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tiny object system with privacy settings for properties and methods
Perl
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README

README

NAME
    Pony::Object - An object system.

OVERVIEW
    If you wanna protected methods, abstract classes and other OOP stuff,
    you may use Pony::Object. Also Pony::Objects are strict and modern.

SYNOPSIS
      # Class: MyArticle (Example)
      #   Abstract class for articles.
  
      package MyArticle;
      use Pony::Object qw(-abstract :exceptions);
      use MyArticle::Exception::IO; # Based on Pony::Object::Throwable class.
    
        protected date => undef;
        protected authors => [];
        public title => '';
        public text => '';
    
    
        # Function: init
        #   Constructor.
        #
        # Parameters:
        #   date - Int
        #   authors - ArrayRef
    
        sub init : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            ($this->date, $this->authors) = @_;
          }
    
    
        # Function: getDate
        #   Get formatted date.
        #
        # Returns:
        #   Str
    
        sub getDate : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            return $this->dateFormat($this->date);
          }
    
    
        # Function: dateFormat
        #   Convert Unix time to good looking string. Not implemented.
        #
        # Parameters:
        #   date - Int
        #
        # Returns:
        #   String
    
        sub dateFormat : Abstract;
    
    
        # Function: fromPdf
        #   Trying to create article from pdf file.
        #
        # Parameters:
        #   file - Str - pdf file.
    
        sub fromPdf : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            my $file = shift;
        
            try {
              open F, $file or
                throw MyArticle::Exception::IO(action => "read", file => $file);
          
              # do smth
          
              close F;
            } catch {
              my $e = shift; # get exception object
          
              if ($e->isa('MyArticle::Exception::IO')) {
                # handler for MyArticle::Exception::IO exceptions
              }
            };
          }
    
      1;

Methods and properties
  has
    Keyword "has" declares new property. Also you can define methods via
    "has".

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        # Properties:
        has 'title';
        has text => '';
        has authors => [ qw/Alice Bob/ ];
    
        # Methods:
        has printTitle => sub {
          my $this = shift;
          say $this->title;
        };
    
        sub printAuthors
          {
            my $this = shift;
            print @{$this->authors};
          }
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News;
      $news->printAuthors();
      $news->title = 'Sensation!'; # Yep, you can assign property's value via "=".
      $news->printTitle();

  new
    Pony::Objects hasn't method "new". In fact, of course they has. But
    "new" is an internal function, so you should not use "new" as name of
    method.

    Instead of this Pony::Objects has "init" methods, where you can write
    the same, what you wish write in "new". "init" is after-hook for "new".

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        has title => undef;
        has lower => undef;
    
        sub init
          {
            my $this = shift;
            $this->title = shift;
            $this->lower = lc $this->title;
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News('Big Event!');
      print $news->lower;

  public, protected, private properties
    You can use "has" keyword to define property. If your variable starts
    with "_", variable becomes protected. "__" for private.

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
  
        has text => '';
        has __authors => [ qw/Alice Bob/ ];
    
        sub getAuthorString
          {
            my $this = shift;
            return join(' ', @{$this->__authors});
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News;
      say $news->getAuthorString();

    The same but with keywords "public", "protected" and "private".

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        public text => '';
        private authors => [ qw/Alice Bob/ ];
    
        sub getAuthorString
          {
            my $this = shift;
            return join(' ', @{$this->authors});
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News;
      say $news->getAuthorString();

  Public, Protected, Private methods
    Use attributes "Public", "Private" and "Protected" to define method's
    access type.

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        public text => '';
        private authors => [ qw/Alice Bob/ ];
    
        sub getAuthorString : Public
          {
            return shift->joinAuthors(', ');
          }
    
        sub joinAuthors : Private
          {
            my $this = shift;
            my $delim = shift;
        
            return join( $delim, @{$this->authors} );
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News;
      say $news->getAuthorString();

  Static properties
    Just say ""static"" and property will the same in all objects of class.

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        public static 'default_publisher' => 'Georgy';
        public 'publisher';
    
        sub init : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            $this->publisher = $this->default_publisher;
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
  
      my $n1 = new News;
      $n1->default_publisher = 'Bazhukov';
      my $n2 = new News;
      print $n1->publisher; # "Georgy"
      print $n2->publisher; # "Bazhukov"

Default methods
  toHash or to_h
    Get object's data structure and return this as a hash.

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        has title => 'World';
        has text => 'Hello';
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News;
      print $news->toHash()->{text};
      print $news->to_h()->{title};

  dump
    Shows object's current struct.

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        has title => 'World';
        has text => 'Hello';
    
      1;



      package main;
      use News;
      my $news = new News;
      $news->text = 'Hi';
      print $news->dump();

    Returns

      $VAR1 = bless( {
        'text' => 'Hi',
        'title' => 'World'
      }, 'News' );

  Without Objects
    If you like functions "say", "dump", "try"/"catch", you can use them
    without creating object. Use ":noobject" option to enable them but do
    not create object/making class.

      use Pony::Object qw/:noobject :try/;
  
      my $a = {deep => [{deep => ['structure']}]};
      say dump $a;
  
      my $data = try {
        local $/;
        open my $fh, './some/file' or die;
        my $slurp = <$fh>;
        close $fh;
        return $slurp;
      } catch {
        return '';
      };
  
      say "\$data: $data";

Classes
  Inheritance
    You can define base classes via "use" params. For example, "use
    Pony::Object 'Base::Class';"

      package BaseCar;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        public speed => 0;
        protected model => "Base Car";
    
        sub get_status_line : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            my $status = ($this->speed ? "Moving" : "Stopped");
            return $this->model . " " . $status;
          }
    
      1;



      package MyCar;
      # extends BaseCar
      use Pony::Object qw/BaseCar/;
    
        protected model => "My Car";
        protected color => undef;
    
        sub set_color : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            ($this->color) = @_;
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use MyCar;
      my $car = new MyCar;
      $car->speed = 20;
      $car->set_color("White");
      print $car->get_status_line();
      # "My Car Moving"

  Singletons
    Pony::Object has simple syntax for singletons . You can declare this via
    "use" param;

      package Notes;
      use Pony::Object 'singleton';
    
        protected list => [];
    
        sub add : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            push @{ $this->list }, @_;
          }
    
        sub show : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            say for @{$this->list};
          }
    
        sub flush : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            $this->list = [];
          }
    
      1;



      package main;
      use Notes;
  
      my $n1 = new Notes;
      my $n2 = new Notes;
  
      $n1->add(qw/eat sleep/);
      $n1->add('Meet with Mary at 8 o`clock');
  
      $n2->flush;
  
      $n1->show();  # Print nothing.
                    # Em... When I should meet Mary?

  Abstract methods and classes
    You can use abstract methods and classes follows way:

      # Let's define simple interface for texts.
      package Text::Interface;
      use Pony::Object -abstract; # Use 'abstract' or '-abstract'
                                  # params to define abstract class.
    
        sub getText : Abstract; # Use 'Abstract' attribute to
        sub setText : Abstract; # define abstract method.
    
      1;



      # Now we can define base class for texts.
      # It's abstract too but now it has some code.
      package Text::Base;
      use Pony::Object qw/abstract Text::Interface/;
    
        protected text => '';
    
        sub getText : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            return $this->text;
          }
    
      1;



      # In the end we can write Text class.
      package Text;
      use Pony::Object 'Text::Base';
    
        sub setText : Public
          {
            my $this = shift;
            $this->text = shift;
          }
    
      1;



      # Main file.
      package main;
      use Text;
      use Text::Base;
  
      my $textBase = new Text::Base;  # Raises an error!
  
      my $text = new Text;
      $text->setText('some text');
      print $text->getText();   # Returns 'some text';

    Don't forget, that perl looking for functions from left to right in list
    of inheritance. You should define abstract classes in the end of
    Pony::Object param list.

  Exceptions
    See Pony::Object::Throwable.

  Inside
   ALL
    If you wanna get all default values of Pony::Object-based class, you can
    call "ALL" method. I don't know why you need them, but you can.

      package News;
      use Pony::Object;
    
        has 'title';
        has text => '';
        has authors => [ qw/Alice Bob/ ];
    
      1;



      package main;
      my $news = new News;
      print for keys %{ $news->ALL() };

   META
    One more internal method. It provides access to special hash %META. You
    can use this for Pony::Object introspection. It can be changed in next
    versions.

      my $news = new News;
      say dump $news->META;

   $Pony::Object::DEFAULT
    This is a global variable. It defines default Pony::Object's params. For
    example you can set "$Pony::Object::DEFAULT-"{''}->{withExceptions} = 1>
    to enable exceptions (try, catch, finally blocks) by default. Use it
    carefully.

      # Startup script
      ...
      use Pony::Object;
  
      BEGIN {
        # Use exceptions by default.
        $Pony::Object::DEFAULT->{''}->{withExceptions} = 1;
        # All classes will extends Default::Base.
        $Pony::Object::DEFAULT->{''}->{baseClass} = [qw/Default::Base/];
        # All classes in namespace "Default::NoBase" will not.
        $Pony::Object::DEFAULT->{'Default::NoBase'}->{baseClass} = [];
      }
      ...

    One more example:

      # Startup script
      ...
      use Pony::Object;
  
      BEGIN {
        $Pony::Object::DEFAULT->{'My::Awesome::Project'} = {
          withExceptions => 1,
          baseClass => [],
        };
    
        $Pony::Object::DEFAULT->{'My::Awesome::Project::Model'} = {
          withExceptions => 1,
          baseClass => [qw/My::Awesome::Project::Model::Abstract/],
        };
      }
      ...

SEE
    Git <https://github.com/h15/pony-object>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
    Copyright (C) 2011 - 2013, Georgy Bazhukov.

    This program is free software, you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0.

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