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devtools

The aim of devtools is to make your life as a package developer easier by providing R functions that simplify many common tasks. Devtools is opinionated about how to do package development, and requires that you use roxygen2 for documentation and testthat for testing. Future version will relax these opinions - patches are welcome! You can track (and contribute to) development of devtools at https://github.com/hadley/devtools.

For discussion related to package development with devtools see the rdevtools mailing list.

Package development tools

Frequent development tasks:

  • load_all("pkg") simulates installing and reloading your package, by loading R code in R/, compiled shared objects in src/ and data files in data/. During development you usually want to access all functions so load_all ignores the package NAMESPACE. It works efficiently by only reloading files that have changed. It's not 100% correct, but it's very fast.

  • document("pkg") updates documentation, file collation and NAMESPACE.

  • test("pkg") reloads your code, then runs all testthat tests.

Building and installing:

  • build("pkg") builds a package file from package sources. This is used by install and check to ensure that your development directory is left untouched. You can also use it to build a binary version of your package.

  • build_win("pkg") builds a package using win-builder, allowing you to easily make a windows binary package if you're not on windows.

  • install("pkg") reinstalls the package, detaches the currently loaded version then reloads the new version with library. Reloading a package is not guaranteed to work: see the documentation to reload for caveats.

  • install_github("repo", "username") installs an R package from github, install_gitorious from gitorious, and install_url from an arbitrary url.

Check and release:

  • check("pkg") updates the documentation, then builds and checks the package. build_win("pkg") uploads the package to CRAN's win-builder (provided by Uwe Ligges) and emails you the check results.

  • run_examples() runs all examples to make sure they work. This is useful because example checking is the last step of R CMD check.

  • check_doc() runs most of the documentation checking components of R CMD check

  • release() makes sure everything is ok with your package (including asking you a number of questions), then builds and uploads to CRAN. It also drafts an email to let the CRAN maintainer know that you've uploaded a new package.

Other commands:

  • bash() opens a bash shell in your package directory so you can use git or other command line tools.

  • wd() changes the working directory to a path relative to the package root.

Development mode

Calling dev_mode() will switch your version of R into "development mode". In this mode, R will install packages to ~/R-dev. This is useful to avoid clobbering the existing versions of CRAN packages that you need for other tasks. Calling dev_mode() again will turn development mode off, and return you to your default library setup.

Referring to a package

All devtools functions accept either a path, a name, or nothing.

  • Specifying a path is easiest if you're only developing a small number of packages. Just ensuring your working directory is the directory in which your packages live then use (e.g.) install("mypkg")

  • If you don't specify anything, all devtools commands automatically use the last package you referred to.

  • Specifying package names is useful if you are developing many packages. In this case, devtools will look in ~/.Rpackages, and try the path given by the default function, if it's not there, it will look up the package name in the list and use that path.

    For example, a small section of my ~/.Rpackages looks like this:

      list(
          default = function(x) {
            file.path("~/documents/", x, x)
          }, 
    
        "describedisplay" = "~/ggobi/describedisplay",
        "tourr" =    "~/documents/tour/tourr", 
        "mutatr" = "~/documents/oo/mutatr"
      )
    

Other tips

I recommend adding the following code to your .Rprofile:

.First <- function() {
  options(
    repos = c(CRAN = "http://cran.r-project.org/"),
    browserNLdisabled = TRUE,
    deparse.max.lines = 2)
}

if (interactive()) {
  suppressMessages(require(devtools))
}

This will set up R to:

  • always install packages from the main CRAN mirror
  • ignore newlines when browse()ing
  • give minimal output from traceback
  • automatically load devtools in interactive sessions
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