in parliamentary assemblies was spurred by acceptance of parliamentarism as a means of legitimizing decisions; initiatives for intergovernmental cooperation reaching a point at which stronger parliamentary backing was needed; and regional integration. However, many global organizations, such as the UN and WTO, still lack a parliamentary assembly and "have been heavily criticized for what is supposed to be an institutional deficit." [ 36 ] On February 9, 2010, a resolution of an international conference of sitting and former judges of the supreme courts of over 30 countries that took place in Lucknow, India, called for a revision of the United Nations Charter and for the establishment of a world parliament. [ 37 ] [ edit ] Implementation There are six main options for creating a U.N. Parliamentary Assembly, according to various assessments. Amending the UN Charter , possibly through a Charter Review Conference under Article 109 of the UN Charter , is a commonly cited possibility. [ 38 ] This is difficult because it requires ratification by two-thirds of UN members, including all five permanent members of the Security Council . [ 39 ] There have been only five amendments to the UN Charter since 1945, and none of them were done through the Article 109 process. [ 40 ] Louis Sohn and Grenville Clark , in their 1958 book World Peace Through World Law , proposed establishing a UN Parliamentary Assembly through this method. [ 41 ] Another possibility is establishing the UNPA as a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly. The General Assembly has authority to do this under Article 22 of the UN Charter . [ 42 ] Erskine Childers and Sir Brian Urquhart endorsed this approach in their 1994 book, Renewing the United Nations System . The Committee for a Democratic UN also recommended the establishment of UNPA by Article 22 or by transformation of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in its report, Developing International Democracy . [ 43 ] In 2006, the Council of Europe passed a resolution noting, "A decisive step towards the development of a UN parliamentary dimension could be the establishment of an experimental parliamentary committee with consultative functions for General Assembly committees." [ 44 ] It also can be based on the Community of Democracies . [ citation needed ] Yet another option is to create the UNPA as a nongovernmental organization of democratically elected legislators. This would have the advantage of not requiring the cooperation of (sometimes dictatorial) national governments or world parliamentary organizations with dictatorial members, so only democratic legislators, parliaments and countries would be represented. [ 45 ] The World Constitution and Parliament Association and other NGOs have attempted to set up workable parliaments. [ 46 ] Heinrich critiqued this approach by saying, "If it did succeed on any scale, it would divert resources from pressuring governments on thousands of specific issues, which citizens are good at, into the operation of a pan-global institutional structure, which citizens' groups are ill equipped to do...And the resulting assembly would always be of doubtful legitimacy (who does it really represent?) and of unlikely value as an evolutionary starting point for a real world parliament." [ 47 ] A UNPA could be created through a stand alone treaty. This would have the advantage that as few as 20 or 30 economically and geographically diverse countries could establish a UNPA, [ 21 ] [ 48 ] and it could expand as more countries ratified the treaty. Strauss notes that this is the method by which most international bodies, such the World Health Organization , International Labour Organization , and International Criminal Court , were founded. [ 21 ] The way to get started presumably would be to hold a conference of plenipotentiaries to draft the treaty; then the ratification process would begin. [ 49 ] It might also be possible to use and/or transform the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), which was granted observer status in 2002. [ 50 ] The IPU's Second World Conference of Speakers of Parliament adopted a resolution stating, "We would greatly welcome more substantive interaction and coordination with the United Nations, and call upon the world body to resort more frequently to the political and technical expertise which the IPU together with its Member Parliaments can provide." [ 51 ] Many national parliaments are currently not members of the IPU. [ 52 ] Moreover, it is uncertain that the IPU itself would be supportive of such a proposal; a 2005 article by IPU Secretary-General Anders B. Johnsson opined, "It makes little practical or political sense to set up a separate parliamentary assembly alongside the existing governmental General Assembly." [ 53 ] Indeed, the Inter-Parliamentary Union seems to favor a reformed IPU as a substitute for a UNPA, saying, "The Union had the necessary experience, and further bureaucracy should be avoided." [ 54 ] [ edit ] Powers Following the example of many national parliaments, the UN General Assembly would likely function at first as the unelected upper house of a bicameral UN system. The CEUNPA proposes that the UNPA's begin as a consultative body whose powers could be augmented as it evolved into a directly elected assembly: "Step by step, it should be provided with genuine rights of information, participation and control vis-à-vis the UN and the organizations of the UN system." [ 55 ] An article in the Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal notes that precedents for this idea include the British Parliament , French Estates-General , U.S. Congress , and Europarl, which are all systems in which, over time, power shifted to directly elected officials: "In the past, fledgling democracy has always had to compromise with the realities of power and evolve step-by-step, where possible. This is often accomplished in the form of a 'non-democratic' additional house in the parliamentary structure. Thus, in Britain, the necessity of compromise of the 'common people' with the powers and interests of the armed and titled nobility necessitated a bicameral system incorporating the House of Lords , as well as the House of Commons . The French Estates-General included similar power blocs as 'estates' or functional separate houses, and the United States Senate reflected a necessary compromise of the interests of less populous states hesitant to subject themselves to 'democratic inundation' by the more populous states." [ 56 ] World federalists often point out that a democratic union of peoples, rather than governments, is suggested by the opening words of the Preamble to the United Nations Charter , "We the peoples ..." [ 57 ] This sentiment was expressed by Theo van Boven , who said, "A more democratic Unite