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126. Word Ladder II.go
126. Word Ladder II_test.go

126. Word Ladder II


Given two words (beginWord and endWord), and a dictionary's word list, find all shortest transformation sequence(s) from beginWord to endWord, such that:

  1. Only one letter can be changed at a time
  2. Each transformed word must exist in the word list. Note that beginWord is not a transformed word.


  • Return an empty list if there is no such transformation sequence.
  • All words have the same length.
  • All words contain only lowercase alphabetic characters.
  • You may assume no duplicates in the word list.
  • You may assume beginWord and endWord are non-empty and are not the same.

Example 1:

beginWord = "hit",
endWord = "cog",
wordList = ["hot","dot","dog","lot","log","cog"]


Example 2:

beginWord = "hit"
endWord = "cog"
wordList = ["hot","dot","dog","lot","log"]

Output: []

Explanation: The endWord "cog" is not in wordList, therefore no possible transformation.


给定两个单词(beginWord 和 endWord)和一个字典 wordList,找出所有从 beginWord 到 endWord 的最短转换序列。转换需遵循如下规则:

  1. 每次转换只能改变一个字母。
  2. 转换过程中的中间单词必须是字典中的单词。


  • 如果不存在这样的转换序列,返回一个空列表。
  • 所有单词具有相同的长度。
  • 所有单词只由小写字母组成。
  • 字典中不存在重复的单词。
  • 你可以假设 beginWord 和 endWord 是非空的,且二者不相同。


  • 这一题是第 127 题的加强版,除了找到路径的长度,还进一步要求输出所有路径。解题思路同第 127 题一样,也是用 BFS 遍历。
  • 当前做法不是最优解,是否可以考虑双端 BFS 优化,或者迪杰斯塔拉算法?
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