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# Apache Server Configs v6.0.0 | MIT License
# https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache
# (!) Using `.htaccess` files slows down Apache, therefore, if you have
# access to the main server configuration file (which is usually
# called `httpd.conf`), you should add this logic there.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/howto/htaccess.html
# ######################################################################
# # CROSS-ORIGIN #
# ######################################################################
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cross-origin requests |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow cross-origin requests.
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Access_control_CORS
# https://enable-cors.org/
# https://www.w3.org/TR/cors/
# (!) Do not use this without understanding the consequences.
# This will permit access from any other website.
# Instead of using this file, consider using a specific rule such as
# allowing access based on (sub)domain:
#
# Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "subdomain.example.com"
#
# (1) When `Access-Control-Allow-Origin` points to a specific rule rather
# than `*`, then `Vary: Origin` should be sent along with the response.
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
# # (1)
# # Header append Vary Origin
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cross-origin images |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Send the CORS header for images when browsers request it.
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/CORS_enabled_image
# https://blog.chromium.org/2011/07/using-cross-domain-images-in-webgl-and.html
<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
<FilesMatch "\.(avifs?|bmp|cur|gif|ico|jpe?g|jxl|a?png|svgz?|webp)$">
SetEnvIf Origin ":" IS_CORS
Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*" env=IS_CORS
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cross-origin web fonts |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow cross-origin access to web fonts.
#
# https://developers.google.com/fonts/docs/troubleshooting
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
<FilesMatch "\.(eot|otf|tt[cf]|woff2?)$">
Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cross-origin resource timing |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow cross-origin access to the timing information for all resources.
#
# If a resource isn't served with a `Timing-Allow-Origin` header that would
# allow its timing information to be shared with the document, some of the
# attributes of the `PerformanceResourceTiming` object will be set to zero.
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Timing-Allow-Origin
# https://www.w3.org/TR/resource-timing/
# https://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2014/08/21/resource-timing-practical-tips/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Timing-Allow-Origin: "*"
# </IfModule>
# ######################################################################
# # ERRORS #
# ######################################################################
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Custom error messages/pages |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Customize what Apache returns to the client in case of an error.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#errordocument
# ErrorDocument 404 /404.html
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Error prevention |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Disable the pattern matching based on filenames.
#
# This setting prevents Apache from returning a 404 error as the result of a
# rewrite when the directory with the same name does not exist.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/content-negotiation.html#multiviews
Options -MultiViews
# ######################################################################
# # MEDIA TYPES AND CHARACTER ENCODINGS #
# ######################################################################
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Media types |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve resources with the proper media types (f.k.a. MIME types).
#
# https://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_mime.html#addtype
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
# Data interchange
AddType application/atom+xml atom
AddType application/json json map topojson
AddType application/ld+json jsonld
AddType application/rss+xml rss
AddType application/geo+json geojson
AddType application/rdf+xml rdf
AddType application/xml xml
# JavaScript
# Servers should use text/javascript for JavaScript resources.
# https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/scripting.html#scriptingLanguages
AddType text/javascript js mjs
# Manifest files
AddType application/manifest+json webmanifest
AddType application/x-web-app-manifest+json webapp
AddType text/cache-manifest appcache
# Media files
AddType audio/mp4 f4a f4b m4a
AddType audio/ogg oga ogg opus
AddType image/avif avif avifs
AddType image/bmp bmp
AddType image/jxl jxl
AddType image/svg+xml svg svgz
AddType image/webp webp
AddType video/mp4 f4v f4p m4v mp4
AddType video/ogg ogv
AddType video/webm webm
AddType video/x-flv flv
# Serving `.ico` image files with a different media type prevents
# Internet Explorer from displaying them as images:
# https://github.com/h5bp/html5-boilerplate/commit/37b5fec090d00f38de64b591bcddcb205aadf8ee
AddType image/x-icon cur ico
# WebAssembly
AddType application/wasm wasm
# Web fonts
AddType font/woff woff
AddType font/woff2 woff2
AddType application/vnd.ms-fontobject eot
AddType font/ttf ttf
AddType font/collection ttc
AddType font/otf otf
# Other
AddType application/octet-stream safariextz
AddType application/x-bb-appworld bbaw
AddType application/x-chrome-extension crx
AddType application/x-opera-extension oex
AddType application/x-xpinstall xpi
AddType text/calendar ics
AddType text/markdown markdown md
AddType text/vcard vcard vcf
AddType text/vnd.rim.location.xloc xloc
AddType text/vtt vtt
AddType text/x-component htc
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Character encodings |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve all resources labeled as `text/html` or `text/plain` with the media type
# `charset` parameter set to `UTF-8`.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#adddefaultcharset
AddDefaultCharset utf-8
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Serve the following file types with the media type `charset` parameter set to
# `UTF-8`.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_mime.html#addcharset
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
AddCharset utf-8 .appcache \
.bbaw \
.css \
.htc \
.ics \
.js \
.json \
.manifest \
.map \
.markdown \
.md \
.mjs \
.topojson \
.vtt \
.vcard \
.vcf \
.webmanifest \
.xloc
</IfModule>
# ######################################################################
# # REWRITES #
# ######################################################################
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Rewrite engine |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# (1) Turn on the rewrite engine (this is necessary in order for the
# `RewriteRule` directives to work).
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_rewrite.html#RewriteEngine
#
# (2) Enable the `FollowSymLinks` option if it isn't already.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#options
#
# (3) If your web host doesn't allow the `FollowSymlinks` option, you need to
# comment it out or remove it, and then uncomment the
# `Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch` line (4), but be aware of the performance
# impact.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/misc/perf-tuning.html#symlinks
#
# (4) Some cloud hosting services will require you set `RewriteBase`.
#
# https://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/frequently-asked-question/why-is-modrewrite-not-working-on-my-site
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_rewrite.html#rewritebase
#
# (5) Depending on how your server is set up, you may also need to use the
# `RewriteOptions` directive to enable some options for the rewrite engine.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_rewrite.html#rewriteoptions
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# (1)
RewriteEngine On
# (2)
Options +FollowSymlinks
# (3)
# Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
# (4)
# RewriteBase /
# (5)
# RewriteOptions <options>
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Forcing `https://` |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Redirect from the `http://` to the `https://` version of the URL.
#
# https://wiki.apache.org/httpd/RewriteHTTPToHTTPS
# (1) If you're using cPanel AutoSSL or the Let's Encrypt webroot method it
# will fail to validate the certificate if validation requests are
# redirected to HTTPS. Turn on the condition(s) you need.
#
# https://www.iana.org/assignments/well-known-uris/well-known-uris.xhtml
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-acme-acme-12
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteEngine On
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
# # (1)
# # RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/\.well-known/acme-challenge/
# # RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/\.well-known/cpanel-dcv/[\w-]+$
# # RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/\.well-known/pki-validation/[A-F0-9]{32}\.txt(?:\ Comodo\ DCV)?$
# RewriteRule ^ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Suppressing the `www.` at the beginning of URLs |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Rewrite www.example.com → example.com
# The same content should never be available under two different URLs,
# especially not with and without `www.` at the beginning.
# This can cause SEO problems (duplicate content), and therefore, you should
# choose one of the alternatives and redirect the other one.
#
# (!) NEVER USE BOTH WWW-RELATED RULES AT THE SAME TIME!
# (1) Set %{ENV:PROTO} variable, to allow rewrites to redirect with the
# appropriate schema automatically (http or https).
#
# (2) The rule assumes by default that both HTTP and HTTPS environments are
# available for redirection.
# If your SSL certificate could not handle one of the domains used during
# redirection, you should turn the condition on.
#
# https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache/issues/52
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
# (1)
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} =on
RewriteRule ^ - [E=PROTO:https]
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteRule ^ - [E=PROTO:http]
# (2)
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^ %{ENV:PROTO}://%1%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Forcing the `www.` at the beginning of URLs |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Rewrite example.com → www.example.com
# The same content should never be available under two different URLs,
# especially not with and without `www.` at the beginning.
# This can cause SEO problems (duplicate content), and therefore, you should
# choose one of the alternatives and redirect the other one.
#
# (!) NEVER USE BOTH WWW-RELATED RULES AT THE SAME TIME!
# (1) Set %{ENV:PROTO} variable, to allow rewrites to redirect with the
# appropriate schema automatically (http or https).
#
# (2) The rule assumes by default that both HTTP and HTTPS environments are
# available for redirection.
# If your SSL certificate could not handle one of the domains used during
# redirection, you should turn the condition on.
#
# https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache/issues/52
# Be aware that the following might not be a good idea if you use "real"
# subdomains for certain parts of your website.
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteEngine On
# # (1)
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} =on
# RewriteRule ^ - [E=PROTO:https]
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
# RewriteRule ^ - [E=PROTO:http]
# # (2)
# # RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
# RewriteCond %{SERVER_ADDR} !=127.0.0.1
# RewriteCond %{SERVER_ADDR} !=::1
# RewriteRule ^ %{ENV:PROTO}://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
# </IfModule>
# ######################################################################
# # SECURITY #
# ######################################################################
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Frame Options |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Protect website against clickjacking.
#
# The example below sends the `X-Frame-Options` response header with the value
# `DENY`, informing browsers not to display the content of the web page in any
# frame.
#
# This might not be the best setting for everyone. You should read about the
# other two possible values the `X-Frame-Options` header field can have:
# `SAMEORIGIN` and `ALLOW-FROM`.
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7034#section-2.1.
#
# Keep in mind that while you could send the `X-Frame-Options` header for all
# of your website's pages, this has the potential downside that it forbids even
# non-malicious framing of your content.
#
# Nonetheless, you should ensure that you send the `X-Frame-Options` header for
# all pages that allow a user to make a state-changing operation (e.g: pages
# that contain one-click purchase links, checkout or bank-transfer confirmation
# pages, pages that make permanent configuration changes, etc.).
#
# Sending the `X-Frame-Options` header can also protect your website against
# more than just clickjacking attacks.
# https://cure53.de/xfo-clickjacking.pdf.
#
# (!) The `Content-Security-Policy` header has a `frame-ancestors` directive
# which obsoletes this header for supporting browsers.
#
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7034
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#x-frame-options
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/X-Frame-Options
# https://docs.microsoft.com/archive/blogs/ieinternals/combating-clickjacking-with-x-frame-options
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header always set X-Frame-Options "DENY" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/html#i"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content Security Policy (CSP) |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Mitigate the risk of cross-site scripting and other content-injection
# attacks.
#
# This can be done by setting a Content Security Policy which permits
# trusted sources of content for your website.
#
# There is no policy that fits all websites, you will have to modify the
# `Content-Security-Policy` directives in the example depending on your needs.
#
# The example policy below aims to:
#
# (1) Restrict all fetches by default to the origin of the current website by
# setting the `default-src` directive to `'self'` - which acts as a
# fallback to all "Fetch directives" (https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Fetch_directive).
#
# This is convenient as you do not have to specify all Fetch directives
# that apply to your site, for example:
# `connect-src 'self'; font-src 'self'; script-src 'self'; style-src 'self'`, etc.
#
# This restriction also means that you must explicitly define from which
# site(s) your website is allowed to load resources from.
#
# (2) The `<base>` element is not allowed on the website. This is to prevent
# attackers from changing the locations of resources loaded from relative
# URLs.
#
# If you want to use the `<base>` element, then `base-uri 'self'` can be
# used instead.
#
# (3) Form submissions are only allowed from the current website by setting:
# `form-action 'self'`.
#
# (4) Prevents all websites (including your own) from embedding your webpages
# within e.g. the `<iframe>` or `<object>` element by setting:
# `frame-ancestors 'none'`.
#
# The `frame-ancestors` directive helps avoid "Clickjacking" attacks and
# is similar to the `X-Frame-Options` header.
#
# Browsers that support the CSP header should ignore `X-Frame-Options` if
# `frame-ancestors` is also specified.
#
# (5) Elements controlled by `object-src` are perhaps coincidentally
# considered legacy HTML elements and are not receiving new standardized
# features (such as the security attributes `sandbox` or `allow` for
# `<iframe>`).
# Therefore it is recommended to restrict this fetch-directive (e.g.,
# explicitly set `object-src 'none'` if possible).
#
# (6) Forces the browser to treat all the resources that are served over HTTP
# as if they were loaded securely over HTTPS by setting the
# `upgrade-insecure-requests` directive.
#
# Please note that `upgrade-insecure-requests` does not ensure HTTPS for
# the top-level navigation. If you want to force the website itself to be
# loaded over HTTPS you must include the `Strict-Transport-Security`
# header.
#
# (7) The `Content-Security-Policy` header is included in all responses
# that are able to execute scripting. This includes the commonly used
# file types: HTML, XML and PDF documents. Although Javascript files
# can not execute script in a "browsing context", they are still included
# to target workers:
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Content-Security-Policy#CSP_in_workers
#
# To make your CSP implementation easier, you can use an online CSP header
# generator such as:
# https://report-uri.com/home/generate/
#
# It is encouraged that you validate your CSP header using a CSP validator
# such as:
# https://csp-evaluator.withgoogle.com
#
# https://www.w3.org/TR/CSP/
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#content-security-policy
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Content-Security-Policy
# https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/security/csp
# https://content-security-policy.com/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
# Header always set Content-Security-Policy "default-src 'self'; base-uri 'none'; form-action 'self'; frame-ancestors 'none'; object-src 'none'; upgrade-insecure-requests" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text\/(html|javascript)|application\/pdf|xml#i"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | File access |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Block access to directories without a default document.
#
# You should leave the following uncommented, as you shouldn't allow anyone to
# surf through every directory on your server (which may include rather
# private places such as the CMS's directories).
<IfModule mod_autoindex.c>
Options -Indexes
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Block access to all hidden files and directories except for the
# visible content from within the `/.well-known/` hidden directory.
#
# These types of files usually contain user preferences or the preserved state
# of a utility, and can include rather private places like, for example, the
# `.git` or `.svn` directories.
#
# The `/.well-known/` directory represents the standard (RFC 5785) path prefix
# for "well-known locations" (e.g.: `/.well-known/manifest.json`,
# `/.well-known/keybase.txt`), and therefore, access to its visible content
# should not be blocked.
#
# https://www.mnot.net/blog/2010/04/07/well-known
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5785
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} "!(^|/)\.well-known/([^./]+./?)+$" [NC]
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -d [OR]
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Block access to files that can expose sensitive information.
#
# By default, block access to backup and source files that may be left by some
# text editors and can pose a security risk when anyone has access to them.
#
# https://feross.org/cmsploit/
#
# (!) Update the `<FilesMatch>` regular expression from below to include any
# files that might end up on your production server and can expose
# sensitive information about your website. These files may include:
# configuration files, files that contain metadata about the project (e.g.:
# project dependencies, build scripts, etc.).
<IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
<FilesMatch "(^#.*#|\.(bak|conf|dist|fla|in[ci]|log|orig|psd|sh|sql|sw[op])|~)$">
Require all denied
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Force client-side TLS (Transport Layer Security) redirection.
#
# If a user types `example.com` in their browser, even if the server redirects
# them to the secure version of the website, that still leaves a window of
# opportunity (the initial HTTP connection) for an attacker to downgrade or
# redirect the request.
#
# The following header ensures that a browser only connects to your server
# via HTTPS, regardless of what the users type in the browser's address bar.
#
# (!) Be aware that Strict Transport Security is not revokable and you
# must ensure being able to serve the site over HTTPS for the duration
# you've specified in the `max-age` directive. When you don't have a
# valid TLS connection anymore (e.g. due to an expired TLS certificate)
# your visitors will see a nasty error message even when attempting to
# connect over HTTP.
#
# (1) Preloading Strict Transport Security.
# To submit your site for HSTS preloading, it is required that:
# * the `includeSubDomains` directive is specified
# * the `preload` directive is specified
# * the `max-age` is specified with a value of at least 31536000 seconds
# (1 year).
# https://hstspreload.org/#deployment-recommendations
#
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6797#section-6.1
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#http-strict-transport-security
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Strict-Transport-Security
# https://www.html5rocks.com/en/tutorials/security/transport-layer-security/
# https://hstspreload.org/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=16070400; includeSubDomains" "expr=%{HTTPS} == 'on'"
# # (1) Enable your site for HSTS preload inclusion.
# # Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload" "expr=%{HTTPS} == 'on'"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content Type Options |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent some browsers from MIME-sniffing the response.
#
# This reduces exposure to drive-by download attacks and cross-origin data
# leaks, and should be left uncommented, especially if the server is serving
# user-uploaded content or content that could potentially be treated as
# executable by the browser.
#
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#x-content-type-options
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/X-Content-Type-Options
# https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/ie/2008/07/02/ie8-security-part-v-comprehensive-protection/
# https://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header always set X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff"
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Referrer Policy |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set a strict Referrer Policy to mitigate information leakage.
#
# (1) The `Referrer-Policy` header is included in responses for resources
# that are able to request (or navigate to) other resources.
#
# This includes the commonly used resource types:
# HTML, CSS, XML/SVG, PDF documents, scripts and workers.
#
# To prevent referrer leakage entirely, specify the `no-referrer` value
# instead. Note that the effect could impact analytics metrics negatively.
#
# To check your Referrer Policy, you can use an online service, such as:
# https://securityheaders.com/
# https://observatory.mozilla.org/
#
# https://www.w3.org/TR/referrer-policy/
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#referrer-policy
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Referrer-Policy
# https://scotthelme.co.uk/a-new-security-header-referrer-policy/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # (1)
# Header always set Referrer-Policy "strict-origin-when-cross-origin" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text\/(css|html|javascript)|application\/pdf|xml#i"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cross Origin Policy |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set strict a Cross Origin Policy to mitigate information leakage.
#
# (1) Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy prevents a document from loading any
# cross-origin resources that don’t explicitly grant the document
# permission.
# https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/origin.html#coep
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#cross-origin-embedder-policy
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy
#
# (2) Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy allows you to ensure a top-level document does
# not share a browsing context group with cross-origin documents.
# https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/origin.html#cross-origin-opener-policies
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#cross-origin-opener-policy
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy
#
# (3) Cross-Origin-Resource-Policy allows to define a policy that lets web
# sites and applications opt in to protection against certain requests from
# other origins, to mitigate speculative side-channel attacks.
# https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/#cross-origin-resource-policy-header
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#cross-origin-resource-policy
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cross-Origin-Resource-Policy
# https://resourcepolicy.fyi/
#
# To check your Cross Origin Policy, you can use an online service, such as:
# https://securityheaders.com/
# https://observatory.mozilla.org/
#
# https://web.dev/coop-coep/
# https://web.dev/why-coop-coep/
# https://web.dev/cross-origin-isolation-guide/
# https://scotthelme.co.uk/coop-and-coep/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # (1)
# Header always set Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy "require-corp" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text\/(html|javascript)|application\/pdf|xml#i"
# # (2)
# Header always set Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy "same-origin" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text\/(html|javascript)|application\/pdf|xml#i"
# # (3)
# Header always set Cross-Origin-Resource-Policy "same-origin" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text\/(html|javascript)|application\/pdf|xml#i"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Permissions Policy |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set a strict Permissions Policy to mitigate access to browser features.
#
# The header uses a structured syntax, and allows sites to more tightly
# restrict which origins can be granted access to features.
# The list of available features: https://github.com/w3c/webappsec-permissions-policy/blob/main/features.md
#
# The example policy below aims to disable all features expect synchronous
# `XMLHttpRequest` requests on the same origin.
#
# To check your Permissions Policy, you can use an online service, such as:
# https://securityheaders.com/
# https://observatory.mozilla.org/
#
# https://www.w3.org/TR/permissions-policy-1/
# https://owasp.org/www-project-secure-headers/#permissions-policy
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Feature-Policy
# https://scotthelme.co.uk/a-new-security-header-feature-policy/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header always set Permissions-Policy "accelerometer=(),autoplay=(),camera=(),display-capture=(),document-domain=(),encrypted-media=(),fullscreen=(),geolocation=(),gyroscope=(),magnetometer=(),microphone=(),midi=(),payment=(),picture-in-picture=(),publickey-credentials-get=(),screen-wake-lock=(),sync-xhr=(self),usb=(),web-share=(),xr-spatial-tracking=()" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text\/(html|javascript)|application\/pdf|xml#i"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Disable TRACE HTTP Method |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent Apache from responding to `TRACE` HTTP request.
#
# The TRACE method, while seemingly harmless, can be successfully leveraged
# in some scenarios to steal legitimate users' credentials.
#
# Modern browsers now prevent TRACE requests being made via JavaScript,
# however, other ways of sending TRACE requests with browsers have been
# discovered, such as using Java.
#
# (!) If you have access to the main server configuration file, use the
# `TraceEnable` directive instead.
#
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-4.3.8
# https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Cross_Site_Tracing
# https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Test_HTTP_Methods_(OTG-CONFIG-006)
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#traceenable
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteEngine On
# RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^TRACE [NC]
# RewriteRule .* - [R=405,L]
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Server-side technology information |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Remove the `X-Powered-By` response header that:
#
# * is set by some frameworks and server-side languages (e.g.: ASP.NET, PHP),
# and its value contains information about them (e.g.: their name, version
# number)
#
# * doesn't provide any value to users, contributes to header bloat, and in
# some cases, the information it provides can expose vulnerabilities
#
# (!) If you can, you should disable the `X-Powered-By` header from the
# language/framework level (e.g.: for PHP, you can do that by setting
# `expose_php = off` in `php.ini`).
#
# https://php.net/manual/en/ini.core.php#ini.expose-php
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header unset X-Powered-By
Header always unset X-Powered-By
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Server software information |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent Apache from adding a trailing footer line containing information
# about the server to the server-generated documents (e.g.: error messages,
# directory listings, etc.).
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#serversignature
ServerSignature Off
# ######################################################################
# # WEB PERFORMANCE #
# ######################################################################
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Compression |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
<IfModule mod_deflate.c>
# Force compression for mangled `Accept-Encoding` request headers
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Accept-Encoding
# https://calendar.perfplanet.com/2010/pushing-beyond-gzipping/
<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
SetEnvIfNoCase ^(Accept-EncodXng|X-cept-Encoding|X{15}|~{15}|-{15})$ ^((gzip|deflate)\s*,?\s*)+|[X~-]{4,13}$ HAVE_Accept-Encoding
RequestHeader append Accept-Encoding "gzip,deflate" env=HAVE_Accept-Encoding
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Compress all output labeled with one of the following media types.
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_filter.html#addoutputfilterbytype
<IfModule mod_filter.c>
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE "application/atom+xml" \
"application/javascript" \
"application/json" \
"application/ld+json" \
"application/manifest+json" \
"application/rdf+xml" \
"application/rss+xml" \
"application/schema+json" \
"application/geo+json" \
"application/vnd.ms-fontobject" \
"application/wasm" \
"application/x-font-ttf" \
"application/x-javascript" \
"application/x-web-app-manifest+json" \
"application/xhtml+xml" \
"application/xml" \
"font/eot" \
"font/opentype" \
"font/otf" \
"font/ttf" \
"image/bmp" \
"image/svg+xml" \
"image/vnd.microsoft.icon" \
"image/x-icon" \
"text/cache-manifest" \
"text/calendar" \
"text/css" \
"text/html" \
"text/javascript" \
"text/plain" \
"text/markdown" \
"text/vcard" \
"text/vnd.rim.location.xloc" \
"text/vtt" \
"text/x-component" \
"text/x-cross-domain-policy" \
"text/xml"
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Map the following filename extensions to the specified encoding type in
# order to make Apache serve the file types with the appropriate
# `Content-Encoding` response header (do note that this will NOT make
# Apache compress them!).
#
# If these files types would be served without an appropriate
# `Content-Encoding` response header, client applications (e.g.: browsers)
# wouldn't know that they first need to uncompress the response, and thus,
# wouldn't be able to understand the content.
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Content-Encoding
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_mime.html#addencoding
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
AddEncoding gzip svgz
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Brotli pre-compressed content |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve brotli compressed CSS, JS, HTML, SVG, ICS and JSON files if they exist
# and if the client accepts br encoding.
#
# (!) To make this part relevant, you need to generate encoded files by your
# own. Enabling this part will not auto-generate brotlied files.
#
# (!) In special case of serving pre-compressed content only, note that
# `DirectoryIndex` directive adjustments could be required to change
# default resources priorities.
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_dir.html#directoryindex
#
# (1) Remove default Content-Language header added for .br files.
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_mime.html#multipleext
#
# Note that some clients (e.g. browsers) require a secure connection to request
# brotli-compressed resources.
# https://www.chromestatus.com/feature/5420797577396224
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_brotli.html#precompressed
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept-Encoding} br
# RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}\.br -f
# RewriteRule \.(css|ics|js|json|html|svg)$ %{REQUEST_URI}.br [L]
# # Prevent mod_deflate double gzip
# RewriteRule \.br$ - [E=no-gzip:1]
# <FilesMatch "\.br$">
# <IfModule mod_mime.c>
# # (1)
# RemoveLanguage .br
# # Serve correct content types
# AddType text/css css.br
# AddType text/calendar ics.br
# AddType text/javascript js.br
# AddType application/json json.br
# AddType text/html html.br
# AddType image/svg+xml svg.br
# # Serve correct content charset
# AddCharset utf-8 .css.br \
# .ics.br \
# .js.br \
# .json.br
# </IfModule>
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # Force proxies to cache brotlied and non-brotlied files separately
# Header append Vary Accept-Encoding
# </IfModule>
# </FilesMatch>
# <IfModule mod_mime.c>
# # Serve correct encoding type
# AddEncoding br .br
# </IfModule>
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | GZip pre-compressed content |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve gzip compressed CSS, JS, HTML, SVG, ICS, and JSON files if they exist
# and if the client accepts gzip encoding.
#
# (!) To make this part relevant, you need to generate encoded files by your
# own. Enabling this part will not auto-generate gziped files.
#
# (!) In special case of serving pre-compressed content only, note that
# `DirectoryIndex` directive adjustments could be required to change
# default resources priorities.
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_dir.html#directoryindex
#
# (1) Removing default MIME Type for .gz files allowing to add custom
# sub-types.
# You may prefer using less generic extensions such as .html_gz in order to
# keep the default behavior regarding .gz files.
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_mime.html#removetype
#
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_deflate.html#precompressed
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept-Encoding} gzip
# RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}\.gz -f
# RewriteRule \.(css|ics|js|json|html|svg)$ %{REQUEST_URI}.gz [L]
# # Prevent mod_deflate double gzip
# RewriteRule \.gz$ - [E=no-gzip:1]
# <FilesMatch "\.gz$">
# <IfModule mod_mime.c>
# # (1)
# RemoveType gz
# # Serve correct content types
# AddType text/css css.gz
# AddType text/calendar ics.gz
# AddType text/javascript js.gz
# AddType application/json json.gz
# AddType text/html html.gz
# AddType image/svg+xml svg.gz
# # Serve correct content charset
# AddCharset utf-8 .css.gz \
# .ics.gz \
# .js.gz \
# .json.gz
# </IfModule>
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # Force proxies to cache gzipped and non-gzipped files separately
# Header append Vary Accept-Encoding
# </IfModule>
# </FilesMatch>
# <IfModule mod_mime.c>
# # Serve correct encoding type
# AddEncoding gzip .gz
# </IfModule>
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | ETags |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Remove `ETags` as resources are sent with far-future expires headers.
#
# Apache `ETags` might have an unexpected behavior if `DeflateAlterETag`
# can't be changed (which is the case at `.htaccess` level).
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/ETag
# https://developer.yahoo.com/performance/rules.html#etags
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7232#section-2.3
# `FileETag None` doesn't work in all cases.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
FileETag None
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cache expiration |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve resources with a far-future expiration date.
#
# (!) If you don't control versioning with filename-based cache busting, you
# should consider lowering the cache times to something like one week.
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cache-Control
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Expires
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_expires.html
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
ExpiresActive on
# Default: Fallback
ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 year"
# Specific: Assets
ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon "access plus 1 week"
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "access plus 1 week"
# Specific: Manifests
ExpiresByType application/manifest+json "access plus 1 week"
ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json "access"
ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest "access"
# Specific: Data interchange
ExpiresByType application/atom+xml "access plus 1 hour"
ExpiresByType application/rdf+xml "access plus 1 hour"
ExpiresByType application/rss+xml "access plus 1 hour"
# Specific: Documents
ExpiresByType text/html "access"
ExpiresByType text/markdown "access"
ExpiresByType text/calendar "access"
# Specific: Other
ExpiresByType text/x-cross-domain-policy "access plus 1 week"
# Generic: Data
ExpiresByType application/json "access"
ExpiresByType application/ld+json "access"
ExpiresByType application/schema+json "access"
ExpiresByType application/geo+json "access"
ExpiresByType application/xml "access"
ExpiresByType text/xml "access"
# Generic: WebAssembly
# ExpiresByType application/wasm "access plus 1 year" # default
# Generic: Assets
# ExpiresByType application/javascript "access plus 1 year" # default
# ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "access plus 1 year" # default
# ExpiresByType text/javascript "access plus 1 year" # default
# ExpiresByType text/css "access plus 1 year" # default
# Generic: Medias
# ExpiresByType audio/* "access plus 1 year" # default
# ExpiresByType image/* "access plus 1 year" # default
# ExpiresByType video/* "access plus 1 year" # default
# ExpiresByType font/* "access plus 1 year" # default
</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cache Control |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve resources with appropriate cache control directives.
#
# The `Cache-Control` header field holds directives (instructions) that control
# caching in browsers and shared caches (e.g. Proxies, CDNs).
# Its use targets web performances improvement by specifying the expected
# client and network caches behaviors.
#
# The usable cache directives are listed here:
# https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-cache-directives/http-cache-directives.xml
#
# The cache directives are documented here:
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cache-Control#response_directives
#
# (!) Enable and configure this configuration with care.
# Default values should embrace conformance for static files and simple
# apps, but cache control definition at backend level is highly preferred.
# Incorrect directives can lead to data leaks, or can degrade performances.
#
# More specifically, in-depth understanding on `public` vs `private`
# directives meanings is highly recommended. A resource with `public` will
# be cached by shared caches like CDN, even if a user session is active.
#
# (!) The config directive `Header` must be used with the appropriate action.
# Depending on the need, `merge` keeps the current value, if any, of
# `Cache-Control` header, while `set` reset the value including the one
# added by `ExpiresByType` directive in the cache expiration config file
# h5bp/web_performance/cache_expiration.conf.
# https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_headers.html#header
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cache-Control
# https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9111.html
# https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8246.html
# https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5861.html
# https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-cache-directives/http-cache-directives.xml
# https://cache-tests.fyi/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # Default
# Header merge Cache-Control "public, immutable, stale-while-revalidate" "expr=%{resp:Cache-Control} == 'max-age=31536000'"
# # No content
# Header merge Cache-Control "no-store" "expr=-z %{CONTENT_TYPE}"
# # Manifest files
# Header merge Cache-Control "public" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#application/manifest\+json#i"
# Header set Cache-Control "no-cache" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/cache-manifest#i"
# # Assets
# Header merge Cache-Control "public, immutable, stale-while-revalidate" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#image/x-icon#i"
# # Data interchange
# Header merge Cache-Control "public, stale-while-revalidate" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#application/(atom|rdf|rss)\+xml#i"
# # Documents
# Header set Cache-Control "no-cache, private, must-revalidate" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/(html|markdown|calendar)#i"
# # Data
# Header set Cache-Control "no-cache" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#json|xml#i && %{CONTENT_TYPE} !~ m#/(atom|rdf|rss|manifest|svg)\+#i"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content transformation |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent intermediate caches or proxies (such as those used by mobile
# network providers) and browsers data-saving features from modifying
# the website's content using the `no-transform` directive for
# `Cache-Control` header.
#
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Cache-Control
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234#section-5.2.2.4
#
# (!) Carefully consider the impact on your visitors before disabling
# content transformation. These transformations are performed to
# improve the experience for data- and cost-constrained users
# (e.g. users on a 2G connection).
#
# You can test the effects of content transformation applied by
# Google's Lite Mode by visiting: https://googleweblight.com/i?u=https://www.example.com
#
# https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/6211428
#
# (!) If you are using `mod_pagespeed`, note that disabling this will
# prevent `PageSpeed` from rewriting HTML files, and, if the
# `ModPagespeedDisableRewriteOnNoTransform` directive isn't set to
# `off`, also from rewriting other resources.
#
# https://developers.google.com/speed/pagespeed/module/configuration#notransform
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header merge Cache-Control "no-transform"
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | File concatenation |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow concatenation from within specific files.
#
# If you have the following lines in a file called, for example,
# `main.combined.js`:
#
# <!--#include file="js/jquery.js" -->
# <!--#include file="js/jquery.timer.js" -->
#
# Apache will replace those lines with the content of the specified files.
# <IfModule mod_include.c>
# <FilesMatch "\.combined\.js$">
# Options +Includes
# AddOutputFilterByType INCLUDES application/javascript \
# application/x-javascript \
# text/javascript
# SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
# </FilesMatch>
# <FilesMatch "\.combined\.css$">
# Options +Includes
# AddOutputFilterByType INCLUDES text/css
# SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
# </FilesMatch>
# </IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Filename-based cache busting |
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# If you're not using a build process to manage your filename version revving,
# you might want to consider enabling the following directives.
#
# To understand why this is important and even a better solution than using
# something like `*.css?v231`, please see:
# https://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2008/08/23/revving-filenames-dont-use-querystring/
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteEngine On
# RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
# RewriteRule ^(.+)\.(\w+)\.(avifs?|bmp|css|cur|gif|ico|jpe?g|jxl|m?js|a?png|svgz?|webp|webmanifest)$ $1.$3 [L]
# </IfModule>