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active_record
presenters Adds job title class to handle null object pattern Aug 13, 2015
README.md Adds facade & factory patterns Aug 13, 2015
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README.md

Rails Patterns & AntiPatterns

I just want to build software like a pro.

Suspenders

Topics

--

Law of Demeter

The Law of Demeter (LoD) or principle of least knowledge is a design guideline for developing software, particularly object-oriented programs. In its general form, the LoD is a specific case of loose coupling. The guideline was proposed at Northeastern University towards the end of 1987, and can be succinctly summarized in each of the following ways:[1]

  • Each unit should have only limited knowledge about other units: only units "closely" related to the current unit.
  • Each unit should only talk to its friends; don't talk to strangers.
  • Only talk to your immediate friends.

The fundamental notion is that a given object should assume as little as possible about the structure or properties of anything else (including its subcomponents), in accordance with the principle of "information hiding".

Problem

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
	belongs_to :author
end

class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
	has_many :articles
	has_one :personal_information
end

class PersonalInformation < ActiveRecord::Base
	belongs_to :author
end

=> article.author.personal_information.name
=> article.author.personal_information.birthdate
=> article.author.personal_information.gender
=> article.author.personal_information.city
=> article.author.personal_information.last_name

Solution

class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
	has_many :articles
	has_one :personal_information
	
	def name
		personal_information.name
	end
	
	def birthdate
		personal_information.birthdate
	end
	
	def gender
		personal_information.gender
	end
	
	def city
		personal_information.city
	end
	
	def last_name
		personal_information.last_name
	end
end

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
	belongs_to :author
	
	def author_name
		author.name
	end
	
	def author_birthdate
		author.birthdate
	end
	
	def author_gender
		author.gender
	end
	
	def author_city
		author.city
	end
	
	def author_last_name
		author.last_name
	end
end

+2 Solution

class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
	has_many :articles
	has_one :personal_information
	
	delegate  :name,
	          :birthdate,
	          :gender,
	          :city,
	          :last_name,
	          to: :personal_information
end

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
	belongs_to :author
	
	delegate  :name,
	          :birthdate,
	          :gender,
	          :city,
	          :last_name,
	          to: :author,
	          prefix: true

end

ActiveRecord

In software engineering, the active record pattern is an architectural pattern found in software that stores in-memory object data in relational databases. It was named by Martin Fowler in his 2003 book Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture.[1] The interface of an object conforming to this pattern would include functions such as Insert, Update, and Delete, plus properties that correspond more or less directly to the columns in the underlying database table.

The active record pattern is an approach to accessing data in a database. A database table or view is wrapped into a class. Thus, an object instance is tied to a single row in the table. After creation of an object, a new row is added to the table upon save. Any object loaded gets its information from the database. When an object is updated the corresponding row in the table is also updated. The wrapper class implements accessor methods or properties for each column in the table or view.

Example

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
end

Code

Presenters || Decorators

In object-oriented programming, the decorator pattern (also known as Wrapper, an alternative naming shared with the Adapter pattern) is a design pattern that allows behavior to be added to an individual object, either statically or dynamically, without affecting the behavior of other objects from the same class.[1] The decorator pattern is often useful for adhering to the Single Responsibility Principle, as it allows functionality to be divided between classes with unique areas of concern.

Example

class UserDecorator
	attr_reader :user
	
	def initialize(user)
		@user = user
	end
	
	def email
		"The user email is: #{@user.email}"
	end
	
	def birthdate
		"#{@user}".strftime("%b %d, %Y")
	end
end

References

Single Responsibility Principle

In object-oriented programming, the single responsibility principle states that every class should have responsibility over a single part of the functionality provided by the software, and that responsibility should be entirely encapsulated by the class. All its services should be narrowly aligned with that responsibility.

Example

class UserRegistration
	attr_reader :user
	
	def initialize(user)
		@user = user
	end
	
	def register
		#logic to handle registration for that user
	end
	
	def success?
		#was the registration successful?
	end
	.
	.
	.
end

References

Null Object Pattern

In object-oriented computer programming, a Null Object is an object with defined neutral ("null") behavior. The Null Object design pattern describes the uses of such objects and their behavior (or lack thereof). It was first published in the Pattern Languages of Program Design book series.

References

Factory

In class-based programming, the factory method pattern is a creational pattern which uses factory methods to deal with the problem of creating objects without specifying the exact class of object that will be created. This is done by creating objects via calling a factory method—either specified in an interface and implemented by child classes, or implemented in a base class and optionally overridden by derived classes—rather than by calling a constructor.

Example

class VehicleFactory
  
	def self.factory(klass)
    { :car => Car,
      :boat => Boat
    }[klass].new
	end
end

class Car
end

class Boat
end

VehicleFactory.factory :car

Facade

The facade pattern (or façade pattern) is a software design pattern commonly used with object-oriented programming. The name is by analogy to an architectural facade.

A facade is an object that provides a simplified interface to a larger body of code, such as a class library. A facade can:

  • make a software library easier to use, understand and test, since the facade has convenient methods for common tasks;
  • make the library more readable, for the same reason;
  • reduce dependencies of outside code on the inner workings of a library, since most code uses the facade, thus allowing more flexibility in developing the system;
  • wrap a poorly designed collection of APIs with a single well-designed API (as per task needs).

Problem

class UserDashboardController < ApplicationController

    def index
        @user = User.find(params[:user_id])
        @notifications = @user.notifications
        @messages = @user.messages
        @posts = @user.posts
    end
end

Solution

class UserDashboardController < ApplicationController

    def index
        user = User.find(params[:user_id])
        @user_dashboard = UserDashboard.new(user)
    end
end

class UserDashboard

    attr_reader :user

    def initialize(user = nil)
        @user = user
    end

    def notifications
        @user.notifications
    end

    def messages
        @user.messages
    end

    def posts
        @user.posts
    end
end  

CodeRetreat

Coming soon...

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