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#' Polar coordinates.
#'
#' The polar coordinate system is most commonly used for pie charts, which
#' are a stacked bar chart in polar coordinates.
#'
#' @param theta variable to map angle to (\code{x} or \code{y})
#' @param start offset of starting point from 12 o'clock in radians
#' @param direction 1, clockwise; -1, anticlockwise
#' @export
#' @examples
#' \donttest{
#' # NOTE: Use these plots with caution - polar coordinates has
#' # major perceptual problems. The main point of these examples is
#' # to demonstrate how these common plots can be described in the
#' # grammar. Use with EXTREME caution.
#'
#' # A coxcomb plot = bar chart + polar coordinates
#' cxc <- ggplot(mtcars, aes(x = factor(cyl))) +
#' geom_bar(width = 1, colour = "black")
#' cxc + coord_polar()
#' # A new type of plot?
#' cxc + coord_polar(theta = "y")
#'
#' # A pie chart = stacked bar chart + polar coordinates
#' pie <- ggplot(mtcars, aes(x = factor(1), fill = factor(cyl))) +
#' geom_bar(width = 1)
#' pie + coord_polar(theta = "y")
#'
#' # The bullseye chart
#' pie + coord_polar()
#'
#' # Hadley's favourite pie chart
#' df <- data.frame(
#' variable = c("resembles", "does not resemble"),
#' value = c(80, 20)
#' )
#' ggplot(df, aes(x = "", y = value, fill = variable)) +
#' geom_bar(width = 1) +
#' scale_fill_manual(values = c("red", "yellow")) +
#' coord_polar("y", start=pi / 3) +
#' opts(title = "Pac man")
#'
#' # Windrose + doughnut plot
#' movies$rrating <- cut_interval(movies$rating, length = 1)
#' movies$budgetq <- cut_number(movies$budget, 4)
#'
#' doh <- ggplot(movies, aes(x = rrating, fill = budgetq))
#'
#' # Wind rose
#' doh + geom_bar(width = 1) + coord_polar()
#' # Race track plot
#' doh + geom_bar(width = 0.9, position = "fill") + coord_polar(theta = "y")
#' }
coord_polar <- function(theta = "x", start = 0, direction = 1) {
theta <- match.arg(theta, c("x", "y"))
r <- if (theta == "x") "y" else "x"
coord(
theta = theta, r = r,
start = start, direction = sign(direction),
subclass = "polar"
)
}
#' @S3method coord_aspect polar
coord_aspect.polar <- function(coord, details) 1
#' @S3method coord_distance polar
coord_distance.polar <- function(coord, x, y, details) {
max_dist <- 2 * pi
if (coord$theta == "x") {
r <- rescale(y, from = details$r.range)
theta <- theta_rescale_no_clip(coord, x, details)
} else {
r <- rescale(x, from = details$r.range)
theta <- theta_rescale_no_clip(coord, y, details)
}
px <- r * cos(theta)
py <- r * sin(theta)
pz <- theta * r
sqrt(diff(px) ^ 2 + diff(py) ^ 2 + diff(pz) ^ 2) / max_dist
}
#' @S3method coord_range polar
coord_range.polar <- function(coord, scales) {
setNames(list(scales$theta.range, scales$r.range), c(coord$theta, coord$r))
}
#' @S3method coord_train polar
coord_train.polar <- function(coord, scales) {
ret <- list(x = list(), y = list())
for (n in c("x", "y")) {
scale <- scales[[n]]
limits <- coord$limits[[n]]
if (is.null(limits)) {
expand <- coord_expand_defaults(coord, scale, n)
range <- scale_dimension(scale, expand)
} else {
range <- range(scale_transform(scale, limits))
}
out <- scale_break_info(scale, range)
ret[[n]]$range <- out$range
ret[[n]]$major <- out$major_source
ret[[n]]$minor <- out$minor_source
ret[[n]]$labels <- out$labels
}
details <- list(
x.range = ret$x$range, y.range = ret$y$range,
x.major = ret$x$major, x.minor = ret$x$minor, x.labels = ret$x$labels,
y.major = ret$y$major, y.minor = ret$y$minor, y.labels = ret$y$labels
)
if (coord$theta == "y") {
names(details) <- gsub("x\\.", "r.", names(details))
names(details) <- gsub("y\\.", "theta.", names(details))
} else {
names(details) <- gsub("x\\.", "theta.", names(details))
names(details) <- gsub("y\\.", "r.", names(details))
}
details
}
rename_data <- function(coord, data) {
if (coord$theta == "y") {
rename(data, c("y" = "theta", "x" = "r"))
} else {
rename(data, c("y" = "r", "x" = "theta"))
}
}
theta_rescale_no_clip <- function(coord, x, details) {
rotate <- function(x) (x + coord$start) * coord$direction
rotate(rescale(x, c(0, 2 * pi), details$theta.range))
}
theta_rescale <- function(coord, x, details) {
rotate <- function(x) (x + coord$start) %% (2 * pi) * coord$direction
rotate(rescale(x, c(0, 2 * pi), details$theta.range))
}
r_rescale <- function(coord, x, details) {
rescale(x, c(0, 0.4), details$r.range)
}
#' @S3method coord_expand_defaults polar
coord_expand_defaults.polar <- function(coord, scale, aesthetic) {
if (coord$theta == aesthetic) {
expand_default(scale, c(0, 0.5), c(0, 0))
} else {
expand_default(scale, c(0, 0), c(0, 0))
}
}
#' @S3method coord_transform polar
coord_transform.polar <- function(coord, data, details) {
data <- rename_data(coord, data)
data$r <- r_rescale(coord, data$r, details)
data$theta <- theta_rescale(coord, data$theta, details)
data$x <- data$r * sin(data$theta) + 0.5
data$y <- data$r * cos(data$theta) + 0.5
data
}
#' @S3method coord_render_axis_v polar
coord_render_axis_v.polar <- function(coord, details, theme) {
x <- r_rescale(coord,details$r.major, details) + 0.5
guide_axis(x, details$r.labels, "left", theme)
}
#' @S3method coord_render_axis_h polar
coord_render_axis_h.polar <- function(coord, details, theme) {
guide_axis(NA, "", "bottom", theme)
}
#' @S3method coord_render_bg polar
coord_render_bg.polar <- function(coord, details, theme) {
details <- rename_data(coord, details)
theta <- if (length(details$theta.major) > 0) theta_rescale(coord, details$theta.major, details)
thetamin <- if (length(details$theta.minor) > 0) theta_rescale(coord, details$theta.minor, details)
thetafine <- seq(0, 2 * pi, length=100)
r <- 0.4
rfine <- c(r_rescale(coord, details$r.major, details), 0.45)
ggname("grill", grobTree(
theme_render(theme, "panel.background"),
if (length(theta) > 0) theme_render(
theme, "panel.grid.major", name = "angle",
x = c(rbind(0, 0.45 * sin(theta))) + 0.5,
y = c(rbind(0, 0.45 * cos(theta))) + 0.5,
id.lengths = rep(2, length(theta)),
default.units="native"
),
if (length(thetamin) > 0) theme_render(
theme, "panel.grid.minor", name = "angle",
x = c(rbind(0, 0.45 * sin(thetamin))) + 0.5,
y = c(rbind(0, 0.45 * cos(thetamin))) + 0.5,
id.lengths = rep(2, length(thetamin)),
default.units="native"
),
theme_render(
theme, "panel.grid.major", name = "radius",
x = rep(rfine, each=length(thetafine)) * sin(thetafine) + 0.5,
y = rep(rfine, each=length(thetafine)) * cos(thetafine) + 0.5,
id.lengths = rep(length(thetafine), length(rfine)),
default.units="native"
)
))
}
#' @S3method coord_render_fg polar
coord_render_fg.polar <- function(coord, details, theme) {
if (is.null(details$theta.major)) {
return(theme_render(theme, "panel.border"))
}
theta <- theta_rescale(coord, details$theta.major, details)
labels <- details$theta.labels
# Combine the two ends of the scale if they are close
theta <- theta[!is.na(theta)]
ends_apart <- (theta[length(theta)] - theta[1]) %% (2*pi)
if (ends_apart < 0.05) {
n <- length(labels)
if (is.expression(labels)) {
combined <- substitute(paste(a, "/", b),
list(a = labels[[1]], b = labels[[n]]))
} else {
combined <- paste(labels[1], labels[n], sep="/")
}
labels[[n]] <- combined
labels <- labels[-1]
theta <- theta[-1]
}
grobTree(
if (length(labels) > 0) theme_render(
theme, "axis.text.x",
labels, 0.45 * sin(theta) + 0.5, 0.45 * cos(theta) + 0.5,
hjust = 0.5, vjust = 0.5,
default.units="native"
),
theme_render(theme, "panel.border")
)
}
#' @S3method coord_labels polar
coord_labels.polar <- function(coord, scales) {
if (coord$theta == "y") {
list(x = scales$y, y = scales$x)
} else {
scales
}
}
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