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# Apache Server Configs | MIT License
# https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache
# ##############################################################################
# # ERRORS #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | 404 error prevention |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Disable the pattern matching based on filenames.
# This setting prevents Apache from returning a 404 error as the result
# of a rewrite when the directory with the same name does not exist.
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/content-negotiation.html#multiviews
# http://www.webmasterworld.com/apache/3808792.htm
Options -MultiViews
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Custom error messages / pages |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Customize what Apache returns to the client in case of an error.
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#errordocument
ErrorDocument 404 /404.html
# ##############################################################################
# # INTERNET EXPLORER #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Better website experience |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Force Internet Explorer to render pages in the highest available
# mode in the various cases when it may not.
# https://hsivonen.fi/doctype/#ie8
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header set X-UA-Compatible "IE=edge"
# `mod_headers` cannot match based on the content-type, however, this header
# should be send only for HTML documents and not for the other resources
<FilesMatch "\.(appcache|atom|crx|css|cur|eot|f4[abpv]|flv|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|json(ld)?|m4[av]|manifest|map|mp4|oex|og[agv]|opus|otf|pdf|png|rdf|rss|safariextz|svgz?|swf|tt[cf]|txt|vcf|vtt|webapp|web[mp]|woff|xml|xpi)$">
Header unset X-UA-Compatible
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # MEDIA TYPES AND CHARACTER ENCODINGS #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Media types |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve resources with the proper media types (formerly known as MIME types).
# http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
# Audio
AddType audio/mp4 f4a f4b m4a
AddType audio/ogg oga ogg opus
# Data interchange
AddType application/json json map
AddType application/ld+json jsonld
# JavaScript
# Normalize to standard type.
# http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4329#section-7.2
AddType application/javascript js
# Manifest files
# If you are providing a web application manifest file (see the
# specification: http://w3c.github.io/manifest/), it is recommended
# that you serve it with the `application/manifest+json` media type.
#
# Because the web application manifest file doesn't have its own
# unique file extension, you can set its media type either by matching:
#
# 1) the exact location of the file (this can be done using a directive
# such as `<Location>`, but it will NOT work in the `.htaccess` file,
# so you will have to do it in the main server configuration file or
# inside of a `<VirtualHost>` container)
#
# e.g.:
#
# <Location "/.well-known/manifest.json">
# AddType application/manifest+json json
# </Location>
#
# 2) the filename (this can be problematic as you will need to ensure
# that you don't have any other file with the same name as the one
# you gave to your web application manifest file)
#
# e.g.:
#
# <Files "manifest.json">
# AddType application/manifest+json json
# </Files>
AddType application/x-web-app-manifest+json webapp
AddType text/cache-manifest appcache manifest
# Video
AddType video/mp4 f4v f4p m4v mp4
AddType video/ogg ogv
AddType video/webm webm
AddType video/x-flv flv
# Web fonts
AddType application/font-woff woff
AddType application/vnd.ms-fontobject eot
# Browsers usually ignore the font media types and simply sniff
# the bytes to figure out the font type.
# http://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/#matching-a-font-type-pattern
# Chrome however, shows a warning if any other media types are used
# for the following two font types.
AddType application/x-font-ttf ttc ttf
AddType font/opentype otf
AddType image/svg+xml svg svgz
# Other
AddType application/octet-stream safariextz
AddType application/x-chrome-extension crx
AddType application/x-opera-extension oex
AddType application/x-xpinstall xpi
AddType application/xml atom rdf rss xml
AddType image/webp webp
AddType image/x-icon cur ico
AddType text/vtt vtt
AddType text/x-component htc
AddType text/x-vcard vcf
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Character encodings |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set `UTF-8` as the character encoding for all resources served with
# the media type of `text/html` or `text/plain`.
AddDefaultCharset utf-8
# Set `UTF-8` as the character encoding for other certain resources.
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
AddCharset utf-8 .atom .css .js .json .jsonld .rss .vtt .webapp .xml
</IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # URL REWRITES #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Rewrite engine |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Turn on the rewrite engine and enable the `FollowSymLinks` option
# (this is necessary in order for the following directives to work).
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
Options +FollowSymlinks
RewriteEngine On
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Suppressing the `www.` at the beginning of URLs |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Rewrite www.example.com → example.com
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^ http://%1%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
</IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # SECURITY #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Clickjacking |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Protect website against clickjacking and other types of attacks by
# informing browsers not to display the web page content in any frame.
# https://cure53.de/xfo-clickjacking.pdf
# http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7034
# http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ieinternals/archive/2010/03/30/combating-clickjacking-with-x-frame-options.aspx
# https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Clickjacking
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header set X-Frame-Options "DENY"
<FilesMatch "\.(appcache|atom|crx|css|cur|eot|f4[abpv]|flv|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|json(ld)?|m4[av]|manifest|map|mp4|oex|og[agv]|opus|otf|pdf|png|rdf|rss|safariextz|svgz?|swf|tt[cf]|vcf|vtt|webapp|web[mp]|woff|xml|xpi)$">
Header unset X-Frame-Options
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content Security Policy (CSP) |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Mitigate the risk of cross-site scripting and other content-injection attacks.
# http://html5rocks.com/en/tutorials/security/content-security-policy
# http://w3.org/TR/CSP
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
# All HTML pages
Header set Content-Security-Policy "\
default-src 'none';\
font-src http://themes.googleusercontent.com;\
frame-src http://platform.twitter.com;\
img-src 'self' http://i.ytimg.com www.google-analytics.com;\
script-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline' www.google-analytics.com http://ajax.googleapis.com http://platform.twitter.com;\
style-src 'self' http://fonts.googleapis.com"
# The 404 page
<FilesMatch "404.html">
# Replace previous set header
Header set Content-Security-Policy "\
default-src 'none';\
style-src 'unsafe-inline'"
</FilesMatch>
<FilesMatch "\.(appcache|atom|crx|css|cur|eot|f4[abpv]|flv|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|json(ld)?|m4[av]|manifest|map|mp4|oex|og[agv]|opus|otf|pdf|png|rdf|rss|safariextz|svgz?|swf|tt[cf]|vcf|vtt|webapp|web[mp]|woff|xml|xpi)$">
Header unset Content-Security-Policy
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | File access |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Block access to directories without a default document.
<IfModule mod_autoindex.c>
Options -Indexes
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Block access to hidden files and directories.
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -d [OR]
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Block access to files that can expose sensitive information.
# IMPORTANT: Update the `<FilesMatch>` regular expression from below to include
# any files that might end up on the production server and can expose sensitive
# information about the website. These files may include: configuration files,
# files that contain metadata about the project (e.g.: project dependencies),
# build scripts, etc..
<FilesMatch "(^#.*#|\.(bak|conf|dist|fla|in[ci]|log|psd|sh|sql|sw[op])|~)$">
<IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
Order allow,deny
Deny from all
Satisfy All
</IfModule>
</FilesMatch>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Reducing MIME type security risks |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent some browsers from MIME-sniffing the response.
# http://www.slideshare.net/hasegawayosuke/owasp-hasegawa
# http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ie/archive/2008/07/02/ie8-security-part-v-comprehensive-protection.aspx
# http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/gg622941.aspx
# http://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header set X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff"
</IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # WEB PERFORMANCE #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Compression |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<IfModule mod_deflate.c>
# Force compression for mangled headers.
# https://developer.yahoo.com/blogs/ydn/pushing-beyond-gzipping-25601.html
<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
SetEnvIfNoCase ^(Accept-EncodXng|X-cept-Encoding|X{15}|~{15}|-{15})$ ^((gzip|deflate)\s*,?\s*)+|[X~-]{4,13}$ HAVE_Accept-Encoding
RequestHeader append Accept-Encoding "gzip,deflate" env=HAVE_Accept-Encoding
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Mark certain resources as been compressed in order to:
#
# 1) prevent Apache from recompressing them
# 2) ensure that they are served with the
# `Content-Encoding: gzip` HTTP response header
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
AddEncoding gzip svgz
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Compress all output labeled with one of the following media types.
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/atom+xml \
application/javascript \
application/json \
application/ld+json \
application/manifest+json \
application/rss+xml \
application/vnd.ms-fontobject \
application/x-font-ttf \
application/x-web-app-manifest+json \
application/xhtml+xml \
application/xml \
font/opentype \
image/svg+xml \
image/x-icon \
text/cache-manifest \
text/css \
text/html \
text/plain \
text/vtt \
text/x-component \
text/xml
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content transformation |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent mobile network providers from modifying the website's content.
# http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.9.5.
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header merge Cache-Control "no-transform"
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | ETags |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Remove `ETags` as resources are sent with far-future expires headers.
# https://developer.yahoo.com/performance/rules.html#etags
# `FileETag None` doesn't work in all cases.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
FileETag None
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Expires headers |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve resources with far-future expires headers.
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
ExpiresActive on
ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 year"
# CSS
ExpiresByType text/css "access plus 1 year"
# Data interchange
ExpiresByType application/json "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType application/ld+json "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType application/xml "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType text/xml "access plus 0 seconds"
# Favicon (cannot be renamed!) and cursor images
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "access plus 1 week"
# HTML components (HTCs)
ExpiresByType text/x-component "access plus 1 month"
# HTML
ExpiresByType text/html "access plus 0 seconds"
# JavaScript
ExpiresByType application/javascript "access plus 1 year"
# Manifest files
ExpiresByType application/manifest+json "access plus 1 year"
ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest "access plus 0 seconds"
# Media
ExpiresByType audio/ogg "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/gif "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/jpeg "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/png "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/mp4 "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/ogg "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/webm "access plus 1 month"
# Web feeds
ExpiresByType application/atom+xml "access plus 1 hour"
ExpiresByType application/rss+xml "access plus 1 hour"
# Web fonts
ExpiresByType application/font-woff "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType font/opentype "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "access plus 1 month"
</IfModule>
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