Pre-reserved Handshake Names
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The handshake blockchain pre-reserves the top ~100,000 domain names from the Alexa top 1 million domain names. Since the handshake blockchain only thinks in terms of top-level domains, existing domains on the Alexa top 1 million are "converted" to TLDs.

For example:

  • -> google
  • -> bbc

Note that this is an "added bonus" reserved for popular domains. All existing domains under .com, .net, .org, and so on will continue to work normally on Handshake.

Amazon regularly updates the Alexa list. Our script snapshots the alexa list and processes them to pick the reserved names. Feel free to audit the download, update.js, and generate.js scripts.


In order to have your domain pre-reserved, there are a few rules implemented in generate.js that it must conform to:

  1. The domain's deepest subdomain must not be in the blacklist. This includes:
  • bit - Namecoin.
  • eth - Ethereum Name Service.
  • example - ICANN Reserved.
  • i2p - Invisible Internet Project.
  • invalid - ICANN Reserved.
  • local - mDNS.
  • localhost - ICANN Reserved.
  • onion - Tor.
  • test - ICANN Reserved.
  1. The domain must not collide with an existing top-level domain in ICANN's root zone, as all existing TLDs are also pre-reserved. For example, would lose to google.
  2. The domain must not collide with a higher-ranked domain. For example, would lose to Only the owner of the higher-ranked domain is able to redeem it.
  3. The domain must not be deeply nested. will work, but will not (see generate.js for acceptable third-level domains).
  4. The domain must abide by Handshake policy standards (no leading or trailing hyphens or underscores).
  5. The domain must not be a single letter.
  6. If the domain is ranked lower than 50,000, the domain must not be two letters.
  7. If the domain is ranked lower than 50,000, the domain must not be an English word.

The download script was last run on June 4th, 2018, at 6:18pm PDT. This is the final snapshot of reserved names that will make it into the consensus rules.

$ wget
--2018-06-04 18:18:41--
Loaded CA certificate '/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt'
Resolving (
Connecting to (||:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response...
  HTTP/1.1 200 OK
  x-amz-id-2: CosxkcThDsFZKLaQWRoYiKyWYGI7Fsztt+mlx2hF1rwC17bmAjE9gUNqorpd7fITyNAhUgUfJNg=
  x-amz-request-id: F5EBF95C3AD7C4C8
  Date: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 01:19:20 GMT
  Last-Modified: Mon, 04 Jun 2018 10:21:50 GMT
  ETag: "dc6996eec4392c268a52789d50949995"
  x-amz-meta-alexa-last-modified: 20180604102149
  Accept-Ranges: bytes
  Content-Type: application/zip
  Content-Length: 9762651
  Server: AmazonS3
Length: 9762651 (9.3M) [application/zip]
Saving to: ‘’

Note that the root zone will continue to be updated until mainnet launch.

Why isn't my domain on the reserved list?

If you didn't make the cut, please do not be worried! You will still own your regular second-level domain names under their existing TLD (you just won't get a pre-reserved top-level domain as an extra bonus).

However, if your domain was in the Alexa top 100,000 on June 4th, you may be wondering why you are not in the reserved list. If your domain conformed to all the rules listed above, you may have "lost" to a higher-ranked domain with the same name. Please see build/invalid.json for a full list of domains and their reasons for being excluded. If you believe there was a mistake, please post an issue.

Which domains made the cut?

Please have a look at build/valid.json for a full list of pre-reserved names and their pre-converted counterparts.

Late Additions

Names which were added after the final snapshot.

  • charity - A new TLD added on ICANN's system.
  • inc - A new TLD added on ICANN's system.