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684. Redundant Connection.go
684. Redundant Connection_test.go

684. Redundant Connection


In this problem, a tree is an undirected graph that is connected and has no cycles.

The given input is a graph that started as a tree with N nodes (with distinct values 1, 2, ..., N), with one additional edge added. The added edge has two different vertices chosen from 1 to N, and was not an edge that already existed.

The resulting graph is given as a 2D-array of edges. Each element of edges is a pair [u, v] with u < v, that represents an undirected edge connecting nodes u and v.

Return an edge that can be removed so that the resulting graph is a tree of N nodes. If there are multiple answers, return the answer that occurs last in the given 2D-array. The answer edge [u, v] should be in the same format, with u < v.

Example 1:

Input: [[1,2], [1,3], [2,3]]
Output: [2,3]
Explanation: The given undirected graph will be like this:
 / \
2 - 3

Example 2:

Input: [[1,2], [2,3], [3,4], [1,4], [1,5]]
Output: [1,4]
Explanation: The given undirected graph will be like this:
5 - 1 - 2
    |   |
    4 - 3


  • The size of the input 2D-array will be between 3 and 1000.
  • Every integer represented in the 2D-array will be between 1 and N, where N is the size of the input array.

**Update (2017-09-26):**We have overhauled the problem description + test cases and specified clearly the graph is an undirected graph. For the directed graph follow up please see Redundant Connection II). We apologize for any inconvenience caused.


在本问题中, 树指的是一个连通且无环的无向图。输入一个图,该图由一个有着N个节点 (节点值不重复1, 2, ..., N) 的树及一条附加的边构成。附加的边的两个顶点包含在1到N中间,这条附加的边不属于树中已存在的边。结果图是一个以边组成的二维数组。每一个边的元素是一对[u, v] ,满足 u < v,表示连接顶点u 和v的无向图的边。

返回一条可以删去的边,使得结果图是一个有着N个节点的树。如果有多个答案,则返回二维数组中最后出现的边。答案边 [u, v] 应满足相同的格式 u < v。


  • 输入的二维数组大小在 3 到 1000。
  • 二维数组中的整数在 1 到 N 之间,其中 N 是输入数组的大小。


  • 给出一个连通无环无向图和一些连通的边,要求在这些边中删除一条边以后,图中的 N 个节点依旧是连通的。如果有多条边,输出最后一条。
  • 这一题可以用并查集直接秒杀。依次扫描所有的边,把边的两端点都合并 union() 到一起。如果遇到一条边的两端点已经在一个集合里面了,就说明是多余边,删除。最后输出这些边即可。
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