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import os
import sys
import json
from datetime import datetime
import requests
from flask import Flask, request
app = Flask(__name__)
@app.route('/', methods=['GET'])
def verify():
# when the endpoint is registered as a webhook, it must echo back
# the 'hub.challenge' value it receives in the query arguments
if request.args.get("hub.mode") == "subscribe" and request.args.get("hub.challenge"):
if not request.args.get("hub.verify_token") == os.environ["VERIFY_TOKEN"]:
return "Verification token mismatch", 403
return request.args["hub.challenge"], 200
return "Hello world", 200
@app.route('/', methods=['POST'])
def webhook():
# endpoint for processing incoming messaging events
data = request.get_json()
log(data) # you may not want to log every incoming message in production, but it's good for testing
if data["object"] == "page":
for entry in data["entry"]:
for messaging_event in entry["messaging"]:
if messaging_event.get("message"): # someone sent us a message
sender_id = messaging_event["sender"]["id"] # the facebook ID of the person sending you the message
recipient_id = messaging_event["recipient"]["id"] # the recipient's ID, which should be your page's facebook ID
message_text = messaging_event["message"]["text"] # the message's text
send_message(sender_id, "roger that!")
if messaging_event.get("delivery"): # delivery confirmation
if messaging_event.get("optin"): # optin confirmation
if messaging_event.get("postback"): # user clicked/tapped "postback" button in earlier message
return "ok", 200
def send_message(recipient_id, message_text):
log("sending message to {recipient}: {text}".format(recipient=recipient_id, text=message_text))
params = {
"access_token": os.environ["PAGE_ACCESS_TOKEN"]
headers = {
"Content-Type": "application/json"
data = json.dumps({
"recipient": {
"id": recipient_id
"message": {
"text": message_text
r ="", params=params, headers=headers, data=data)
if r.status_code != 200:
def log(msg, *args, **kwargs): # simple wrapper for logging to stdout on heroku
if type(msg) is dict:
msg = json.dumps(msg)
msg = unicode(msg).format(*args, **kwargs)
print("{}: {}".format(, msg))
except UnicodeEncodeError:
pass # squash logging errors in case of non-ascii text
if __name__ == '__main__':