Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

1187 lines (983 sloc) 46.555 kb
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!-- Reviewed: no -->
<appendix id="coding-standard">
<title>Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP</title>
<sect1 id="coding-standard.overview">
<title>Overview</title>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.overview.scope">
<title>Scope</title>
<para>
This document provides guidelines for code formatting and documentation to
individuals and teams contributing to Zend Framework. Many developers using Zend
Framework have also found these coding standards useful because their code's style
remains consistent with all Zend Framework code. It is also worth noting that it
requires significant effort to fully specify coding standards.
</para>
<note>
<para>
Sometimes developers consider the establishment of a standard more
important than what that standard actually suggests at the most detailed level
of design. The guidelines in Zend Framework's coding standards capture
practices that have worked well on the Zend Framework project. You may modify
these standards or use them as is in accordance with the terms of our <ulink
url="http://framework.zend.com/license">license</ulink>.
</para>
</note>
<para>
Topics covered in Zend Framework's coding standards include:
</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para><acronym>PHP</acronym> File Formatting</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Naming Conventions</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Coding Style</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Inline Documentation</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.overview.goals">
<title>Goals</title>
<para>
Coding standards are important in any development project, but they are particularly
important when many developers are working on the same project. Coding standards
help ensure that the code is high quality, has fewer bugs, and can be easily
maintained.
</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="coding-standard.php-file-formatting">
<title>PHP File Formatting</title>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.general">
<title>General</title>
<para>
For files that contain only <acronym>PHP</acronym> code, the closing tag ("?>") is
never permitted. It is not required by <acronym>PHP</acronym>, and omitting it´
prevents the accidental injection of trailing white space into the response.
</para>
<note>
<para>
<emphasis>Important</emphasis>: Inclusion of arbitrary binary data as permitted
by <methodname>__HALT_COMPILER()</methodname> is prohibited from
<acronym>PHP</acronym> files in the Zend Framework project or files derived
from them. Use of this feature is only permitted for some installation scripts.
</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.indentation">
<title>Indentation</title>
<para>Indentation should consist of 4 spaces. Tabs are not allowed.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.max-line-length">
<title>Maximum Line Length</title>
<para>
The target line length is 80 characters. That is to say, Zend Framework developers
should strive keep each line of their code under 80 characters where possible and
practical. However, longer lines are acceptable in some circumstances. The maximum
length of any line of <acronym>PHP</acronym> code is 120 characters.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.line-termination">
<title>Line Termination</title>
<para>
Line termination follows the Unix text file convention. Lines must end with a
single linefeed (LF) character. Linefeed characters are represented as ordinal 10,
or hexadecimal 0x0A.
</para>
<para>
Note: Do not use carriage returns (CR) as is the convention in Apple OS's (0x0D) or
the carriage return - linefeed combination (<acronym>CRLF</acronym>) as is standard
for the Windows OS (0x0D, 0x0A).
</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions">
<title>Naming Conventions</title>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.classes">
<title>Classes</title>
<para>
Zend Framework standardizes on a class naming convention whereby the names of the
classes directly map to the directories in which they are stored. The root level
directory of Zend Framework's standard library is the "Zend/" directory, whereas
the root level directory of Zend Framework's extras library is the "ZendX/"
directory. All Zend Framework classes are stored hierarchically under these root
directories..
</para>
<para>
Class names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Numbers are permitted
in class names but are discouraged in most cases. Underscores are only permitted in
place of the path separator; the filename "<filename>Zend/Db/Table.php</filename>"
must map to the class name "<classname>Zend_Db_Table</classname>".
</para>
<para>
If a class name is comprised of more than one word, the first letter of each new
word must be capitalized. Successive capitalized letters are not allowed, e.g.
a class "Zend_PDF" is not allowed while "<classname>Zend_Pdf</classname>" is
acceptable.
</para>
<para>
These conventions define a pseudo-namespace mechanism for Zend Framework. Zend
Framework will adopt the <acronym>PHP</acronym> namespace feature when it becomes
available and is feasible for our developers to use in their applications.
</para>
<para>
See the class names in the standard and extras libraries for examples of this
classname convention.
</para>
<note>
<para>
<emphasis>Important</emphasis>: Code that must be deployed alongside
Zend Framework libraries but is not part of the standard or extras libraries
(e.g. application code or libraries that are not distributed by Zend) must
never start with "Zend_" or "ZendX_".
</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.abstracts">
<title>Abstract Classes</title>
<para>
In general, abstract classes follow the same conventions as <link
linkend="coding-standard.naming-conventions.classes">classes</link>,
with one additional rule: abstract class names must end in the term, "Abstract",
and that term must not be preceded by an underscore. As an example,
<classname>Zend_Controller_Plugin_Abstract</classname> is considered an
invalid name, but <classname>Zend_Controller_PluginAbstract</classname> or
<classname>Zend_Controller_Plugin_PluginAbstract</classname> would be valid
names.
</para>
<note>
<para>
This naming convention is new with version 1.9.0 of Zend Framework. Classes
that pre-date that version may not follow this rule, but will be renamed in
the future in order to comply.
</para>
<para>
The rationale for the change is due to namespace usage. As we look towards Zend
Framework 2.0 and usage of <acronym>PHP</acronym> 5.3, we will be using
namespaces. The easiest way to automate conversion to namespaces is to simply
convert underscores to the namespace separator -- but under the old naming
conventions, this leaves the classname as simply "Abstract" or "Interface" --
both of which are reserved keywords in <acronym>PHP</acronym>. If we prepend the
(sub)component name to the classname, we can avoid these issues.
</para>
<para>
To illustrate the situation, consider converting the class
<classname>Zend_Controller_Request_Abstract</classname> to use namespaces:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
namespace Zend\Controller\Request;
abstract class Abstract
{
// ...
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Clearly, this will not work. Under the new naming conventions, however, this
would become:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
namespace Zend\Controller\Request;
abstract class RequestAbstract
{
// ...
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
We still retain the semantics and namespace separation, while omitting the
keyword issues; simultaneously, it better describes the abstract class.
</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.interfaces">
<title>Interfaces</title>
<para>
In general, interfaces follow the same conventions as <link
linkend="coding-standard.naming-conventions.classes">classes</link>,
with one additional rule: interface names may optionally end in the term,
"Interface", but that term must not be preceded by an underscore. As an example,
<classname>Zend_Controller_Plugin_Interface</classname> is considered an
invalid name, but <classname>Zend_Controller_PluginInterface</classname> or
<classname>Zend_Controller_Plugin_PluginInterface</classname> would be valid
names.
</para>
<para>
While this rule is not required, it is strongly recommended, as it provides a
good visual cue to developers as to which files contain interfaces rather than
classes.
</para>
<note>
<para>
This naming convention is new with version 1.9.0 of Zend Framework. Classes
that pre-date that version may not follow this rule, but will be renamed in
the future in order to comply. See <link
linkend="coding-standard.naming-conventions.abstracts">the previous
section</link> for more information on the rationale for this change.
</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.filenames">
<title>Filenames</title>
<para>
For all other files, only alphanumeric characters, underscores, and the dash
character ("-") are permitted. Spaces are strictly prohibited.
</para>
<para>
Any file that contains <acronym>PHP</acronym> code should end with the extension
"<filename>.php</filename>", with the notable exception of view scripts. The
following examples show acceptable filenames for Zend Framework classes:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
Zend/Db.php
Zend/Controller/Front.php
Zend/View/Helper/FormRadio.php
]]></programlisting>
<para>
File names must map to class names as described above.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.functions-and-methods">
<title>Functions and Methods</title>
<para>
Function names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores are not
permitted. Numbers are permitted in function names but are discouraged in most
cases.
</para>
<para>
Function names must always start with a lowercase letter. When a function name
consists of more than one word, the first letter of each new word must be
capitalized. This is commonly called "camelCase" formatting.
</para>
<para>
Verbosity is generally encouraged. Function names should be as verbose as is
practical to fully describe their purpose and behavior.
</para>
<para>
These are examples of acceptable names for functions:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
filterInput()
getElementById()
widgetFactory()
]]></programlisting>
<para>
For object-oriented programming, accessors for instance or static variables should
always be prefixed with "get" or "set". In implementing design patterns, such as the
singleton or factory patterns, the name of the method should contain the pattern
name where practical to more thoroughly describe behavior.
</para>
<para>
For methods on objects that are declared with the "private" or "protected" modifier,
the first character of the method name must be an underscore. This is the only
acceptable application of an underscore in a method name. Methods declared "public"
should never contain an underscore.
</para>
<para>
Functions in the global scope (a.k.a "floating functions") are permitted but
discouraged in most cases. Consider wrapping these functions in a static class.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.variables">
<title>Variables</title>
<para>
Variable names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores are not
permitted. Numbers are permitted in variable names but are discouraged in most
cases.
</para>
<para>
For instance variables that are declared with the "private" or "protected" modifier,
the first character of the variable name must be a single underscore. This is the
only acceptable application of an underscore in a variable name. Member variables
declared "public" should never start with an underscore.
</para>
<para>
As with function names (see section 3.3) variable names must always start with a
lowercase letter and follow the "camelCaps" capitalization convention.
</para>
<para>
Verbosity is generally encouraged. Variables should always be as verbose as
practical to describe the data that the developer intends to store in them. Terse
variable names such as "<varname>$i</varname>" and "<varname>$n</varname>" are
discouraged for all but the smallest loop contexts. If a loop contains more than
20 lines of code, the index variables should have more descriptive names.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.naming-conventions.constants">
<title>Constants</title>
<para>
Constants may contain both alphanumeric characters and underscores. Numbers are
permitted in constant names.
</para>
<para>
All letters used in a constant name must be capitalized, while all words in a
constant name must be separated by underscore characters.
</para>
<para>
For example, <constant>EMBED_SUPPRESS_EMBED_EXCEPTION</constant> is permitted but
<constant>EMBED_SUPPRESSEMBEDEXCEPTION</constant> is not.
</para>
<para>
Constants must be defined as class members with the "const" modifier. Defining
constants in the global scope with the "define" function is permitted but strongly
discouraged.
</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="coding-standard.coding-style">
<title>Coding Style</title>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.coding-style.php-code-demarcation">
<title>PHP Code Demarcation</title>
<para>
<acronym>PHP</acronym> code must always be delimited by the full-form, standard
<acronym>PHP</acronym> tags:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
<?php
?>
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Short tags are never allowed. For files containing only <acronym>PHP</acronym>
code, the closing tag must always be omitted (See <link
linkend="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.general">General standards</link>).
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.coding-style.strings">
<title>Strings</title>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.literals">
<title>String Literals</title>
<para>
When a string is literal (contains no variable substitutions), the apostrophe or
"single quote" should always be used to demarcate the string:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$a = 'Example String';
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.literals-containing-apostrophes">
<title>String Literals Containing Apostrophes</title>
<para>
When a literal string itself contains apostrophes, it is permitted to demarcate
the string with quotation marks or "double quotes". This is especially useful
for <constant>SQL</constant> statements:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sql = "SELECT `id`, `name` from `people` "
. "WHERE `name`='Fred' OR `name`='Susan'";
]]></programlisting>
<para>
This syntax is preferred over escaping apostrophes as it is much easier to read.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.variable-substitution">
<title>Variable Substitution</title>
<para>
Variable substitution is permitted using either of these forms:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$greeting = "Hello $name, welcome back!";
$greeting = "Hello {$name}, welcome back!";
]]></programlisting>
<para>
For consistency, this form is not permitted:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$greeting = "Hello ${name}, welcome back!";
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.string-concatenation">
<title>String Concatenation</title>
<para>
Strings must be concatenated using the "." operator. A space must always
be added before and after the "." operator to improve readability:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$company = 'Zend' . ' ' . 'Technologies';
]]></programlisting>
<para>
When concatenating strings with the "." operator, it is encouraged to
break the statement into multiple lines to improve readability. In these
cases, each successive line should be padded with white space such that the
"."; operator is aligned under the "=" operator:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sql = "SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `people` "
. "WHERE `name` = 'Susan' "
. "ORDER BY `name` ASC ";
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.coding-style.arrays">
<title>Arrays</title>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.arrays.numerically-indexed">
<title>Numerically Indexed Arrays</title>
<para>Negative numbers are not permitted as indices.</para>
<para>
An indexed array may start with any non-negative number, however
all base indices besides 0 are discouraged.
</para>
<para>
When declaring indexed arrays with the <type>Array</type> function, a trailing
space must be added after each comma delimiter to improve readability:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio');
]]></programlisting>
<para>
It is permitted to declare multi-line indexed arrays using the "array"
construct. In this case, each successive line must be padded with spaces such
that beginning of each line is aligned:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio',
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500);
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Alternately, the initial array item may begin on the following line. If so,
it should be padded at one indentation level greater than the line containing
the array declaration, and all successive lines should have the same
indentation; the closing paren should be on a line by itself at the same
indentation level as the line containing the array declaration:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array(
1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio',
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500,
);
]]></programlisting>
<para>
When using this latter declaration, we encourage using a trailing comma for
the last item in the array; this minimizes the impact of adding new items on
successive lines, and helps to ensure no parse errors occur due to a missing
comma.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.arrays.associative">
<title>Associative Arrays</title>
<para>
When declaring associative arrays with the <type>Array</type> construct,
breaking the statement into multiple lines is encouraged. In this case, each
successive line must be padded with white space such that both the keys and the
values are aligned:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array('firstKey' => 'firstValue',
'secondKey' => 'secondValue');
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Alternately, the initial array item may begin on the following line. If so,
it should be padded at one indentation level greater than the line containing
the array declaration, and all successive lines should have the same
indentation; the closing paren should be on a line by itself at the same
indentation level as the line containing the array declaration. For
readability, the various "=>" assignment operators should be padded such that
they align.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array(
'firstKey' => 'firstValue',
'secondKey' => 'secondValue',
);
]]></programlisting>
<para>
When using this latter declaration, we encourage using a trailing comma for
the last item in the array; this minimizes the impact of adding new items on
successive lines, and helps to ensure no parse errors occur due to a missing
comma.
</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.coding-style.classes">
<title>Classes</title>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.classes.declaration">
<title>Class Declaration</title>
<para>
Classes must be named according to Zend Framework's naming conventions.
</para>
<para>
The brace should always be written on the line underneath the class name.
</para>
<para>
Every class must have a documentation block that conforms to the PHPDocumentor
standard.
</para>
<para>
All code in a class must be indented with four spaces.
</para>
<para>
Only one class is permitted in each <acronym>PHP</acronym> file.
</para>
<para>
Placing additional code in class files is permitted but discouraged.
In such files, two blank lines must separate the class from any additional
<acronym>PHP</acronym> code in the class file.
</para>
<para>
The following is an example of an acceptable class declaration:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class SampleClass
{
// all contents of class
// must be indented four spaces
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Classes that extend other classes or which implement interfaces should
declare their dependencies on the same line when possible.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
class SampleClass extends FooAbstract implements BarInterface
{
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
If as a result of such declarations, the line length exceeds the <link
linkend="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.max-line-length">maximum line
length</link>, break the line before the "extends" and/or "implements"
keywords, and pad those lines by one indentation level.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
class SampleClass
extends FooAbstract
implements BarInterface
{
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
If the class implements multiple interfaces and the declaration exceeds the
maximum line length, break after each comma separating the interfaces, and
indent the interface names such that they align.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
class SampleClass
implements BarInterface,
BazInterface
{
}
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.classes.member-variables">
<title>Class Member Variables</title>
<para>
Member variables must be named according to Zend Framework's variable naming
conventions.
</para>
<para>
Any variables declared in a class must be listed at the top of the class, above
the declaration of any methods.
</para>
<para>
The <emphasis>var</emphasis> construct is not permitted. Member variables always
declare their visibility by using one of the <property>private</property>,
<property>protected</property>, or <property>public</property> modifiers. Giving
access to member variables directly by declaring them as public is permitted but
discouraged in favor of accessor methods (set &amp; get).
</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods">
<title>Functions and Methods</title>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods.declaration">
<title>Function and Method Declaration</title>
<para>
Functions must be named according to Zend Framework's function naming
conventions.
</para>
<para>
Methods inside classes must always declare their visibility by using
one of the <property>private</property>, <property>protected</property>,
or <property>public</property> modifiers.
</para>
<para>
As with classes, the brace should always be written on the line underneath the
function name. Space between the function name and the opening parenthesis for
the arguments is not permitted.
</para>
<para>
Functions in the global scope are strongly discouraged.
</para>
<para>
The following is an example of an acceptable function declaration in a class:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar()
{
// all contents of function
// must be indented four spaces
}
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
In cases where the argument list exceeds the <link
linkend="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.max-line-length">maximum line
length</link>, you may introduce line breaks. Additional arguments to the
function or method must be indented one additional level beyond the function
or method declaration. A line break should then occur before the closing
argument paren, which should then be placed on the same line as the opening
brace of the function or method with one space separating the two, and at the
same indentation level as the function or method declaration. The following is
an example of one such situation:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar($arg1, $arg2, $arg3,
$arg4, $arg5, $arg6
) {
// all contents of function
// must be indented four spaces
}
}
]]></programlisting>
<note>
<para>
Pass-by-reference is the only parameter passing
mechanism permitted in a method declaration.
</para>
</note>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar(&$baz)
{}
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Call-time pass-by-reference is strictly prohibited.
</para>
<para>
The return value must not be enclosed in parentheses. This can hinder
readability, in additional to breaking code if a method is later changed to
return by reference.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* WRONG
*/
public function bar()
{
return($this->bar);
}
/**
* RIGHT
*/
public function bar()
{
return $this->bar;
}
}
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods.usage">
<title>Function and Method Usage</title>
<para>
Function arguments should be separated by a single trailing space after the
comma delimiter. The following is an example of an acceptable invocation of a
function that takes three arguments:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
threeArguments(1, 2, 3);
]]></programlisting>
<para>
Call-time pass-by-reference is strictly prohibited. See the function
declarations section for the proper way to pass function arguments by-reference.
</para>
<para>
In passing arrays as arguments to a function, the function call may include the
"array" hint and may be split into multiple lines to improve readability. In
such cases, the normal guidelines for writing arrays still apply:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3), 2, 3);
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio',
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500), 2, 3);
threeArguments(array(
1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio',
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500
), 2, 3);
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements">
<title>Control Statements</title>
<sect3 id="coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements.if-else-elseif">
<title>If/Else/Elseif</title>
<para>
Control statements based on the <emphasis>if</emphasis> and
<emphasis>elseif</emphasis> constructs must have a single space before the
opening parenthesis of the conditional and a single space after the closing
parenthesis.
</para>
<para>
Within the conditional statements between the parentheses, operators must be
separated by spaces for readability. Inner parentheses are encouraged to improve
logical grouping for larger conditional expressions.
</para>
<para>
The opening brace is written on the same line as the conditional statement. The
closing brace is always written on its own line. Any content within the braces
must be indented using four spaces.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
If the conditional statement causes the line length to exceed the <link
linkend="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.max-line-length">maximum line
length</link> and has several clauses, you may break the conditional into
multiple lines. In such a case, break the line prior to a logic operator, and
pad the line such that it aligns under the first character of the conditional
clause. The closing paren in the conditional will then be placed on a line with
the opening brace, with one space separating the two, at an indentation level
equivalent to the opening control statement.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
if (($a == $b)
&& ($b == $c)
|| (Foo::CONST == $d)
) {
$a = $d;
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
The intention of this latter declaration format is to prevent issues when
adding or removing clauses from the conditional during later revisions.
</para>
<para>
For "if" statements that include "elseif" or "else", the formatting conventions
are similar to the "if" construct. The following examples demonstrate proper
formatting for "if" statements with "else" and/or "elseif" constructs:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
} else {
$a = 7;
}
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
} elseif ($a == 3) {
$a = 4;
} else {
$a = 7;
}
if (($a == $b)
&& ($b == $c)
|| (Foo::CONST == $d)
) {
$a = $d;
} elseif (($a != $b)
|| ($b != $c)
) {
$a = $c;
} else {
$a = $b;
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
<acronym>PHP</acronym> allows statements to be written without braces in some
circumstances. This coding standard makes no differentiation- all "if",
"elseif" or "else" statements must use braces.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standards.coding-style.control-statements.switch">
<title>Switch</title>
<para>
Control statements written with the "switch" statement must have a single space
before the opening parenthesis of the conditional statement and after the
closing parenthesis.
</para>
<para>
All content within the "switch" statement must be indented using four spaces.
Content under each "case" statement must be indented using an additional four
spaces.
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
switch ($numPeople) {
case 1:
break;
case 2:
break;
default:
break;
}
]]></programlisting>
<para>
The construct <property>default</property> should never be omitted from a
<property>switch</property> statement.
</para>
<note>
<para>
It is sometimes useful to write a
<property>case</property> statement which falls through to the next case by
not including a <property>break</property> or <property>return</property>
within that case. To distinguish these cases from bugs, any
<property>case</property> statement where <property>break</property> or
<property>return</property> are omitted should contain a comment indicating
that the break was intentionally omitted.
</para>
</note>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="coding-standards.inline-documentation">
<title>Inline Documentation</title>
<sect3 id="coding-standards.inline-documentation.documentation-format">
<title>Documentation Format</title>
<para>
All documentation blocks ("docblocks") must be compatible with the phpDocumentor
format. Describing the phpDocumentor format is beyond the scope of this
document. For more information, visit: <ulink
url="http://phpdoc.org/">http://phpdoc.org/</ulink>
</para>
<para>
All class files must contain a "file-level" docblock at the top of each file and
a "class-level" docblock immediately above each class. Examples of such
docblocks can be found below.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standards.inline-documentation.files">
<title>Files</title>
<para>
Every file that contains <acronym>PHP</acronym> code must have a docblock at
the top of the file that contains these phpDocumentor tags at a minimum:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Short description for file
*
* Long description for file (if any)...
*
* LICENSE: Some license information
*
* @category Zend
* @package Zend_Magic
* @subpackage Wand
* @copyright Copyright (c) 2005-2010 Zend Technologies USA Inc. (http://www.zend.com)
* @license http://framework.zend.com/license BSD License
* @link http://framework.zend.com/package/PackageName
* @since File available since Release 1.5.0
*/
]]></programlisting>
<para>
The <property>@category</property> annotation must have a value of "Zend".
</para>
<para>
The <property>@package</property> annotation must be assigned, and should be
equivalent to the component name of the class contained in the file; typically,
this will only have two segments, the "Zend" prefix, and the component name.
</para>
<para>
The <property>@subpackage</property> annotation is optional. If provided, it
should be the subcomponent name, minus the class prefix. In the example above,
the assumption is that the class in the file is either
"<classname>Zend_Magic_Wand</classname>", or uses that classname as part of its
prefix.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standards.inline-documentation.classes">
<title>Classes</title>
<para>
Every class must have a docblock that contains these phpDocumentor tags at a
minimum:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
/**
* Short description for class
*
* Long description for class (if any)...
*
* @category Zend
* @package Zend_Magic
* @subpackage Wand
* @copyright Copyright (c) 2005-2010 Zend Technologies USA Inc. (http://www.zend.com)
* @license http://framework.zend.com/license BSD License
* @version Release: @package_version@
* @link http://framework.zend.com/package/PackageName
* @since Class available since Release 1.5.0
* @deprecated Class deprecated in Release 2.0.0
*/
]]></programlisting>
<para>
The <property>@category</property> annotation must have a value of "Zend".
</para>
<para>
The <property>@package</property> annotation must be assigned, and should be
equivalent to the component to which the class belongs; typically, this will
only have two segments, the "Zend" prefix, and the component name.
</para>
<para>
The <property>@subpackage</property> annotation is optional. If provided, it
should be the subcomponent name, minus the class prefix. In the example above,
the assumption is that the class described is either
"<classname>Zend_Magic_Wand</classname>", or uses that classname as part of its
prefix.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="coding-standards.inline-documentation.functions">
<title>Functions</title>
<para>
Every function, including object methods, must have a docblock that contains at
a minimum:
</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>A description of the function</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>All of the arguments</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>All of the possible return values</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para>
It is not necessary to use the "@access" tag because the access level is already
known from the "public", "private", or "protected" modifier used to declare the
function.
</para>
<para>
If a function or method may throw an exception, use @throws for all known
exception classes:
</para>
<programlisting language="php"><![CDATA[
@throws exceptionclass [description]
]]></programlisting>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</appendix>
<!--
vim:se ts=4 sw=4 et:
-->
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.