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How to use this project

Create a new directory for your project and do a git checkout

mkdir -p /path/to/project && cd /path/to/project
git clone git@github.com:hartleybrody/flask-boilerplate.git

Then you can move the files out of the flask-boilerplate directory and into /path/to/project using

cp -r flask-boilerplate/. .

Finally, delete the flask-boilerplate directory and start it as a new git repo

rm -rf flask-boilerplate
rm -rf .git && git init
git add .
git commit -m "initial import from flask boilerplate"

To make this template fit your app, replace the following

  • {{APP_NAME}} -> App Name
  • {{APP_SLUG}} -> app-name
  • {{APP_BLURB}} -> Here is a quick blurb about the app

=====================

{{APP_NAME}}

{{APP_BLURB}}

Install python dependencies

This project assumes you already have direnv installed globally on your system.

brew install direnv

The first time you cd into the project directory, direnv will take a minute to set things up, including automatically creating a new virtual environment. It will use python3 since this is specified in the .envrc file.

Note that while .envrc is initially provided for you, any configuration information you put in there should NOT be committed. Let's go ahead and remove it from git tracking.

git rm -r --cached .envrc

Once it's done, install the essential libraries for this project.

pip install -r requirements.txt

Optional: Once installed, you can snapshot the version of each library and override the contents of that file by pinning their version numbers. This is good practice to ensure you start your project with the latest version of each dependency, but then don't have to worry about new versions causing breaking changes down the line.

pip freeze > requirements.txt

Setup local postgres database

Create the database locally

psql -h localhost -d postgres

psql (13.1)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# CREATE DATABASE {{APP_SLUG}};
CREATE DATABASE

Initial database setup

Once you've created a brand new database, apply the existing migrations to get your database tables setup properly

flask db upgrade

Note that the current schema is defined in models.py and the migrations live in migrations/versions (see below)

You'll also need to do an initial "seed" command to add some placeholder rows to the database

flask seed

Setup local redis server

Most web applications can benefit from an in-memory cache. They're great for server-side sessions and also for taking load off the database.

You can install redis using the project's Quickstart instructions.

Or, if you're on macOS with homebrew, you can simply run

brew install redis

Once you've got redis installed on your system, start the local server in the background with

redis-server  --daemonize yes

Run your local server

Run the local flask development server (automatically reloads changes) with

flask run

or alternatively, use the production server gunicorn

gunicorn app:app --reload --bind 127.0.0.1:5000

Either way, your local development server should be viewable in a browser

http://localhost:5000

Running your local server over SSL (optional)

Running your local development server over SSL is optional but highly recommended since it makes your local env closer to prod, and allows you to catch potential content issues sooner. I recommend mkcert for creating browser-trusted, self-signed certificates.

First, install mkcert

brew install mkcert
brew install nss

Then, allow it to install a locally-trusted CA

mkcert -install

Finally, generate a certificate for the local domain you'll be using:

mkcert local.{{APP_SLUG}}.com

This will generate a certificate and key in the current directory. You can move them wherever you like, just make sure to update the env variables to point to their file system location, and then uncomment out the line at the very bottom of app.py that tells your local server to use them.

app.run(debug=True, ssl_context=(os.environ["LOCAL_SSL_CERT_PATH"], os.environ["LOCAL_SSL_KEY_PATH"]))

In order to access the local development server with the correct SSL certificates, you'll need to create an entry in your HOSTS file that points local.{{APP_SLUG}}.com at the regular loopback interface (127.0.0.1)

On macOS, you can add an entry to your HOSTS file with:

sudo vim /etc/hosts

and then append a line to the end of the file that looks like

 127.0.0.1 local.{{APP_SLUG}}.com

Then exit vim with the famous esc + :wq and you should be able to visit the site over SSL in your browser at

https://local.{{APP_SLUG}}.com:5000

Once you've gotten SSL setup and running locally, you can add a "Hyper-Strict Transport Security" (HSTS) header to force the browser to always request the site over SSL. Simply uncommenting out the line in app.py that looks like

response.headers["Strict-Transport-Security"] = "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains

WARNING: Once you uncomment this header and visit the site, your browser will always request the site over SSL for one year and there is no way to force your browser to request the site over plain ol' HTTP. This is a good security best practice, but can present a mucky situation if you haven't gotten the SSL setup stuff figured out.

Run database migrations

Detect changes to models.py and generate a timestamped migration file

flask db migrate -m "migration summary"

Once you've looked over the generated migrations file, apply the migration to your local database

flask db upgrade

To roll back the most recent migration that has been applied to the database (maybe due to errors or changes)

flask db downgrade

Testing

You'll need to set up a separate postgres database for testing

psql -h localhost -d postgres

psql (13.1)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# CREATE DATABASE {{APP_SLUG}}_test;
CREATE DATABASE

To run the tests

python test.py

Deploying

To push code changes to heroku

git push heroku master

To run database migrations on heroku

heroku run flask db upgrade

Make sure you run this immediately after deploying any code that includes database migrations.

============================================================

Alternatively, use Docker

Setup local environment with docker compose

build the frontend

Create the frontend

docker-compose up

Note that if you make any changes to the Dockerfile or change the requirements.txt file, you'll need to "rebuild" by adding the --build flag. You don't need to use this every time you bring the containers up though, since you can usually reuse the previously built images, which is much faster.

 docker-compose up --build

DANGER: If you really, really need to burn your environment and start from scratch (say, to reinitialize the pgdatadocker volume for the database for some reason), you can run docker system prune and then docker volume rm the pgdata volume.

run commands inside docker container

Since docker-compose specifies that the default entrypoint always starts with flask you can run any arbitrary flask CLI command inside the docker container by passing that command to the docker-compose run web prefix. For example:

create a migration using the docker container

docker-compose run web db migrate -m "migration summary"

run database migrations using docker

docker-compose run web db upgrade

downgrade the database using docker

docker-compose run web db downgrade

seed the database using... you get it.

docker-compose run web seed

other helpful docker tips & tricks

You can follow the logs for the container with

docker logs -f {{APP_SLUG}}_web_1

You can "ssh into" a running container with

docker exec -it {{APP_SLUG}}_web_1 /bin/bash

You can inspect the database inside the container with

docker exec -it {{APP_SLUG}}_db_1 psql -U postgres

postgres=# \c {{APP_SLUG}}

You can inspect the cache inside the container with

docker exec -it {{APP_SLUG}}_cache_1 redis-cli

127.0.0.1:6379> KEYS *

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The code I use to get a new client project up and running quickly.

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