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\title{Set theme elements}
theme(..., complete = FALSE)
\item{...}{a list of element name, element pairings that
modify the existing theme.}
\item{complete}{set this to TRUE if this is a complete
theme, such as the one returned \code{by theme_grey()}.
Complete themes behave differently when added to a ggplot
Use this function to modify theme settings.
Theme elements can inherit properties from other theme
elements. For example, \code{axis.title.x} inherits from
\code{axis.title}, which in turn inherits from
\code{text}. All text elements inherit directly or
indirectly from \code{text}; all lines inherit from
\code{line}, and all rectangular objects inherit from
For more examples of modifying properties using
inheritance, see \code{\link{}} and
To see a graphical representation of the inheritance
tree, see the last example below.
\section{Theme elements}{
The individual theme elements are:
\tabular{ll}{ line \tab all line elements
(\code{element_line}) \cr rect \tab all rectangluar
elements (\code{element_rect}) \cr text \tab all text
elements (\code{element_text}) \cr title \tab all title
elements: plot, axes, legends (\code{element_text};
inherits from \code{text}) \cr
axis.title \tab label of axes (\code{element_text};
inherits from \code{text}) \cr axis.title.x \tab x axis
label (\code{element_text}; inherits from
\code{axis.title}) \cr axis.title.y \tab y axis label
(\code{element_text}; inherits from \code{axis.title})
\cr axis.text \tab tick labels along axes
(\code{element_text}; inherits from \code{text}) \cr
axis.text.x \tab x axis tick labels (\code{element_text};
inherits from \code{axis.text}) \cr axis.text.y \tab y
axis tick labels (\code{element_text}; inherits from
\code{axis.text}) \cr axis.ticks \tab tick marks along
axes (\code{element_line}; inherits from \code{line}) \cr
axis.ticks.x \tab x axis tick marks (\code{element_line};
inherits from \code{axis.ticks}) \cr axis.ticks.y \tab y
axis tick marks (\code{element_line}; inherits from
\code{axis.ticks}) \cr axis.ticks.length \tab length of
tick marks (\code{unit}) \cr axis.ticks.margin \tab space
between tick mark and tick label (\code{unit}) \cr
axis.line \tab lines along axes (\code{element_line};
inherits from \code{line}) \cr axis.line.x \tab line
along x axis (\code{element_line}; inherits from
\code{axis.line}) \cr axis.line.y \tab line along y axis
(\code{element_line}; inherits from \code{axis.line}) \cr
legend.background \tab background of legend
(\code{element_rect}; inherits from \code{rect}) \cr
legend.margin \tab extra space added around legend
(\code{unit}) \cr legend.key \tab background underneath
legend keys (\code{element_rect}; inherits from
\code{rect}) \cr legend.key.size \tab size of legend keys
(\code{unit}; inherits from \code{legend.key.size}) \cr
legend.key.height \tab key background height
(\code{unit}; inherits from \code{legend.key.size}) \cr
legend.key.width \tab key background width (\code{unit};
inherits from \code{legend.key.size}) \cr legend.text
\tab legend item labels (\code{element_text}; inherits
from \code{text}) \cr legend.text.align \tab alignment of
legend labels (number from 0 (left) to 1 (right)) \cr
legend.title \tab title of legend (\code{element_text};
inherits from \code{title}) \cr legend.title.align \tab
alignment of legend title (number from 0 (left) to 1
(right)) \cr legend.position \tab the position of
legends. ("left", "right", "bottom", "top", or
two-element numeric vector) \cr legend.direction \tab
layout of items in legends ("horizontal" or "vertical")
\cr legend.justification \tab anchor point for
positioning legend inside plot ("center" or two-element
numeric vector) \cr \tab arrangement of
multiple legends ("horizontal" or "vertical") \cr \tab justification of each legend within
the overall bounding box, when there are multiple legends
("top", "bottom", "left", or "right")\cr
panel.background \tab background of plotting area, drawn
underneath plot (\code{element_rect}; inherits from
\code{rect}) \cr panel.border \tab border around plotting
area, drawn on top of plot so that it covers tick marks
and grid lines. This should be used with \code{fill=NA}
(\code{element_rect}; inherits from \code{rect}) \cr
panel.margin \tab margin around facet panels
(\code{unit}) \cr panel.grid \tab grid lines
(\code{element_line}; inherits from \code{line}) \cr
panel.grid.major \tab major grid lines
(\code{element_line}; inherits from \code{panel.grid})
\cr panel.grid.minor \tab minor grid lines
(\code{element_line}; inherits from \code{panel.grid})
\cr panel.grid.major.x \tab vertical major grid lines
(\code{element_line}; inherits from
\code{panel.grid.major}) \cr panel.grid.major.y \tab
horizontal major grid lines (\code{element_line};
inherits from \code{panel.grid.major}) \cr
panel.grid.minor.x \tab vertical minor grid lines
(\code{element_line}; inherits from
\code{panel.grid.minor}) \cr panel.grid.minor.y \tab
horizontal minor grid lines (\code{element_line};
inherits from \code{panel.grid.minor}) \cr
plot.background \tab background of the entire plot
(\code{element_rect}; inherits from \code{rect}) \cr
plot.title \tab plot title (text appearance)
(\code{element_text}; inherits from \code{title}) \cr
plot.margin \tab margin around entire plot (\code{unit}
with the sizes of the top, right, bottom, and left
margins) \cr
strip.background \tab background of facet labels
(\code{element_rect}; inherits from \code{rect}) \cr
strip.text \tab facet labels (\code{element_text};
inherits from \code{text}) \cr strip.text.x \tab facet
labels along horizontal direction (\code{element_text};
inherits from \code{strip.text}) \cr strip.text.y \tab
facet labels along vertical direction
(\code{element_text}; inherits from \code{strip.text})
\cr }
p <- qplot(mpg, wt, data = mtcars)
p + theme(panel.background = element_rect(colour = "pink"))
p + theme_bw()
# Scatter plot of gas mileage by vehicle weight
p <- ggplot(mtcars, aes(x = wt, y = mpg)) + geom_point()
# Calculate slope and intercept of line of best fit
coef(lm(mpg ~ wt, data = mtcars))
p + geom_abline(intercept = 37, slope = -5)
# Calculate correlation coefficient
with(mtcars, cor(wt, mpg, use = "everything", method = "pearson"))
#annotate the plot
p + geom_abline(intercept = 37, slope = -5) +
geom_text(data = data.frame(), aes(4.5, 30, label = "Pearson-R = -.87"))
# Change the axis labels
# Original plot
p + xlab("Vehicle Weight") + ylab("Miles per Gallon")
# Or
p + labs(x = "Vehicle Weight", y = "Miles per Gallon")
# Change title appearance
p <- p + labs(title = "Vehicle Weight-Gas Mileage Relationship")
# Set title to twice the base font size
p + theme(plot.title = element_text(size = rel(2)))
p + theme(plot.title = element_text(size = rel(2), colour = "blue"))
# Changing plot look with themes
DF <- data.frame(x = rnorm(400))
m <- ggplot(DF, aes(x = x)) + geom_histogram()
# Default is theme_grey()
# Compare with
m + theme_bw()
# Manipulate Axis Attributes
library(grid) # for unit
m + theme(axis.line = element_line(size = 3, colour = "red", linetype = "dotted"))
m + theme(axis.text = element_text(colour = "blue"))
m + theme(axis.text.y = element_blank())
m + theme(axis.ticks = element_line(size = 2))
m + theme(axis.title.y = element_text(size = rel(1.5), angle = 90))
m + theme(axis.title.x = element_blank())
m + theme(axis.ticks.length = unit(.85, "cm"))
# Legend Attributes
z <- ggplot(mtcars, aes(wt, mpg, colour = factor(cyl))) + geom_point()
z + theme(legend.position = "none")
z + theme(legend.position = "bottom")
# Or use relative coordinates between 0 and 1
z + theme(legend.position = c(.5, .5))
z + theme(legend.background = element_rect(colour = "black"))
# Legend margin controls extra space around outside of legend:
z + theme(legend.background = element_rect(), legend.margin = unit(1, "cm"))
z + theme(legend.background = element_rect(), legend.margin = unit(0, "cm"))
# Or to just the keys
z + theme(legend.key = element_rect(colour = "black"))
z + theme(legend.key = element_rect(fill = "yellow"))
z + theme(legend.key.size = unit(2.5, "cm"))
z + theme(legend.text = element_text(size = 20, colour = "red", angle = 45))
z + theme(legend.title = element_text(face = "italic"))
# To change the title of the legend use the name argument
# in one of the scale options
z + scale_colour_brewer(name = "My Legend")
z + scale_colour_grey(name = "Number of \\nCylinders")
# Panel and Plot Attributes
z + theme(panel.background = element_rect(fill = "black"))
z + theme(panel.border = element_rect(linetype = "dashed", colour = "black"))
z + theme(panel.grid.major = element_line(colour = "blue"))
z + theme(panel.grid.minor = element_line(colour = "red", linetype = "dotted"))
z + theme(panel.grid.major = element_line(size = 2))
z + theme(panel.grid.major.y = element_blank(), panel.grid.minor.y = element_blank())
z + theme(plot.background = element_rect())
z + theme(plot.background = element_rect(fill = "green"))
# Faceting Attributes
dsmall <- diamonds[sample(nrow(diamonds), 1000), ]
k <- ggplot(dsmall, aes(carat, ..density..)) + geom_histogram(binwidth = 0.2) +
facet_grid(. ~ cut)
k + theme(strip.background = element_rect(colour = "purple", fill = "pink",
size = 3, linetype = "dashed"))
k + theme(strip.text.x = element_text(colour = "red", angle = 45, size = 10,
hjust = 0.5, vjust = 0.5))
k + theme(panel.margin = unit(5, "lines"))
k + theme(panel.margin = unit(0, "lines"))
# Modify a theme and save it
mytheme <- theme_grey() + theme(plot.title = element_text(colour = "red"))
p + mytheme
## Run this to generate a graph of the element inheritance tree
build_element_graph <- function(tree) {
inheritdf <- function(name, item) {
if (length(item$inherit) == 0)
data.frame(child = name, parent = item$inherit)
edges <- rbind.fill(mapply(inheritdf, names(tree), tree))
# Explicitly add vertices (since not all are in edge list)
vertices <- data.frame(name = names(tree)), vertices = vertices)
g <- build_element_graph(ggplot2:::.element_tree)
V(g)$label <- V(g)$name
par(mar=c(0,0,0,0)) # Remove unnecessary margins
plot(g, layout=layout.fruchterman.reingold, vertex.size=4, vertex.label.dist=.25)
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